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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (January 1906)"





THE PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY OF 

CHARLES PETER WEEKS 

ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL EXTENSION BUILDINGS 

HAS BEEN PRESENTED TO THE CALIFORNIA STATE 

LIBRARY BY HIS WIDOW. 

THIS VOLUME IS A PART OF THAT COLLECTION. 






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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 15 JANUARY 1906 No. 1 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of J. F. BENTLEY, J. MILTON DYER, MAGINNIS, WALSH & 
SULLIVAN, TRACY & SWARTWOUT. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



PAGE 



AN OLD MOSQUE AT AMOL, PERSIA Frontispiece 

EDITORIAL PAGE i 

MODERN CATHOLIC CHURCH WORK IN ENGLAND. II R. Randall'Phillipi 2 

THE WORK OF THE BOSTON SCHOOLHOUSE COMMISSION, 1901-1905 IV 8 

BRICK ARCHITECTURE IN DENVER. II 13 

CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS, REPORT 18 

THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA 19 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 20 



12437 1 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL 15 No. 



DEVOTED • TO THE • INTERESTS 
SARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF- CLA 




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THE BRICKBUILDER: 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . #5-°° P er y ear 

Single numbers 5° cents 

To countries in the Postal Union . . . . . $6.00 pcr y ear 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ST. LOUIS CATHEDRAL COMPETITION. 

IT was decided some time since to build a Roman 
Catholic cathedral for St. Louis, and the archbishop 
of St. Louis appears to have been responsible for the 
conduct of a competition which was so managed as to 
alienate the interest of nearly all of the better archi- 
tects in that city. 

The building was to cost in the neighborhood of one 
million dollars. No compensation was offered to unsuc- 
cessful competitors ; the compensation of the successful 
competitor was left indefinite; it was not stipulated that 
the author of the design should be employed to carry 
the work into execution, and the programme contained 
many other specific provisions in contravention to the 
recognized practice of the profession. A number of 
St. Louis architects and several foreign practitioners 
were invited to submit designs. When the conditions 
were first placed before them, the archbishop's attention 
was called to the objectionable items, and, after consid- 
eration of the matter, it was understood that he agreed 
that they would be modified to be more in conformity 
with the usages of the Institute. But such modification 
was not made, and as a result the St. Louis Chapter of 
the Institute drew up a series of resolutions expressing 
its sense that no member of the Institute could honorably 
and creditably participate in the competition. 

It is a constant mystery to every outsider why archi- 
tects are willing to indulge in so much scrambling for 
competitive work, and it is certainly to be hoped that 
architects will more generally decline to have anything 
to do with such competitions as this one. The action of 
the Chapter, it is claimed, was not influenced in the 



•SMgHfos-'t "degree by the fact that the archbishop appeared 
to be in favor of a foreign architect, but was based wholly 
upon the feeling that the professional standards which 
have been countenanced and recommended by the Insti- 
tute for the conduct of competitions should be rigidly 
adhered to. 

The expediency of passing a Chapter resolution may 
be open to debate, but to our mind the individual mem- 
bers of the profession in St. Louis were quite right in 
abstaining wholly from this competition. 



THE OFFICE BUILDING COMPETITION 

WINNERS. 

THE jury for the office building competition has 
awarded the first prize ($500) to Raymond M. Hood, 
Pawtucket, R. I. ; second prize ($200) to William C. Haz- 
lett, New York City; third prize ($100) to Claude F. 
Bragdon, Rochester, N. Y. ; and mentions to the follow- 
ing: J. W. Thomas, Jr., Columbus, Ohio; Oscar Wen- 
deroth, Washington, D. C. ; Edward F. Maher, Boston; 
Israel P. Lord, Somerville, Mass. ; Roland E. Borhek, 
Seattle, Wash. ; J. H. Phillips, New York City. 

The competition was judged in New York City by 
Messrs. Walter Cook, Cass Gilbert and H. Van Buren 
Magonigle. 

THE ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE 
COMPETITION B WINNERS. 

THE competition was judged by Mr. Henry Forbes 
Bigelow of Boston. 

The- winner of the prize ($50) is Maurice P. Meade of 
Boston. 

Mention was given the designs submitted by Robert 
Fuller Jackson, Brookline, Mass. ; Joseph W. Wilson, Chi- 
cago; Homer Kiessling, Roslindale, Mass.; John James 
Craig, Boston, Mass. ; Calvin Kiessling, Boston, Mass. ; 
Arthur Howell Knox, Chicago. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in 
The Brickbiulder for February, also Mr. Bigelow's 
report. 

THE annual convention of the Architectural League 
of America will be held in New York City on the 
31st of January and the 1st and 2d of February. A very 
attractive programme has been prepared, concluding with 
a dinner given by the Architectural League of New York 
on the evening of February 2. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Modern Catholic Church Work in 
England. II. 

BY K. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

TH E new Cathedral and Presbytery of St. Anne, 
Leeds, occupies an almost isolated site of a similar 
building designed by Pugin, demolished to make way for a 
street improvement. The shape of the site, being very 
wide in comparison to its length, has involved a tteaimpn,t. 
of plan with a wide nave of 42 feet and double siflfe ft ip|sj| 
with all the altars at the east end. The nave has a Hat 
segmental pointed roof, with piers and arches.cajjriejd'iCiV 



with a parish room, about 40 feet by 21 feet. The two 
sacristies, about 30 feet by 20 feet each, are in connection 
with the ambulatory and presbytery. The latter accom- 
modates the canon and priests of the cathedral. The 
ground floor of the presbytery is almost level with the 
gallery over the ambulatory around the choir, so that 
this gallery can be easily entered from the presbytery 
staircase. The nave, aisles, Lady chapel and transept 
will seat eight hundred and fifty persons and the choir 
fifty, exclusive of canons' stalls. The wide 42-foot span 
■ . •ctfjnaye.'.robf has principals of latticed steel ribs. The 
..' flbc>t.o?the.riave is of wood blocks, with terrazzo paving 
to the < aisles,^iyd marble for the sanctuary and choir. 

Tfiq gjvij-ch'of the Holy Rood at Watford, in Hert- 




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10 20 30 40 50 60 FeetJ 

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PLAN, ST. ANNK'S CATHEDRAL, LEEDS. 



as high as possible, in order to give a feeling of loftiness. 
The side aisles also have fiat roofs, in order to get the 
utmost height for clearstory and aisle windows. The 
choir and sanctuary, which is about 30 feet wide by 50 
feet long, has an ambulatory all round, and there is a 
gallery over the latter for the organ and orchestra or 
additional choir. The high altar is treated simply with 
choice marbles, and a lofty baldachino and reredos of 
carved wood colored and gilt. The chapter house, which 
is approached from the ambulatory, is octagonal in plan 



fordshire, by Mr. J. F. Bentley (1893), is acknowledged 
to be one of the finest modern churches erected in 
England. The architect had an absolutely free hand in 
its design, and he produced a building decorated with con- 
summate ability. Its effect is sumptuous. The sanctuary 
is enriched with mural paintings of saints and angels, 
the high altar is of marble, inlaid with lapis lazuli and 
pearl, and bears a tabernacle of gilt bronze, lapis and 
pearl; the electric-light fittings are of gilt copper, very 
original and beautiful, and on the north side is the 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 





ST. ANNE'S CATHEDRAL, LEEDS. 
J. H. Eastwood, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




CHURCH OF THE HOLY ROOD, WATFORD. 



PLAN, CHURCH OF THE HOLY ROOD. 




THE HIGH ALTAR, CHURCH OF THE HOLY ROOD. 
J. F. Bentley, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 








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CHURCH AT FOLKESTONE. 



ST. AUGUSTINE S CHURCH, SUDBURY. 



Leonard Stokes, Architect. 





ALTAR, ALL SOULS' CHURCH, PETERBOROUGH. ST. CLARE'S CHURCH, SEFTON PARK, LIVERPOOL. 

Leonard Stokes, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




st clare's church, sefton park, Liverpool. 




NORTH WINDOW, ST. CLARES CHURCH. 
Leonard Stokes, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




ALL SOULS CHURCH, PETERBOROUGH. 

Leonard Stokes, Architect. 



~ST*/*Wy-Sh*r-of l^c Sea 
Hastimjs 



m^0fi^ 







ST. MARY-STAR-OF-THE-SEA, HASTINGS. 
Basil Champneys, Architect. 



8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



chantry chapel of the founder dedicated to the Holy 
Ghost, and enclosed with a screen of gilded metal-work. 

To appreciate the church one needs to see it in all its 
glory of color, but the accompanying illustrations show 
what a wonderful effect Bentley accomplished there. 
Everything is by his hand, and all is imbued with an 
intense feeling of devotion. Nothing is conventional ; 
and though the general design is Gothic, there is an 
absence of the familiar details which proclaim the medi- 
ocre architect of Gothic tendencies. The plan shows 
that the building occupies practically a square site, and 
includes a presbytery, access from which into the church 
is gained through one of the transepts. The planning 
throughout is admirably regular and shows that the archi- 
tect was free from those vagaries which are usually 
associated with artist-craftsmen. While referring to this 
splendid church (which was completed in 1900), it is 
worth noting that when the Bishop of Brooklyn was on a 
visit to England in 1897 he was much struck by the new 
cathedral at Westminster ; and, having made the ac- 
quaintance of its creator, he arranged with him to pre- 
pare designs for the Brooklyn Cathedral. Bentley went to 
New York in the following year, and on his return set 
out a ground plan, and, as time would permit, proceeded 
to put on paper the elevations of the glorious Gothic 
cathetfral which his vision beheld, but which Fate decreed 
he should never realize. 

( )f quite a different caliber to Bentley, but in his 
sphere one of the most talented architects in England 
to-day, is Mr. Leonard Stokes. He is one of the small 
body of men to whom we look for the best modern Gothic. 
The characteristic of their work is that, while embody- 
ing the best features of traditional Gothic, it is imbued 
with a freshness of detail and refined sense of scale which 
at once command appreciation. Gothic church architec- 
ture offers innumerable possibilities for the abuse of pro- 
portion, and hence some of the dullest buildings are to be 
found in this style, done by the rag, tag, and bobtail, — 
men with not sufficient taste to discern what to avoid in 
the buildings to which they go for inspiration. Mr. 
Stokes is an architect of very different sort, as the ac- 
companying illustrations of the churches at Liverpool, 
Peterborough, Sudbury and Folkestone clearly show. It 
only needs a glance at the altar in All Souls', Peter- 
borough, to recognize that here is an example of truly 
modern Gothic, full of vigor and imagination. The 
treatment of this altar in a splayed recess, with its rere- 
dos and canopy, is altogether delightful. The design of 
the molding, too, is worthy of attention. The church 
at Sefton Park seats six hundred people. As commonly 
seen in modern churches, the aisles are mere passage- 
ways contrived under the internal buttresses, the whole 
body of the church giving an unobstructed view of the 
altar. The pulpit, it will be noted, has a crucifix be- 
side it. 

The Church of St. Mary-Star-of-the-Sea, Hastings, is 
particularly interesting for its association with Cov- 
entry Patmore, at whose expense the fabric above ground 
was executed; the little chantry, indicated on the plan, is 
to his wife. It is not long since two volumes of the life of 
Coventry Patmore were issued, written by the architect 
of this church, Mr. Basil Champneys, whose work is 
always distinguished by its scholarliness and reverence. 



The Work of the Boston Schoolhouse 
Commission, 1901-1905. IV. 

ARCHITECTS' SERVICES. 

THE Board early attempted to put into definite form 
the relations between the architect and the Com- 
mission, and the Corporation Counsel to that end drew up, 
in 1902, a form of agreement defining the duties and re- 
sponsibilities of each. He suggested that it be a regular 
contract, approved by the Mayor, rather than a mere 
agreement between the Board and the architect, and on 
that account added a bond to make it legal. There being 
some objections raised to this formality by some of the 
architects, none of the contracts have been presented to 
the Mayor, but all the architects have worked under the 
terms laid down in that agreement, and as subsequently 
changed to the present form. 

In 1904 the Boston Society of Architects appointed a 
special committee to redraft this agreement. With the 




THOMAS OARDNER SCHOOL. 

Grammar, Athol and Brentwood Streets, Allston. 
Stickney & Austin, Architects. 

1 1 rooms: 700 pupils. 
Cube, 735,573 (630,000). Cost, cubic foot, $0.19 ($0 82). 

Cost, $142,: 1 600). Cost per pupil, $203 88 1$ 1 98 00). 

exception of an added clause to cover payment for partial 
services, the agreement was only slightly modified, prin- 
cipally in its form of expression, the aim being to avoid 
the use of legal phraseology. 

Under this agreement the Board furnish the archi- 
tect with all the necessary information as to the lot, the 
grades, the nature of the soil, — making what borings 
are necessary, — the connections with sewer, water, etc., 
and all restrictions of the lot. The Board also furnish 
the requirements for the school to be built, together with 
the approximate cubical contents and proposed cost, es- 
timated according to the standards noted in article II 
of this series. The architect, with such consultation with, 
and advice from, the Board as he may desire, draws up 
preliminary studies of the scheme of plan, design and 
construction. Having figured the cubical contents of 
these preliminary studies, in the form accepted by the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Board as the basis for working drawings, the Board and 
the architect agree upon a definite limit of cost for the 
building. If, after the bids for construction have been 
received, the lowest bid overruns this limit of cost, owing 
to departure from or extravagant interpretation of the 
preliminary studies in the working drawings, the archi- 
tect makes such re-study and revised drawings as may be 
necessary to reduce the cost to the proper limit without 
expense to the city. When the working drawings are 
finished they are loaned to the Board for the purpose of 
blue printing; when the contract is signed the architect 
furnishes the Board with two sets of blue prints mounted 
on cloth, as well as a perspective drawing of the exterior 
for reproduction ; and when the building is finished the 
architect furnishes the Board with a complete set of 
working drawings on tracing cloth embodying all the 
changes made during construction. 

The Board employ domestic engineers, who have 
charge of all the heating, ventilating and electric work, 
referred to below as the domestic engineering, in con- 
nection with the new schools and of the repair work of 
that kind in the old schools as well. These engineers 
confer with the architect during the preparation of pre- 
liminary studies and later advise him in detail as to the 
requirements. They make, themselves, the working 
drawings and specifications for, and have the direction of, 
the domestic engineering. The Board have the specifica- 
tions for the building printed, but the architect and the 
engineers prepare and revise for the printer the copy for 
such specifications, preparing them along the lines of 
previous specifications, thus keeping them uniform. 

The architect makes the application for building per- 
mit and furnishes the building department with two sets 
of such blue prints as may be required. The specifications 
are furnished by the Board. The architect has only the 
general supervision over the domestic engineering, but 
furnishes full architect's services for all other work in 
connection with the building. He makes, on a prescribed 
form, all estimates and allowances for payments under 
all contracts for the general work, and the estimates for 
payments for the domestic engineering are certified to by 
the engineers. 

According to the terms of the city contract, the archi- 
tect is sole judge, without any appeal to arbitration, as 
to the interpretation of plans and specifications and as to 
the value of work added or deducted. This authority 
may well cause friction, for reference to the courts would 
hardly be resorted to unless much was at stake, and yet 
that is the contractor's or the owner's sole appeal from 
the architect's decision. It would seem as if reference to 
the Board, the uninterested agent of the real owner, the 
City, or to a board of arbitration, were advisable where a 
difference of opinion as to the proper valuation of mate- 
rials and labor exists. 

In compensation for such services the architect re- 
ceives a commission of two and one-half per cent on the 
cost of the domestic engineering and of five per cent on 
the cost of all other work. The payments are made as 
follows: two and one-half per cent on all contracts other 
than those for domestic engineering is paid upon the 
signing of the contracts, and thereafter two and one-half 
per cent is paid on estimates for payments to contractors 
as they from time to time are made, until the full pay- 




IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DEAK1SORN SCHOOL. 

Grammar, Ambrose and Orchard Park Streets, Roxbury. 

Edwin J. Lewis, Architect. 

21 rooms: 1,050 pupils. 

Cube, 980, 100 (840,000). Cost, cubic foot, $0.21 ($0.22). 

Cost, $211,308 ($184,800). Cost per pupil, $201.24 ($176.00). 



ment is made. If any remains unpaid at the completion 
of the work it is then paid. 

In order to regulate the payment for partial services 
more clearly than in the original agreement it is now 
agreed that upon the completion of the preliminary 
studies the value of the architect's services shall be reck- 
oned as one-fifth of the estimated commission; when the 
working drawings and specifications are ready for con- 
tract the value of his services shall be reckoned as three- 
fifth^; any intermediate stage is reckoned proportion- 
ately. If, for some reason other than stated above, the 
Board set aside the whole or any part of an architect's 
studies, drawings and specifications while retaining him 
to prepare corresponding new studies and drawings for 
the same building, the City pays him for the work thus 
set aside a sum not exceeding three times the actual cost 
of draughting, paying for the new work on the regular 
commission basis above described. In the agreement 
the word " building " is used to define not only the struc- 
ture itself, but all the work of grading, planting, fencing, 
etc., of the grounds and all decorative painting or sculp- 
ture in the structure. 

The architects for the various buildings are selected 
by the Board from among those living and practising in 
Boston. They are selected without competition and with- 
out reference to previous experience in schoolhouse or 
other large work. It is the policy of the Board, however, 
to select from among such architects as have already 
established a professional reputation. Before an archi- 
tect is appointed, however, he submits working drawings 



and specifications for a completed building, together with 
notes as to the business methods employed in his office. 
Reference is made to clients and builders whose names 
are submitted by the architect, and it is only after a care- 
ful survey of all this information that the Board make a 
selection. In the four years of the Board's experience 
several have been twice appointed. 

The Thomas Gardner School. 

There are two ways of arranging to take care of future 
increase in school attendance in a district. The first, 
illustrated by the Mason School, described in the Novem- 
ber issue, and the Perry School, described in this article, 
is to procure a lot large enough for two buildings and 
locate the first building accordingly, designing it for 
present needs. The second is illustrated by the Thomas 
Gardner School, in which case a school is designed for 
probable future needs and only partly buiit. In either 
case the bare figures do not give the first construction a 
good showing according to standards, for while in the 
one case there is a very large lot to be graded and planted, 
in the other there is the need of assembly hall and, to 
an extent, domestic •engineering installed for a much 
larger building. 

The basement of this school is of the regular gram- 
mar type, containing the playrooms, toilets, manual 
training room and cooking school and the heating appa- 
ratus to which nothing but a third boiler need be added 
to make it capable of taking care of the completed 
building. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



1 1 



Above the basement the plan is unconventional, 
an experiment having been tried in the location of 
the assembly hall. On each of the three floors a 
row of classrooms with a corridor surrounds a large 
central court which, roofed over at the level of the 
second-story window sills, gives an assembly hall on 
the first floor. The wall of the interior court, 
which, above the main floor, lights the corridors, 
is carried on a colonnade on the first floor, so that 
there is free communication between the hall and 
the corridor which takes the place of side aisles. 

Even with fireproof construction there are evi- 
dent advantages of a first-floor location over the 
more usual one on the second story, and still more 
over the occasional one on the third floor as in the 
Jefferson School described in the December issue, 
and the Dearborn School described in this article. 
It remains to be seen whether it can be worked 
out economically, involving as it does. a large court 
above the first floor to give light to the assembly 
hall and the upper corridors. 

The boiler room and coal storage are under the 
future addition, so that a considerable part of its 
basement is already built. This, in addition to the 
other usual factors in a partially constructed build- 
ing, gives the school a poor economy on a fourteen- 
room basis. It was built for a very low figure per 
cubit foot, however, nineteen cents, its total cost 
being not so far in excess of the standard as its 
cube, and when completed as a twenty-six room 
school should approximate the standards. 

The Oliver Hazard Perry School. 

In the case of this school as in that of the Samuel 
W. Mason, a building designed for present needs 
was constructed upon one-half of a large lot, the 
other half of which is available for another building 
whenever the increased school population of the 
district demands it. 

It is a six-room plan with the boys' and girls' 
entrances at opposite corners of the central block 
and giving on the play yards arranged on either 
side of the building. From the vestibules, stairs 
lead down to the basement and up to the first floor. 
The master's room and teachers' room are located in 
mezzanines over the vestibules, the main stairways 
being at either end of the corridor which divides 
the building on the long axis. The assembly hall 
occupies the second and third stories of the central 
block of the building, flanked on each story by two 
classrooms on each side, giving a total of fourteen 
classrooms. This scheme of plan for a fourteen- 
room building is very compact, and with the manual 
training room and cooking school in the basement, 
besides the usual domestic engineering, it was not 
only impossible to provide playrooms, but it was 
also necessary to use a fan system for ventilation 
to save the space needed for the heating stacks in 
a gravity system. 

As will be seen by the figures appended to the 
illustration, the cube, owing to the compactness of 
the plan, — a compactness that is obtained at a cer- 
tain sacrifice of basement facilities, — is well under 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 

(Cross in circle, Teacher's Desk; line and dot, Blackboard.) 

PLANS, DEARBORN SCHOOL. 



12 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




OLIVER HAZARD PERRY SCHOOL. 

Grammar, City Point, South Boston. 

Clough & Wardner, Architects. 

14 rooms: 700 pupils. 

Cube, 612,351 (630,000). Cost, cubic foot, $0.24 ($0.22). 



Cost, $145,633.23 ($138,600). 



Cost per pupil, $208 05 ($198.00) 



the standard. The cost, however, was $7,000 over the 
standard on account of the grading of a large lot, and 
brickwork needed in connection with walls on party 
lines, both of which items appear in the total figure. 

The Dearborn School. 

This school, designed to be eventually a thirty-three 
room building, has been built as a twenty-one room 
school. For many reasons it was advisable to keep for 
a time the present building now in use on the same lot, 
and the new school was so placed as to interfere as little 
as possible with it. The main entrance is on the corner 
of the two streets that bound the lot, the walls of the 
building following the lot lines on these two streets. 
The future addition of twelve rooms will continue the 
building along Orchard Park Street. 

While the form of the plan is unusual, the accommo- 
dation of the various floors is typical, the assembly hall 
being, as in the Jefferson School, on the third floor 
but gaining added height by extending up into the 
pitched roof, a form of roof not often employed, 
but which, as in this case, occasionally serves a dis- 
tinct purpose. 

The size of the school gives ample room in the base- 
ment for playrooms as well as the other usual grammar 
school accommodations. The whole of the basement 
under the future addition will be available for playroom 
purposes. 

The heating and ventilating systems are similar to 
those installed in the Mather School. 

The cost of this building was not so much in excess 
of the standard as the cube, the cost per cubit foot being 
twenty-one cents; and with the engineering plant for a 
thirty-three room school already installed under the 
present contracts, the school, when finally completed, 
should approximate the standards. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



13 



Brick Architecture in Denver. II. 

THERE is, perhaps, no other city in the United 
States where so many small buildings are built al- 
most entirely of brick, and a house constructed entirely 
of wood is very difficult to find, even among the more 
modest ones. The Building Ordinance has for years pro- 
hibited the construction of frame buildings, and the 
newly framed ordinance prohibits even the use of shingle 
or half timbered and cement upper stories, excepting in 
the outer suburban districts. 

The general appearance of the residence section has 
been improved recently by the construction of curbing, 
surfacing and the laying of sidewalks, and while the 
results are not all that could be wished for on account of 
so much vacant property, still these districts are rapidly 
filling up with brick houses of a substantial character. 



Schweinfurth during his brief residence here. One is a 
beautiful brownish pink, which blends exceedingly well 
with a deep veined sandstone; the roof is a deep brown. 
Another is built of a deep red pressed brick, laid in 
red mortar. This house, which might be called " Roman- 
esque " in style, is especially successful in its porches, 
which seem in keeping with the excellent gables. Another 
house quite similar in style is by Andrews, Jaques & 
Rantoul of Boston. 

The house by Varian & Sterner, constructed of buff 
brick of a gray tone and light gray terra cotta, is very 
pleasing for its general good proportions, although in the 
illustration the building loses a good deal of its prospec- 
tive values, caused by the necessity of placing the camera 
too close to the building. The same may also be said of 
the excellent Colonial house by F. J. Sterner, who has 
recently opened an office in New York City. This is 




HOUSES BY T. D. BOAL AND FISHKR & HUNTINGTON, ARCHITECTS. 



Denver, like many western cities, has suffered through 
the platting of so much real estate, and the introduction 
of the electric cars and the cheapness of suburban prop- 
erty have caused a great scattering in dwellings, and con- 
sequently there is much vacant property which must be 
built upon before Denver will have a compact and com- 
pleted appearance. 

The material most generally used is pressed brick of 
various colors, viz., red, buff, gray and so-called "pink," 
all of a good quality. Another brick which meets favor 
is the stiff mud rough machine made variety, which 
corresponds to the eastern "Harvard" brick. It is a 
beautiful deep red in color, and is usually laid up in 
Flemish bond with heavy raked mortar joints. 

About the only brick achitecture of interest is to be 
found in medium and low cost residences, since the more 
costly houses, which were constructed before the panic 
of 1893, are built of various colored stone, and very few 
large houses have been built since then. Most of the 
buildings illustrated have been erected within the past 
ten years. 

Two of the most successful houses, particularly as 
regards color, are those designed by the late A. C. 



probably the best example of a Colonial house in the city. 
Another Colonial house by E. H. Moorman is quite 
pleasing, save for the unuasul gable treatment and the 
entasis of the porch columns. 

The house by Fisher & Huntington is laid up in a 
rough deep red brick with black headers and raked joints 
in the lower story, and has a frieze above the windows of 
a darker shade of bricks combined with the black ends of 
sewer pipe closures. Another house by Fisher & Hunt- 
ington has a lower story of dark red pressed brick and 
black headers. The deep gray stone and the similar 
color of the cement in the upper story make a pleasing 
color combination. 

The house by H. T. E. Wendall deserves something 
more than niere mention. The exterior is cemented and 
stained a warm buff with dark red brick arches and 
quoins and a light red tiled roof. The street wall and the 
wrought iron work add to the general harmony. 

The two houses, the one on the right by T. D. Boal, 
and the other on the left by Fisher & Huntington, are 
joined by an arch which spans a public alley, a rather 
pleasing way of disguising these usually unsightly pas- 
sages. 



14 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 







THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



15 




i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 










THE BRICKBUILDER 



17 




ROW OF HOUSES BY F. J. STERNER, ARCHITECT, 




HOUSE BY FISHER & HUNTINGTON, ARCHITECTS. 
HOUSES IN DENVER, COLO. 



1 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Convention of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects' Report. 

THE thirty-ninth annual convention of the American 
Institute of Architects was held at Washington, 
January g, 10 and n. It was very largely attended, over 
one hundred being present. 

The address of welcome was made by the Hon. Henry 
B. F. Macfarland of Washington. He stated that the 
Institute has done more for Washington than any other 
society in the country, and that the city will never forget 
the aid given so generously by the Institute five years ago, 
at which time the whole scheme of the improvement of 
the capital was only in misty embryo, in which form it 
would have undoubtedly remained but for the initiative 
taken at the convention held that year. 

The figures presented by the treasurer in his report 
are indicative of the growth which has come to the Insti- 
tute within the past few years. The dues alone give an 
income of $6,700 a year. The total receipts amounted 
last year to $8,884.64; but the expenses aggregated $10,- 
522.54, so that the reserve in the treasury was reduced by 
$[,637.90. This reduction is, however, chargeable chiefly 
to the amounts that have been paid out on account of the 
Octagon; and a proposition was advanced by Mr. Stead 
of Washington to assess each member of the Institute 
twenty-one dollars to pay oft' the entire indebtedness 
on this house, and leave a small fund for repairs and 
maintenance. The Institute next year will celebrate its 
fiftieth anniversary, and it is certainly to be hoped that 
in some way the funds can he collected to free it entirely 
from debt. 

In the report of the Committee on Uniformity of Con- 
tract and Lien Laws it was interesting to note that the 
Institute had sold 1 10,000 copies of the uniform contract 
since last May. 

The Institute elected to honorary membership Sir 
Casper Purden Clark, the director of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. He was educated as an architect, was 
gold medalist when a boy for work as an architect, and 
was for many years organizer and director of the South 
Kensington Museum. 

The most interesting feature of the convention fol- 
lowed the report of the Committee on Competitions, made 
by Mr. Glenn Brown. Mr. R. D. Andrews read a very 
thoughtful, well-considered paper on the subject, and the 
discussion was participated in by John M. Carrere, Cass 
Gilbert and George B. Post, while William B. Mundie of 
Chicago presented an extremely interesting and compact 
code of competitions 1 the code will be found at the end 
of this report ), which, after due deliberation, was referred 
to the Committee on Competitions for consideration. 

In Mr. Brown's report allusion was made to the com- 
petition for the New York cathedral which cost the com- 
petitors $140,000, and the Phoebe Hurst competition 
which cost the competitors $500,000; and an instance was 
cited of the competition for one building which actually 
cost the competitors far more than the whole building 
itself. 

Mr. Gilbert, while admitting that competitions seem 
in many cases inevitable, denied that any real gain has 
resulted thereby for cither the client or the winner, and 



that invariably the selection of an architect based on his 
record and his ability is more satisfactory in the end. 
The competition system will cease just as soon as the 
American Institute of Architects wants it to cease, and not 
before. Co-operation, and not competition, is the life of 
trade. 

Mr. Post also expressed the feeling that the best re- 
sults can usually be obtained by selection rather than by 
competition, but that we must accept conditions as we 
find them, and raise the tone of our competitors quite as 
much as of our codes. 

Mr. Andrews's paper was along the same lines, and 
urged co-operation between the architects engaged in 
competition, and the application of the Golden Rule to 
such work, rather than letting the competition for busi- 
ness degenerate into a selfish scramble. 

Mr. Carrere very clearly epitomized the alleged ad- 
vantages of the competitive system as follows : First, 
that it would increase one's practice. This he ques- 
tioned, and felt that the same amount of energy in other 
directions would produce better results. .Second, that 
competitions would give a better selection for the owner; 
though this is in fact seldom substantiated by observed 
results. Indeed, it is doubtful if, on the whole, the re- 
sults of competitions anywhere in the world have been 
commensurate with what would have been better obtained 
by intelligent selection. The third claim, so often put 
forth in favor of competition, is that by this means new, 
dormant talent would manifest itself and would be dis- 
covered for the benefit of all concerned. And against 
this it is alleged, with perfect reason, that no beginner, 
however talented, however fertile in ideas, can possibly 
be able to rightly judge material or artistic effects and 
combinations, and that no untried man can be given his 
best opportunity by competition. The danger in our 
government competitions has been that they tend to 
establish an official style of architecture, which would 
not be the case if the de.-ign were left to individual in- 
centive. For instance, no good building has ever been 
designed with columns and an order carried through 
more than two stories in height. And yet, in our govern- 
ment work we have four and often more stories crowded 
into one order. In our competitions for government work 
we compete to get the job, and if the style of other build- 
ings shows that the government seems to be asking for a 
many storied order, we put in what is most likely to get 
the work, rather than what we believe to be best. 

The convention elected the following officers for the 
ensuing year: 

President, Frank Miles Day of Philadelphia; first 
vice-president, Cass Gilbert of New York; second vice- 
president, William B. Mundie of Chicago ; secretary and 
treasurer, Glenn Brown of Washington; for directors, 
Alfred Stone, I. K. Pond and R. A. Cram for three years, 
and James W. Reid for two years. 

C. D. Maginnis, H. G. Goodhue and J. R. Coolidge, 
Jr., of Boston, S. I!. P. Trowbridge of Xew York, and 
Richard Schmidt of Chicago were elected Fellows of 
the Institute. 

Wednesday morning an extremely interesting series 
of illustrated papers was presented on Municipal Im- 
provements, including the Artistic Development of Paris, 
by Eugene Henard:the Improvement of the Schuylkill 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



19 



River Banks, by C. C. Zantzinger; and Municipal Im- 
provements in the Borough of Brooklyn, New York City, 
by Electus D. Litchfield. 

In the evening of the same day a paper with illustra- 
tions, prepared by Mr. Burnham, showing the develop- 
ment of Manila, was offered by Mr. Anderson. 

In the general business of the Thursday session it was 
voted to constitute a Committee on Practice, to whom 
shall be referred all complaints, and who shall be required 
to investigate at discretion and report for action by the 
Judicial Committee. 

Action was also taken in regard to the impending 
disfigurement of the Pittsburg Courthouse, reaffirming 
the sense of the convention that this artistic monument 
should not be altered. 

The Board of Directors was instructed to appoint a 
committee on the preservation of buildings of historic 
and artistic interest. 

A resolution was adopted expressing the satisfaction 
of the convention at the reappointment of the present 
Boston Schoolhouse Commission, and its sense of the 
value of the work of the commission in studying and 
standardizing the requirements of city schoolhouse 
construction in matters of convenience, hygiene and 
economy. 

The convention passed a vote expressing its apprecia- 
tion of the excellent work which has been done by the 
secretary, Mr. Glenn Brown, in the conduct of the routine 
work of the Institute and in the preparation for the 
annual convention. It was a tribute which was certainly 
earned by years of hard and often thankless service, but 
every architect who has attended these conventions 
appreciates how much the society owes to its secretary. 

A very enjoyable banquet was held Tuesday evening 
in the hall of the New Willard, and was attended by one 
hundred and twenty-five members, including a number 
of ladies who attended the convention. 

There was also an opportunity given the delegates to 
witness an extremely interesting cavalry and artillery 
drill Thursday afternoon at Fort Myer, Va. ; a most 
extraordinary display of horsemanship, which was well 
worth the attendance of all who saw it. 

The convention as a whole was markedly successful, 
and the interest was unflagging from the opening until 
the adjournment. 

The next convention will be held in Washington, and 
will be a special affair, commemorating the fiftieth 
anniversary. 

A CODE TO GOVERN COMPETITIONS. 
By William B. Mundie. 

The American Institute of Architects recommends 
that wherever possible an architect be employed without 
a competitor. When a competitor is deemed necessary 
the procedure must be in accordance with the following 
code: 

FORM OF COMPETITION. 

A. The competition must be limited to a certain num- 
ber of architects, each of whom is invited to take part. 

B. Each competitor to receive a certain sum of money 
to reimburse him for the expense incurred. This sum to 
be agreed upon between competitors and prospective 



client, and this sum to be paid to each competitor other 
than the one awarded the commission, or a prize, if 
prizes are agreed upon. 

C. The author of the design receiving the first men- 
tion by the jury must be employed to design and super- 
intend the erection of the building. 

JURY OF AWARD. 

The jury of award must consist of not less than 
three members, and a majority of the jury must be mem- 
bers in good standing in the American Institute of 
Architects, and the entire jury of award to be agreed 
upon between competitors and prospective client. 

PROGRAMME. 

The programme must be drawn so as to form a contract 
and be signed by all competitors and prospective client. 

RULE OF CONDUCT. 

A. All designs must be signed by the name of the 
competitors submitting designs. 

B. No member of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects shall enter a second competition for the same build- 
ing unless he was a competitor in the first competition. 

C. No change or deviation from this code shall be 
permissible until such change shall receive the sanction 
of the Executive Committee of the Institute. 

D. It shall be deemed unprofessional for any member 
of the American Institute to violate any of the provisions 
of this code. 

E. It shall be deemed unprofessional for any member 
of the American Institute to enter any competition based 
upon this code with any competitor who has been once 
censured for unprofessional conduct in competitions con- 
ducted under this code. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

THE Architectural League of America has begun an 
educational effort which may be of great value to 
itself and to the architectural schools throughout the 
country. Appeals have been made to all the leading uni- 
versities having regular departments of architecture, ask- 
ing that scholarships be set aside to be awarded under 
proper conditions to members of the League. 

Harvard University was the first to respond, and has 
offered three scholarships in architecture, two of which 
are to be awarded upon the result of a competition in 
design, and the third given to the member of the 
Architectural League who shall attain the highest rank 
in the entrance examinations of the University. These 
scholarships will be awarded yearly, and the selection 
has been very generously placed by Harvard in the hands 
of the officers of the League. In this way the Univer- 
sity gains a number of earnest, picked students, who are 
sure to do credit to their training; while, on the other 
hand, many of the League members will doubtless, by 
reason of these scholarships, be incited to better work and 
more earnest endeavor toward self-education. 

It is hoped that the example set by Harvard will be 
followed very soon by other universities, and the League 
is certainly accomplishing a good work in what it lias 
done. 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



SMALL BRICK HOUSE COMPETITION 

F*OR lack of space in this issue, the programme for the 
Small Brick House Competition (photographs and 
plans of executed work) will be published in the Febru- 
ary issue. 



THE CHRIST CHURCH AND BABCOCK 
MEMORIAL HOUSE. 

THIS group of buildings, illustrated in the plate 
forms of this issue, will attract much attention be- 
cause they provide almost ideal facilities for a church 
work which needs to be largely institutional, although 
the church proper is architecturally the dominant feature. 
The programme of requirements prepared by the 
building committee for the guidance of tha architects 




INTERIOR, THE CHRIST CHURCH AND BABCOCK MEMORIAL 

HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Parish & Schroeder. Architects. 

called for a church seating 500, to be a distinct building 
and architecturally the most important feature ; a church 
house to contain a Sunday-school hall seating 1,000, a 
church parlor, a men's club room, gymnasium, boys' 
and girls' club rooms, kindergarten room, offices, resi- 
dents' quarters, etc. 

As one approaches the buildings there will be seen a 
simple but dignified church of Gothic architecture extend- 
ing lengthwise to the street. At the 'end of this building 
rises a church house in the style of the domestic Gothic 
of Oxford. This apparently small church house is in 
reality an L of the church house proper, which is a five- 
story building completely screened from the street by 
the high ridge of the church roof. The relative size of 




PANEL FOR FIREPLACE MANTEL, EXECUTED IN LOW RELIEF 

COLORED MAT OLAZE FAIENCE, BY ROOKWOOD 

POTTERY COMPANY. 

the two buildings is illustrated by the sectional drawing. 
The entrance to the church is distinct from that of the 
church house, and the entire church building is set apart 
for worship. 

Entering the church house, one passes into a large 
hall leading to two offices for visitors. Beyond there is 




A HOUSE AT CHEAT NECK, L. I. 
Little & O'Connor, Architects. Roofed with Ludowici Tile. 

a large church parlor with kitchen and ladies' dressing 
room adjacent, and a men's parlor with coat room. A 
door on this floor gives communication between the 
church and church parlor. In connection with the men's 
club, it is proposed to furnish the basement with bowling 
alleys, etc. 




Detail by Widmann, Walsh & Boisselier, Architects. 
Winkley Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

Passing up the stairs to the second floor, one will enter 
a large Sunday-school hall about 100 teet by 50 feet in size, 
28 feet in height, and lighted from all four sides. Open- 
ing from it there are six Bible-class rooms and two large 
galleries seating 200 children each, for the infant and in- 
termediate departments. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



21 




AUDITORIUM BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Bertram! & Chamberlain, Architects. 

The face brick were made by the Hydraulic Press Brick Co. 



On the Sunday-school floor is a 
large library for Sunday-school and 
general use. On the gallery floor is 
the pastor's study. Both floors also 
contain secretaries' rooms. 

On the fourth floor are the girls' 
club rooms, kindergarten or more 
properly children's room (for the kin- 
dergarten will doubtless continue to 
use the Sunday-school hall), gymna- 
sium (extending through two floors) 
with lockers and baths, also quarters 
for resident workers. 






HOUSE 58 E. 67TH ST., NEW YORK CITY. 
WILLIAM SOMERFIELD, ARCHITECT. 

Built of light gray standard brick made by 
Kreischer Brick Mfg. Co. 



t; 



DETAIL BY BEEZER BROS., ARCHITECTS. 

Excelsior Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



DETAIL BY GEORGE KRAMER THOMP- 
SON, ARCHITECT. 
New York Architectural Terra CottaCo., 
Makers. 

A LARGE OFFICE BUILDING 
ENTIRELY OF TERRA 
COTTA 
HE new West Street Build- 
ing, New York City, Cass 
Gilbert, architect, which will be 
two hundred feet by one hundred, 
and twenty-seven stories high, 
will be built entirely of a light 
buff terra cotta with ornamentation of colored terra cotta. It promises to 
be one of the most interesting and beautiful of modern office buildings, 
particularly so because of the extensive use of finely modeled and colored 
terra cotta. The contract has been given to the Atlantic Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, New York City. 



22 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL BY 8R0CK.IE a HASTINGS, ARCHITECTS. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co . Mali 

IN GENERAL. 
Wagner & Manning, architects, Denver, 
Colo., have opened a branch office at Port 
Arthur, Texas. Manufacturers' catalogues 
and samples are desired. 

Kitchell «.V- O'Rourke, architects, have 
severed their connection with Jeremiah 
O'Rourke cv Sons and opened offices for 
the practice of architecture in the Seheuer Building, 
Newark, N. J. Manufacturers' catalogues and samples 
are desired. 

D. A. Crone, architect, Pittsburg, Pa., has removed 




REPRODUCTION FROM PORTRAIT OF WHISTLER. 

GEOROE B. POST A SON, ARCHITECTS. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Co . Makers. 







detail hv price a MC i.an- his offices to the Conestoga Building. Manu- 

AIIAN, ARCHITECTS. c <. - .. 1 j 1 j ■ 1 

tacturers catalogues and samples are desired. 
Conkling-Armstrong/Terra] 

Cotta Co., Makers.; The Celadon Roofing Tile Company has 

recently closed contracts for furnishing its Im- 
perial Spanish tile for the Elks' Temple in South Bend, 
Ind. : Freyermuth & Maurer, architects; for the same 
pattern of tile for Mr. W. J. Tener's residence at Leets- 
dale, Pa., Rutan & Russell, Pittsburg, architects ; the 
same pattern for a large garage at the corner of 50th 
.Street and Broadway. New York ; the same pattern for 
the residence of Mr. J. H. Whittemore at Waterbury. 
Conn., McKim, Meade &• White, architects ; the French 
A tile for the new cathedral at Seattle, Wash., Heins & 
La Farge, architects; the Imperial .Spanish for the .Simon 
Guggenheim Hall, Colorado State School of Mines, at 
Golden, James Murdock, Denver, architect. 



DETAIL BY W. L. KLEWER, ARCHITECT. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 





THE Kl. IM. MAN EXPOSITION BUILDING, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

WILLIAMSON A (ROW, ARCHITECTS. 
Built ol " Ironclay " Brick. F. H. McDonald, Agent. 



DETAIL BY HENRY IVES COBB, ARCHITECT. 
Standard Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



WANTED — A competent Architectural Draughtsman with ex- 
perience in Terra Cotta works. Give name of works or last em- 
ployer, also age and wages expected. Gladding, McBean & Co., 
San Francisco. 

BRICK AGENCY WANTED — Sales agency in New England 
wanted with reliable manufacturer for face brick in all shades. Ad- 
dress " Agency," care of " The Brickbuilder." 

WANTED — Architectural Draughtsman; one with technical 
training and experience in railroad designing preferred. State age, 
experience and salary expected. Address, W. C. Cushing, Chief 
Engineer M. of W., Pennsylvania Lines, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. PLATE 20. 




"THE THRIFT" SAVINGS INSTITUTION, BROOKLYN, N. Y. William B. Tubbv & Brother, Architects. 




FLATBUSH TRUST COMPANY BUILDING, BROOKLYN, N. Y. Kirby, Petit & Green, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. PLATE 21. 




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VOL. 15, NO. 2. PLATE 22. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 2. PLATE 23. 














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McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




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SUBMITTED BY RAYMOND M. HOOD, PARIS, FRANCE. 

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PLANS AND DETAILS BY RAYMOND M. HOOD. 

6 




SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 
SUBMITTED BY WILLIAM C. HAZLETT, NEW YORK CITY. 

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-..ETON FRAME, 
TERRA- COTTA DRE5S.„ 



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grey enameled terra- cotta 

Decorated members picKed 
out in color. Ifellow blueond 
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and rosettes on oreen ground 

Green . = 
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LEGEND 



PLANS AND DETAILS BY WILLIAM C. HAZLKIT. 

8 







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OFFICE BUILDING COMPETITION 



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THIRD PRIZE DESIGN. 
SUBMITTED BY CLAUDE F. BRAGDON, ROCHESTER, N. Y 

9 



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IN -THE- ENTRANCE -THE -FRIEZE- AND- CORNICE -AND-IN THE 

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PLANS AND DETAILS BY CLAUDE F. BRAGDOM 



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FIRST MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY J. W. THOMAS, JR., COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

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PLANS AND DETAILS BY J. W. THOMAS, TR. 




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THEBRICKBU1LDER COMPETITION FOR AN OFFICE BUILDING 

O 5 IO 15 80 

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SUBMITTED BYVERTICAL 



THIRD MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY EDWARD K. MAHER, BOSTON. 




PLANS AND DETAILS BY EDWARD F. MAHER. 







SUBMITTED BY ALBKRT BAYNE LAWYER, NEW YORK CITY, 



37 




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38 




SECOND MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY OSCAR WENDEROTH, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



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RH.RTS Ai INDICATED ABOVE f 



SUBMITTED BY JAMES J. CRAIG, BOSTON. 



39 




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PLANS AND DETAILS BY JAMES J. CRAIG. 



40 







THE BRICK BVBLIEX 
COMPETITION FOR AN OFFICE BVILMHC 



SUI'.MITTED BY REYNOLD H. HTNSDALK, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

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COMPETITION FOR AN OFFiCE, BYiLDiNC. 



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['LANS AND DETAILS H\' REYNOLD II. HINSDALE. 

42 




SUBMITTED BY V. H. WIGGLESWORTH, CHELSEA, MASS. 

43 




PLANS AND DETAILS BY V. II. WIGGLESWORTH. 

44 



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SUBMITTED BY EDWARD J. WEBER AND WILLIAM L. JOHNSON, BOSTON 

45 




PLANS AND DETAILS BY EDWARD J. WEBER AND WILLIAM L. JOHNSON. 



46 




FOURTH MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY ISRAEL PIERRE LORD, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 

'7 




PLANS AND DETAILS BY ISRAEL PIERRE LORD. 

18 




FIFTH MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY ROLAND E. BORHEK, SEATTLE, WASH. 

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21 




AU TERRA COTTA IN 
7HIJ DESICN 15 INTENDED 
TO BE CLAZED 

THE .SURFACE IS TO BE 
SIMILAP. TO flNE! TOCUD 
WORK . 

THE BODV OF THE 
BUILDING 15 TO BE AN 
IVORY TINT 

the background or 

THE riOURB IN THE FRIE7E 
TO BE ORANGE RED 

THE ORNAMENTS Of 

itbave /Winnies, 

OtNAMtNTtD MOULDINGS 

under the modillion.5. 
and panels in jofeit 
of cornice to de pick- 
•ed out in tints op 
ochre to be 
i iii the archi- 

■ -A5INO 
IN DEPTH TOWARDS THE 

sorriT. 

•RNAMENT OVER 

PANCES A FIRST 

■I0OW6 TO BE 

UOKl TINTS Of GOLDEN 

OCHRE 

the rq5ettl5 in the 
soffit or cornice, in 
the architrave and ok 
piers, the door a win- 
tow FRAMES AND THE 
STANDARD BEARER ON 
TNE CORNER OF BUILDING 
TO BE POMPEIIAH BRONZE. 



PLANS AND DETAILS BY J. H. PHILLIPS. 




SUBMITTED BY FREDERIC C. HI RONS, PARIS, FRANCE. 

23 




PLANS AND DETAILS BY FREDERIC C. HIRONS. 

24 




BR1CKBVILBEI COMPETITION FOE AN OFFICE BVILDING 



• vSUXMITTBjD .BY JJS@M KEY <=^> 
5 lO 15 



20 



SUBMITTED BY E. C. LOWE, NEW YORK CITY, 

29 



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- COLOE 5CHEME. - 
THE TEEKA COTTA FOE 
COENEES AND PIERS TO BE, 
OF LIGHT BUFF COLOR. . 

BETWEEN PIERS TEE.EA 
COTTA YflLL BE. SOME.- 
.WHAT DARKER - THE 

ENTRANCE AND BOTH 
FRIEZES WILL CONTAIN A 
CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT 
OF COLOEED FAIENCE. 
OR TERTSA COTTA - 



1ICHBMLDER COMLPKTITION FORAN OFFICE BVILDING 

— JUDMLTTfiD *E>Y ^T""" - W?Tr~- 



PLANS AND DETAILS BY E. C. LOWE. 
3° 




SUBMITTED BY J. B. BLAIR, BOSTON. 
3 1 





->> Corn ' ce, - 

5 lO 15 20 



\\ • | | "A. I ' .', ■ ,,..•!'■• '.'.V I". 1,V. 

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v m r 1 [ ii, I r M, , 1 



PLANS AND DETAILS BY |. B. BLAIR. 



32 




imcKMin^EszzzKXMEnmQHE: 



SUBMITTED BY ARTHUR G. BEIN AND GEORGE CORNER FENHAGEN, NEW YORK CITY. 

33 




PLANS AND DETAILS BY ARTHUR G. BEIN AND GEORGE CORNER FENHAGEN. 

34 




Office Building in Terra Cotta 

5 10 15 ep 



E3PERANT0 



SUBMITTED BY W. CORNELL APPLETON, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

35 




Detail of Upper J)tor.y 

O 5 lO 15 



3 ECTIOiN.3 



i— — ■ ; i i, | i 

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MATERIAL) - FullGlaze Terra Cotta Above a Baje.Cc xuhec AAilfobd Gbanite 

CoLOB.-bTft.2AIDjlOB.IEO -&UFF .5BDTO°/TH ^TORJEJ-BuFF JAME Ai |JT JTOB.Y FoalfemMiNGO 

AND A LIGHTEB^HADETtOB FIELD .9TH FuX»-TCTlLEJI/tDuFFA'LlGHT.3AGeGJtte/<--C0BAIKX-£x;FF i 

AllObmameait m Low Belief -Type Chojea) Foe m Value aj textube iaitme Wall ESPERANTO 



PLANS AND DETAILS BY W. CORNELL APPLETON. 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 



FEBRUARY 1906 



No. 2 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of SEYMOUR AND PAUL DAVIS, FROST & GRANGER, 
HELMLE & HUBERTY, KIRBY, PETIT & GREEN, MAGINNIS, 
WALSH & SULLIVAN, MAURAN, RUSSELL & GARDEN, McKIM, 
MEAD & WHITE, PARISH & SCHROEDER, PARKER & THOMAS, 
J. A. SCHWEINFURTH, W. B. TUBBY & BROTHER. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



FACADE OF THE PRAYER ROOM, MOSQUE AT ARDEBIL, PERSIA Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 23,24 



CATHOLIC CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. PAPER I Charles D. Maginnii 

BUILDING OF YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDINGS .... Irving K. Pond 

THE WORK OF THE BOSTON SCHOOLHOUSE COMMISSION. 1901-1905. V 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE COMPETITION B, REPORT. PRIZE AND MENTION 

DESIGNS 

CONVENTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA, REPORT 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 

PROGRAMME OF COMPETITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS OF SMALL BRICK HOUSES 



2 5 

2.S 



37 
39 

4' 

II 




I. 



a 

Q 

si 
< 

< 

C/3 



2 

o 
o 



as 

Oh 



< 



THE BRICKBMLDERi 




DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECrVREINMATEFUALSOF CLAYi 



FEBRUARY 1906 



3B@& 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada. $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CHANGE IN OUR PLATE FORMS. 

ANEW ruling has been made by the Post Office 
Department at Washington which bears directly 
upon architectural publications, inasmuch as by this rul- 
ing loose sheets, or plates as they are usually designated 
by publishers, must be bound in with the rest of the 
magazine in order that it may be mailed as second-class 
matter. 

We are not disposed to discuss the wisdom of this rul- 
ing for the simple reason that it would be ineffective in 
bringing about a change ; what the law directs we are 
bound to obey. The only serious difference which the 
change may make — and possibly it may be proven that 
after all it will not be serious — is in the matter of double 
plates, that is, one illustration extending across the fold 
of the sheet, and where this is done the stitching will 
oftentimes have to be made through the illustration. 
We are of the opinion, however, that many architects 
who file their plates object to the double plate illustra- 
tion and will therefore be glad if they can be done away 
with altogether. However this may be, the probabilities 
are that the double-page plates will as a result of this 
law be reduced to a minimum. 

To those who file their plates it will be an easy matter 
to lift them for the purpose from the binding, and in 



doing so the plates will not be damaged in the least. 
The binding in has manifestly one advantage, and that 
is that plates will be kept in their proper places in the 
magazine until they are lifted for filing or other purposes. 
This new law — or rather this new interpretation of 
an old law — will work no great hardship, as there will 
undoubtedly be ways devised which will adequately meet 
the needs. 



THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITIONS. 

THERE are some features connected with the con- 
ducting of our competitions with which, apparently, 
contestants are not acquainted. As publishers we furnish 
the programme, cash prizes, and select the members of the 
Jury of Award. After that we are simply custodians of 
the drawings submitted. The remaining part of our 
work consists in the careful handling of the drawings 
while in our possession, arranging for the judging, pub- 
lishing of the jury's report and such drawings as they 
may select for the purpose, and the returning of the 
drawings to their owners. 

Some few of those who have entered our competitions 
apparently feel that this whole work can be done within 
a week's time, and to those especially we wish to explain 
that it would be impossible to do so for the following rea- 
sons: there are usually a large number of drawings 
entered in these competitions, and the proper arrange- 
ment of them, that they may be handled easily by the 
judges, requires some little time. Then the selection of 
the judges, as will be recognized, is one of the greatest 
importance and it is purposely left until the drawings are 
in for the very reason that we desire to have the problem 
treated, and not the judges. The men who are invited 
to do this work are of the leaders in the architectural 
profession, men whose interests are large and whose 
time is valuable, and to arrange a date on which three or 
five such men can meet is no easy matter, but the delay 
is more than compensated for in the value of the services 
which they give when the work is finally undertaken. 

During all this time, of course, the contestant is not 
certain that his drawing has been received, nor do we see 
how it can be otherwise, because of the very fact that the 
sealed envelopes containing the names of the contestants 
are not opened until after the competition has been 
judged. Following this there is absolutely no delay in 
notifying the interested parties of the results. 

This explanation is not offered by way of apology, but 
rather as an explanation to those who seem to misunder- 
stand the conditions which must of necessity prevail. 



24 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 




MR. RAYMOND M. HOOD. 




MR. WILLIAM C. IIAZI.ETT. 




MR. CLAUDE F. BRAGDON. 



Office Building Competition. 

The Successful Competitors. 

Raymond M. Hood, who was awarded the first 
prize of $500, received his early education at the 
Pawtucket (R. I.) High School, and then entered 
Brown University, where he spent one year. 

He entered the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology in the fall of 1899, graduating from 
the Architectural Course with honor in the class 
of 1903. 

After graduation he spent about one year in 
the employ of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, archi- 
tects, in their Boston and New York offices. 

In the summer of 1904 he went abroad to 
further pursue his studies, and at present is a 
member of the School of Beaux Arts in Paris, 
being admitted in April, 1905. He has also spent 
considerable time in European travel and has 
studied for a period in the American Academy 
at Rome. 

William C. Hazlett, who was awarded the 
second prize of $200, was graduated as civil engi- 
neer from Lehigh University, after which he 
spent some time in travel and study. His early 
training was in the offices of the late Bruce Price 
and McKim, Mead & White of New York City, 
since which time he has practised independently 
in that city. 

Claude Bragdon, who was awarded the third 
prize of $100, received his architectural education 
in various offices, among others those of Green & 
Wicks of Buffalo, and the late Bruce Price of 
New York City. For the past fourteen years he 
has practised architecture in Rochester, N. Y. 

John H. Phillips, who was awarded a mention, 
took the Civil Engineering Course at the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. After graduation he was con- 
nected with the offices of Shepley, Rutan Sc Cool- 
idge, S. S. Beraan and Richard E. Schmidt, 
all of Chicago. In 1902 he won the Chicago 
Architectural Club Scholarship. At present he 
is connected with the office of Reed & Stem, 
architects, New York City. 

J.W.Thomas, Jr., who was awarded a mention, 
received his architectural education at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He is at present in the 
office of an architect at Columbus, Ohio. 

Roland E. Borhek received his architectural 
training in various offices. At present he is in 
the Seattle (Wash. ) branch office of A. Warren 
Gould of Boston. 

Mentions were also given, by the Jury of 
Award, to Oscar Wenderoth of Washington, 
D. C, Edward F. Maher of Boston, and Israel 
P. Lord of Somerville, Mass. Sketches of these 
men were not received in time to be included in 
this issue. 




MR. I. W. THOMAS, JR. 




MR. JOHN H. PHILLIPS. 




MR. ROLAND BORHEK. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



25 



Catholic Church Architecture. 

BV CHARLES D. MAGINNIS. 

PAPER I. 

IT may be conceded at once that, in view of the splen- 
dor of opportunity presented by its great building 
activity, the Catholic Church has so far contributed insig- 
nificantly to the art of the United States. Just why this 
opportunity has availed so little, however, is a considera- 
tion always passed over by the critic, who invariably 
writes on this subject in a mood either of testy impatience 
or of profound discouragement. To'my mind, no present 
estimate of the artistic asset of the church in this country 
can possibly indicate the measure of its ultimate influence 
upon the national art. The hope may indeed seem vis- 




SAN PIETRO, TOSCANELLA. 

A ninth century facade of great beauty and refinement, which 
might well have influenced American church design. Admirably 
adapted to brick and terra cotta. 

ionary that, with modern methods of art production, the 
church will again inspire an artistic manifestation ap- 
proaching the Gothic tradition in beauty of thought or in 
sublimity of power. So indissoluble is the art element 
from Catholic life and thought, however, that the promise 
of big artistic possibilities must amply appear in the very 
vitality of the church itself. The history of our own 
times presents no more interesting phenomenon than the 
rejuvenation of the Catholic Church under democratic 
government. Sharply isolated from political institutions 
which were supposed to be necessary to its spiritual con- 
trol, it has grown in the free play of its energies, not 
merely in numbers and power, but in sheer moral pres- 
tige, so as to be admittedly the most potent spiritual in- 
fluence in American life. Indeed, signs are not wanting 
that it is to the splendid conservatism of this great moral 
authority that we must look to maintain the Christian 
ideal of society against the growing forces of materialism. 
It is not to be wondered at if, in the development of this 
real potentiality, involving as it did the solution of many 
great problems incident to the organization of a new and 
strangely constituted society, the energies of the church 



became too engrossed for the responsibilities of a discrimi- 
nating art patronage. 

In the mean time art was asserting itself as an im- 
portant element in the national life quite independently of 
religious stimulus. So amazing indeed has been the de- 
velopment of this secular art within the last twenty years 
that the historic supremacy of Europe has finally been 
called into question in more than one department. The 
high standards now prevailing in our civic and domestic 
architecture, however, afford the most pertinent evidence 
of the remarkable elevation in national taste. That the 
Catholic Church will come into more sympathetic touch 
with this beautiful development is inevitable, as the con- 
ditions which have made for its detachment become grad- 
ually relaxed. As it is, I feel sure that many of the clergy 
do not realize the degree of this detachment, nor how 
far the old artistic prestige of the church has been com- 
promised by a system of art production which its preoc- 
cupation and the hasty development of its boundaries were 
well calculated to foster. I refer to a system which owes 
its origin to Munich, a name which (great as it is in ar- 
tistic association), in my judgment, symbolizes, therefore, 
most of the unfavorable influences which have retarded 
the healthy growth of Catholic art in America. Munich 
is the pernicious principle of Art in the control of Com- 
merce. It is the multitude of foreign and domestic 
plaster shops for turning out stereotyped saints by the 
thousands, it is the " combination " of western factory 
interests which is flooding the country with hideous altars 
and pews and confessional boxes, it is the so-called archi- 
tect who makes merchandise of his plans, scattering them 
over the land in defiance of all the determining principles 
of site, tradition, climates, local resource and natural en- 
vironment. Munich is the smart man with the catalogue. 

That the high artistic reputation of the German city 
should be thus prejudiced by the localization of so un- 
healthy a system is unfortunate. Munich has many 




CHURCH OF S. MARIA DELLE GRAZIE, MILAN. 

Illustrating the possibilities of brick in application to monumental 
design. The church is attributed to Bramante, but the great dome 

only justifies the attribution. 

splendid artists and admirable schools of art. To sup- 
pose, however, that the best sentiment of Munich is in 
sympathy with mimeographic art production, or that the 
powers of its best artists are enlisted in it, is absurd. 
This is sufficiently apparent in the circumstance that, in 



26 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



order to remove the odium of it from the church, the 
Catholic Archbishop of Munich himself was forced a few- 
years ago to issue a public letter protesting vehemently 
against this spurious and mechanical Christian art, and 
warning his clergy to give it no countenance or support 
whatever. 

If art in the control of the counting room is degen- 
erate at Munich, what hope is there for the principle in a 




THE CATHEDRAL, AREZZO. 

This is an excellent example of the logical manner in which the 
Italians modified the Gothic to suit the requirements of brick and terra 
cotta. 'l'lii beauty of the apse is specially notable, the aisles lacking 
character through the smallness and irregularity of the windows 
The tower is poor and badly related 

land where the commercial struggle is so keen that the 
fairest and most sequestered landscape is not sacred 
from the impudent insistence on the excellence of Sapolio 
or the efficacy of Little Liver Pills? Everyday experience 
proves that it makes not merely for low artistic standards, 
but for degrading methods. And yet, under a perfunc- 
tory patronage, this principle has extended tremendously 
to the detriment of Catholic art in this country. We 
must not hope for higher standards until a greater delib- 
eration is exercised in the determination of the sources of 
true art production, for under present conditions art is 
not to be had merely by paying for it. There is certainly 
no lack to-day in this country of accomplished architects 
and sculptors and decorative artists, men who are eager to 
give their best service to the cause of ecclesiastical art. 
If it be not easy, except for those of keen artistic percep- 
tions, to dissociate these from the mass, a little investiga- 
tion will easily reveal them ; and no personal or parochial 
consideration ought to be permitted to weigh in favor of 
him whose capacity does not survive a reasonable test. It 
often happens that the incapable architect is a very 
decent sort of a fellow, who causes considerable flow of 
the milk of human kindness, but the folly of employing 
him to design a church can be demonstrated by arithme- 
tic. Suppose $50,000 to have been appropriated for the 
erection of a parish church capable of seating one thousand 
people. A fifth of that sum will suffice to build a comfort- 
able weather-proof structure of the requisite capacity and 
equip it with all physical essentials for congregational 



worship. Four-fifths, therefore, of the appropriation is 
intended to secure an expression of architectural dignity 
in keeping with the solemn destination of the building. 
Even an ignorant architect or an ordinary mechanic may 
intelligently guide the expenditure of one-fifth of the 
appropriation, but, since he cannot reach an artistic issue, 
§40,000 must be wasted under his hands, — a big sum of 
money to go for nothing. It was spent for art, and art 
is not the result, but something which is not to be argued 
into a resemblance to it by any degree of parochial ap- 
proval. Architecture has its standards quite as well 
marked as those of literature, even if they be equally 
obscure to the general public. It may be, only five men 
in fifty have artistic discrimination, but is there a much 
bigger proportion who have literary judgments ? Of the 
rest there are many who would yield no superiority to 
Ruskin over the local reporter. Vet literature is still 
worth while. 

So vital a point, indeed, is the selection of the archi- 
tect that upon it turns really the whole question. Since 
the services of the good architect usually cost no more 
than those of the bad one, it seems clear that only two 
considerations should be brought to bear on a particular 




INTERIOR OF CATHEDRAL, AREZZO. 

candidacy: first, the professional capacity of the man; 
second, his personal integrity. The best test of his ca- 
pacity is the judgment of his own profession. How is 
he regarded by those who are eminent in it? Are his 
accomplishments acknowledged? If not, no weight what- 
ever should be given to the circumstance that he has 
already designed many churches. They are presumably 
bad. Any man who has designed ten churches without 
receiving the commendation of so liberal a profession 
must be presumed to have done his share in discrediting 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



27 



Catholic architecture, and should be passed over. The 
personal honor of the candidate may be considered reason- 
ably established if, like the respectable lawyer, he can 
claim membership in the professional society which regu- 
lates the ethics of practice. In the face of Monsignor 
Lavalle's testimony, however, it ought to be still further 




CHURCH OK SAN PIETRO SOMALOI, LUCCA. 

This is one of many stately Italian types which, while not lit- 
erally adaptable, is full of beautiful suggestion for American churches. 
The position of the tower was determined by immediate conditions; 
otherwise it were better placed, as at Prato. 

attested by the experience of his previous clients. The 
architect once selected, his service ought to he permitted 
to extend, in the interest of artistic congruity, to the selec- 
tion of every detail, including not merely the altars and 
the furniture, but the mural and window decoration. 
These matters are as much the legitimate concern of the 
architect as the structure itself. A bad decorator may 
easily ruin the effect of a fine interior, and even a very 
good one, if he happen to have no particular sympathy 
with the architecture, may contrive to give it an entirely 
wrong expression. 

Some of the clerical contributors have touched upon 
the economic condition of the architect's problem. It is, 
indeed, a very vital matter, since the amount of money 
available in a given case may not only determine the de- 
gree and character of its elaboration, but may control the 
entire organism and style of the building. It is cus- 
tomary to speak of a limited building fund as a stultify- 
ing condition, as if it must necessarily make for inferior 
architecture, as if there existed some essential affinity be- 
tween the artistic value of a work and the intrinsic cost 
of the materials of which it is made. As a matter of fact 
the element of cost has no relation whatever to artistic 
beauty. Veryoften cut granite and polished marbles serve 



only to emphasize the inherent ugliness of bad design. 
Such is the alchemy of art that an unpretentious brick 
church, with the mark of gifted hands upon it, may have 
more artistic value than the cathedral. The economic con- 
dition, therefore, is not only not essentially prejudicial, 
but if it encouraged, as it ought to encourage, a simpler and 
more thoughtful kind of building, its influence would be, 
on the contrary, decidedly healthy. Let us not blame our 
poverty for our bad architecture, but the tasteless men who 
made that poverty ridiculous. Are we not sick and tired 
of the illiterate misrepresentation by which our sacrifice 
is made to strive by a system of architectural shams after 
more-merit than it really has? Is it not a monstrous libel 
upon the splendid spirit of Catholic giving to thus mis- 
translate it into an expression of smirking hypocrisy de- 
signed to impress the neighbors? Of the grosser viola- 
tions of the ethical principle in architectural beauty (such 
as the use of imitation marbles) it should be unnecessary 
to speak in an article on the designing of churches. Such 
insincerities, even if they may be assumed to gratify an 
untutored popular taste, have a very pernicious signifi- 
cance in association with the house of God. Who is 
confident enough to say that there is no insidious mischief 
done to the faith of the worshiper in that shock of dis- 
illusioment with which he perceives on the walls of the 
church the lie which is designed to deceive him? But 
the real nature of architecture is violated most commonly 
in the unintelligent effort to achieve beauty that has no 
structural authority. Architectural illusions may, of 
course, be created out of cardboard with historic outlines 
and good proportion of parts, but architecture must have 
organism as well as form, and the form and the organism 
must be so intimately wedded that one is the felicitous 
expression of the other. And yet, out of this scenic point 
of view, we constantly see flimsy materials used to simulate 
the rich externals of enduring masonry. Buildings profess 
to be of stone on the flimsy title of a veneer on the aisle 
walls, leaving the insincerity of the profession to be demon - 




THE CATHEDRAL, PIIATO. 

A building of extremely graceful lines. The tower, which is ad- 
mirably proportioned, is also splendidly placed to Rive the right accent 
to the composition. It is amazing that such a building as this, so well 
adapted to the materials witli which we usually deal, should have 
proved so uninspiring to Catholic architecture in America. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



strated by the wooden clearstory and the copper pinnacles. 
Gothic churches are still constructed of wood with mean- 
ingless pointed arches, their proud buttresses built of pine 
boards, — a triumph of the tenpenny nail. In the interior, 
lath and plaster, besides fulfilling their legitimate func- 
tion of wall-covering, are persuaded into historic forms 
for which their properties utterly unfit them. Rarely is 
there any expression of vitality. The beautiful open- 
timber roofs, which so frankly confess their office and 
may be made so beautiful, are hardly ever employed. We 
find the nobility of masonry exemplified in the New York 




CHURCH OF SAINTS ANDREA AND BERNARDINO, PERUGIA. 

A classical composition of much dignity and beauty, though now 
somewhat overloaded with ornament of varying scale and feeling. 
The design is full of admirable suggestion. 



Cathedral, where it imparts such an effect of muscular 
energy, of living, sentient architecture, but where else? 
vSt. Patrick's in lath and plaster would be ridiculous and 
unworthy to be classed as a great church. It is quite 
possible to bring something of the spirit of St. Patrick's 
into our parish churches, and until we do there can be 
no real health in our architecture. Above all, no Gothic 
should be attempted without the means to create such an 
effect of structural vitality. 

The economic condition apart, it is clear we need more 
simplicity, more sincerity in our building. In these days 
especially, when the sumptuosities of art are employed to 
promote the interest of the social and business advertise- 
ment, the church, if it is to possess a distinctive expres- 
sion, if it is to have within its doors an atmosphere not 
of the street, must wear an aspect of reticence, of dig- 
nity, even of severity. 



Buildings of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. 

BY IRVING K. POND, C. E., ARCHITECT. 

THERE has grown up in recent years a new factor 
for the betterment of spiritual, mental and phys- 
ical conditions in the lives of young men the country, and 
almost, the world over. It is not quite fair to those who 
set in motion and who have so devotedly and contin- 
uously nurtured and directed this new force to say sim- 
ply that it has grown. Grown it has, but it has been 
nurtured by personal and constant care, and though now 
it seems to the outsider to have acquired a momentum 
sufficient to keep itself in motion, the end of individual 
initiative and personal care to be expended on it is not 
yet. The prime movers can have had small conception 
of how vast a movement theirs was to become. To-day 
no town which does not contain its Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association can boast a well-rounded social life. 
The church may be there, the school may be there, the 
library may be there, the club may be there, and each 
appropriately housed: but unless the Christian Asso- 
ciation is there the life is not complete. The town 
will have been at pains to have an inspiring church 
edifice ; it will do the best it knows with its school- 
house ; it will go abroad for an architect for its 
library. The conventions are established and every 
cultured citizen supposes himself to know what is re- 
quired and what is the fashion in these buildings; but 
even the cultured citizen knows little more than in gen- 
eral of the needs and workings of the Christian Associa- 
tion, and when it comes to the problem of housing, the 
conventions cannot help him out, though not infre- 
quently he blindly seeks their aid. As the scope of the 
work is unfolded, it will be seen that the Christian Asso- 
ciation needs for its successful housing a building of 
much more complicated nature than that required by the 
church, the school, the library or even by the social club. 
It may demand the distinctive features of the typical 
building for any or all of these, and add thereto certain 
special features of the athletic club. 

To bring order in plan out of what so easily might 
lapse into chaos, and to clothe the whole in a form of 
distinct and individual character is a no mean task to be 
set for an architect of even a high order of ability. It 
has been the misfortune of the Association that until 
fairly recently its buildings have quite generally fallen 
into the hands of no architect at all, or of those of infe- 
rior skill. Outside of a few of the larger city buildings, 
the plans had come from the minds of untrained secre- 
taries, — untrained architecturally or otherwise ; the de- 
signs have come from — who knows where? and character 
there never was. The secretary of to-day is highly 
trained along the lines of organization and management, 
and his work is highly specialized, but he has had and 
can have no architectural training; nor will he have or 
need such training. But the work of untrained secreta- 
ries and the taint of the commonplace in the public taste 
laid on Christian Association buildings of not so long ago 
that heavy burden of stupidity in plan and design which 
bears down so hard on the general run of evangelical 
church edifices. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



29 



It is the function of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation to cultivate the social and spiritual graces, to 
instill a love for truth and strength. But the Christian 
Association, undenominational and unsectarian though it 
be in its work, had for a season in its spirit a touch of 
that Puritanism which looks askance at art, unless it be 
that simple and obvious art which is manifested in the 
general and uninspired run of modern academic work. 
Why do good people fear an art which touches the senses 
and appeals to the emotions? Why will they numb the 
finer feelings and seek only that art which in its very com- 
monplaceness is worse than sin, for sin may be a mo- 
mentary act, while this other is vulgar, and vulgarity is 
inbred? It will not be the function of this article to dis- 
cuss questions of style, but rather to present those par- 
ticular and practical matters of plan which will be found 
to be requisites in Association buildings of various types. 
But at the outset I must make a plea for freedom of 
design. I must ask building committees not to hamper 
the full and free development of a design which shall 
give distinctive and individual character to a Young 
Men's Christian Association building by forcing the 
architect to employ one of the cut and dried styles, be it 
Classic or Gothic, Colonial or Egyptian. None of these 
styles arose from the necessities of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. This Association has in it some of 
the elements which led originally to the development of 
each and all of the true styles. However, the repose of 
the Classic is not to be found in nor to be fitted to the 
dormitories or game rooms of the Young Men's Christian 
Association. Its gymnasium does not demand perpen- 
dicular Gothic for its full and consistent expression. 
The thin formality of the Colonial does not breathe that 
feeling of freedom and good fellowship one would seek 
and should find in the club and social rooms. The many 
and widely different uses to which the Christian Associa- 
tion building must be adapted should radiate outward 
from within, and show forth in the exterior, and would 
seem to demand for their complete and consistent 
expression a freedom and freshness of treatment such as 
are called for in few or no other classes of public or semi- 
public buildings. 

The Young Men's Christian Association has a right to 
demand of the architects that its buildings shall possess 
all the inherent qualities of style, — beauty, dignity, sin- 
cerity and consistency ; beauty in mass and color, dignity 
in design, sincerity in structure, and consistency within 
itself and in the adaptation of plan and design to use. 
There is opportunity to make the buildings of the 
Young Men's Christian Association as fresh and vital 
among buildings as its organization is among move- 
ments to exalt the standards of spiritual, intellectual 
and physical manhood. 

The ideal of the Young Men's Christian Association 
is to develop along sane and wholesome lines the spirit, 
mind and body, so that in all the exigencies of life the 
young man shall find it possible and natural and pleasant 
to do the right with all his heart, with all his mind and 
with all his strength. Therefore the Association build- 
ing should be so planned and designed as to minister 
naturally, efficiently and economically to the needs of 
the work. Into the training of the heart enter the social 
and religious elements. The training of the mind calls 



for work along general and special educational lines, 
touching more or less deeply the arts, literature, manual 
training and the applied sciences. The body is trained 
by the practice of carefully regulated systems of phys- 
ical culture, laid down upon broad lines. The building 
to respond to this work must be equipped with social and 
lecture rooms, laboratories and classrooms and the gym- 
nasium. 

In the category of social and lecture rooms are the 
reception room, the parlors, the game room, the club and 
class rooms for religious instruction. The educational 
work calls for laboratories, shops, well equipped class or 
school rooms, — all adapted for evening classes,— library, 
reading and study rooms. The work of physical culture 
demands the gymnasium, accessory to which are the 
locker and dressing rooms, the toilet and the bath, — 
shower and tub, — the natatorium and rooms for special 
work, such as ball and tennis courts, the physical direct- 
or's office and examination room. In addition to all or 
any of these there are needed the general office, secreta- 
rial and board rooms, check rooms, general toilet rooms 
and rooms to let, — all of which will be treated in detail in 
due course. The work of the Christian Association has not 
been conventionalized, and its buildings conse- 
quently and fortunately have not been standardized, 
so no rules can be made to apply rigorously to all 
cases. 

Primary, secondary and high schools have developed 
certain marked characteristics which define the types 
closely, so that they may be dintinguished in whatever 
locality they may be found. But the work of the Young 
Men's Christian Association bends to local conditions and 
to the personality of those it is to help. There are three 
general classes, though, which can be clearly differen- 
tiated, however wide may be the variations within the 
class: the General Department, the Railroad Depart- 
ment and the Student Department. The numbers and 
character of the population, the extent of the funds 
available for establishment, equipment and mainte- 
nance, dictate the size and arrangement of the building 
and the magnitude of the work in each and all of these 
classes. The difference between buildings of these 
various classes shows broadly in this: those for the 
general departments will be equipped as far as possible 
with all the various rooms hereinbefore enumerated, that 
is, rooms necessary to house the management, the social, 
the educational and the physical sections of the work, 
and possibly dormitories. The buildings for railroad 
departments will be provided with rooms for rest and 
recreation. The educational features are quite subsidiary, 
while game rooms, smoking rooms, bathrooms anddomi- 
tories are of the utmost importance. The gymnasium for 
this type of building is a. large room for general knock- 
about exercise, and is not equipped for special training. 
In the bathrooms, tubs are in demand, while showers arc 
seldom or never used. In the buildings to house the 
student departments generally the educational rooms 
are not needed, nor the gymnasium, the college minister- 
ing sufficiently to these wants. Social rooms (including 
billiard rooms), lecture and assembly rooms, Bible-class 
rooms, game rooms, administration rooms and domitories 
are necessary to the prosecution of the work of this class. 
( To be continued.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Work of the Boston Schoolhouse 
Commission, 1901-1905. V. 

FURNITURE AND FITTINGS. 

Furniture. 

ONE of the most important works of the Schoolhouse 
Commission is the study of the proper seating of 
the children, which they have carried on for three years 
under the direction of Dr. F. J. Cotton of the Children's 
Hospital. 

The practical value of proper desks and chairs for the 
different grades is not questioned to-day. The ill effects 
of improper sitting attitudes are many and serious. Eye- 
strain is a frequent result, and many serious deformities, 
as curvature of the spine, owe their beginning to wrong 
sitting postures, engendered not only by badly constructed 
chairs but by a wrong relation between chair and desk. 

The first step was the culling out of the mass of liter- 
ature on the subject, those scientific data and sugges- 
tions which seemed of practical value. The demands of 
different grades, and different developments of children 
in the same grade, clearly point to the necessity of adjust- 
able furniture. It is argued against it, that in practice it 
is not adjusted and so may be worse than a fixed approx- 
imation. This may well be the case with some of the 
over-elaborated models in which scientific theories have 
been carried to an extreme. It would seem from the 
results of the Commission's investigations that many of 
the complicated adjustments physiologically desirable 
can be in practice eliminated, reducing the work of 
adjustment to a point where it can be properly done by 
the janitors, subject to correction in a small percentage 
of cases by expert observation. 

The features to be provided for, which seemed essen- 
tial after a study of the literature on the subject, have 
been confirmed in the subsequent experiments and may 
be stated as follows: 

( i) Adjustment for height — vertically — of chair. 

(2) Adjustment for height — vertically — of desk. 

(3) A back rest of proper inclination with an adequate 

support for the lower back. 

(4) A proper depth of seat. 

(5) A proper slope of seat. 

(6) An adjustment of desk or chair for plus or minus 

distance *( varying with position ). 

All these features have been provided for in the fur- 
niture resulting from these experiments except No. 6. 
When reading, the chair and desk should be nearer 
together than when writing, but no device yet presented 
is really satisfactory. Those which work best are too 
complicated and expensive, while the simpler ones are 
not very smooth running and by no means noiseless. 

The only one of the other requirements that needed 
any study was No. 3, a back rest which should give- 
proper support for the lower back. The furniture on 
the market provided the other needed adjustments, but 
in none had the back support been carefully considered. 
What was needed was a uniform model, adjustable for 



height, concave from side to side, to minimize lateral 
twisting, and so curved as to support properly the lower 
back, maintaining the normal curve of the spine, the seat 
back stopping below the shoulder blades. 

It would seem that heretofore the problem had been 
considered merely theoretically, on paper. In the sum- 
mer of 1 903, however, models were carved out according 
to theoretical data and then tested on a considerable 
number of children at the Children's Hospital. The 
models were tested for both normal and slightly abnor- 
mal back curves, and the value of the experiments was 
added to by the criticism and suggestions of the hospital 
staff and Dr. Lovett, through whose courtesy the experi- 
ments were made possible. From these experiments 
two models were shown to be necessary, one for larger, 
and one for smaller children. The curves originally 
formed were shown to need certain alterations, and with 
•• modeling compound " and a draw shave, these changes 
were gradually made, constantly checking results with 
fresh trials. It was demonstrated in these tests that a 




* Plus distance is that between the front edge of ihe seat and the 
vertical line dropped from the near edge of the desk; minus dista 
the distance of the front edge of the seat in advance of this line. 



FIG. 1. 

comparatively low back support is ample, and the value 
of a clear space between the point of support and the 
chair seat, to accommodate the individual variation in fat 
and clothes about the hips, was proved an advantage. 
An important physiological reason for such a clear space, 
and one that seems to have been heretofore overlooked, 
is the fact that in leaning forward for writing the spine 
does not simply swing away from the support. There is 
a slight rocking of the pelvis, and a tendency of the pel- 
vis to slide back (on the yielding flesh of the buttocks) 
in such a way that the back is still in contact with the 
support and may be definitely steadied if the support be 
rightly curved. This point and the form of support 
adopted as a result of these experiments are shown in 
Fig. 1. 

The curved support for the large children is nine and 
three-quarters inches wide and five inches high, with a 
concavity of one inch in depth from side to side, and a 
convexity of one inch in profile, the whole very slightly 
tilted backward, the maximum convexity coming about 
one-third the way up. This support is carried on a light 
casting running in the groove of a single cast-iron 
upright attached to the back of the seat. A set screw 
was at first used to fix the height after adjustment, but 
it has been found necessary to substitute a nut, as the set 
screw after a while became loose enough to be turned by 
the children, though originally set up with a wrench. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



3 1 



The desk is adjustable for height, as can be readily 
seen in Fig. 2, which shows the new furniture as installed 
in the William E. Russell School. 

Having developed two sizes of chair, and using three 
commercial sizes of desk, the question of adjustment was 
still to be solved. Unless some rule for adjustment could 
be devised, the setting of furniture each year, in the 
Mather School, for instance, with 1,500 pupils, would be 
a serious problem. 

The height of the desk called for no study, as the 
commercial scale seemed adequate, which called for a 
rise of eleven-sixteenths inch increase of desk height 
for every inch increase of seat height. This keeps the 
desk as low as sufficient knee room will allow. Each 
member of an incoming class is measured for the " base 
measurement," that is, from floor to bend of knee in sit- 
ting posture, which gives the proper seat height, and 
automatic scales, which are obtainable, give readings for 




height of desk for each seat height. The two points 
that required study were the forward and back relation 
between chair and desk and the height of back support. 

It at first seemed as if individual adjustment would 
be necessary, but after considerable experience it has 
become evident that an adjustment by scale, according 
to the recorded base measurements, gives proper seating 
in the large majority of cases, and that expert inspection 
afterward will readily pick out those cases of unusual 
development which call for special adjustment. These 
rarely exceed fifteen per cent. 

The usual setting of the seat is at zero distance, that 
is, the front edge of seat directly under front edge of 
desk, but with only two sizes of chair seat and three sizes 
of desk for the nine grades, it has been found that with 
the smallest grades which use. each size of seat, a one- 
inch minus distance is advisable, bringing the seat nearer 
the desk. A table has been developed for the different 
grades, in which the distance from edge of desk to top of 
back rest varies from ten and one-half inches for the 
smaller grades to thirteen and one-half inches for the 
larger grades, and in a large number of rooms set up 
according to this scale the results have been very satis- 
factory. It has proved that the chair seats adjustable 
for distance, which are provided in each back row, are 
not ordinarily needed, the routine adjustment by rule 
being accurate enough. 



In the adjustment of the back support for height, the 
experiments again proved that the theoretically necessary 
individual adjustment was shown to be in practice un- 
necessary. Microscopic accuracy of adjustment is not 
called for. In a number of rooms the adjustments by 
scale were carefully corrected for the individual cases. 
This was an enormous task and, in an endeavor to find 
a scale for ordinary adjustment, measurements were 
taken of the distance of the top of back rest above the 
top of near edge of desk. Discarding the evidently 
exceptional cases, the distance varied from one-half to 
one and one-half inches. Theoretically it was decided, 
before the experiments, that the point of maximum con- 
vexity should come at the height of the hip bone at the 
side. The individual distance seems to vary independ- 
ently of other measurements, and it has been impossible 
to make definite allowance for it. A scale adjustment 
was tried, however, of three-quarters of an inch for small 
desks, and one and one-quarter inches for large desks, 
after the ordinary adjustment of seat and desk for height 
had been made. It proved very satisfactory for nearly 
all except the largest girls, and the cases of obviously 
unusual formations. There were also a few cases need- 
ing special adjustment, on account of some improper 
sitting attitude, rather than anatomical formation. But 
with the curve of the support accommodating itself to 
the normal back curve, this arbitrary adjustment strikes 
very close, and the small percentage of exceptional cases 
which demand special adjustment, generally about twelve 
per cent, are easily picked out in a first walk around the 
room by an expert. 

There is need for a third model of back support for 
girls of fuller development, but, with this exception, the 
furniture evolved by this investigation seems to be ade- 
quate and a vast improvement over the previous types. 
The matter of adjustment has been reduced to a scale 
that will allow of adjustment out of school hours, by 
janitors, according to a single measurement for each 
child. Beyond this there should be some administrative 
arrangement by which the special adjustments, for excep- 
tional cases in each incoming class, could be made yearly 
by an expert. 

Fittings. 

The various fittings for wardrobes, the bookcases and 
dressers for classrooms and cooking rooms, and other 
miscellaneous fittings, such as map-holders, bulletin 
boards and chalk rails, have received continuous atten- 
tion, and have been brought to standards for both the 
primary and the grammar schools. Drawings of these 
standards are furnished by the Board for the information 
of the architects and contractors. (Fig. 3.) In the 
same way, the various plumbing traps and catch-basins, 
as well as the fixtures themselves, have been standard- 
ized. ( Fig. 4. ) The sheet of plumbing standards issued 
by the Board shows both a porcelain latrine and a short 
hopper closet. In the primaries, the latrines have given 
excellent satisfaction, but where there is any objection to 
this form of closet by the head masters the short hopper 
closets are installed, though they are more difficult to keep 
clean, more easily damaged and no more sanitary. 

The construction of the partitions has been made 
uniform as well. The Board approves of omitting the 
doors entirely in the primary schools, and on the boys 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



BOOK- CASES 



UzJ 




Book case for primary schools 

TO LINE. WITH TOPS OF DOORS 




BOOK CASE FOR GRAMMAR SCHOOLS 



■MANUAL-TWUNING-ROOM' 



WINDOWS ON THIS «.)£>E 



TEACHER DESK 



c kon4tmtu)1 mhw 



T~ 



D D D D D 
DDDDDD 
D D D D Q D 



DDDDDD 
DDDDDD 



Stock Kdom 
Area totqn 

OR. MORE 



U CLOttT FOR 

TlHltrltfl WORK. 



WARDHOfeE 



STOCK CASE'S SEE fttTML 



-H™ 



IlAC«tAl CLOtlT 



Plan of manual training room 



rrr r y ', • 



COMPARTMENTS /O TIERS 
Hl&H • I'toiI' WIDE -6"to7" 
HIGH « 2-li"D£E? 



.Top Row to 
JT 'have 3«0«BBtS 
PAtNTEr OM 
WMT5 TO 
LIFT OUT 



< 



-THESE FRONTS 
»-*R Not 
4ECTK1 



3 To covin, ► 
J OVER t, 4E 
I* LtilftTrl 



Rk MCH po*R 



DETAIL OF STOCK CASES 



MAP- HOlDER-.CHALK-TROUfiH-DOKES-ER: 




• F* B_*C-»e-»B CA* 



nnyann 

DfflQOD 



MAP HOLDER. SCALE i'. IFOOT 

RACK To CL.CAR CAP *\OULDINAS OP DLACKDOAAO 

And to nlu down ovtA p>lackdoaaa 

PLACP.&OAA& 

H'^to HUH 

. WlRl HtTTINi 




CHALK TROUGH 



— (TIHOOff APRON 



BULLETIN BOARD 



COOKING°R00M & FITTINGS 



. MavL»>na K<|D i— tUAJtn fcKMM »A Jl««i V0»l) , B«A« PLATE 




C:okimc 






^i i^ 



Hlf»B 

Benches 

Pip* tTAn DAMPS 



JL 



windows om tmis Sine 



WlhQoTT^ 




Plan of cooking room • 



WARDROBE -FITTINGS' 




Elevation 
detail of clothes hooks tobe05e0 when 

ALL <I0ES OF WARDROBES ARE UTILIZED. 



COOKING-ROOM* FITTINGS 



□ u 



ALTERNATE fLANS OF COOKWS BlCMK 



a • 




SECTION. ELEJ/ATIOM OF RiCIPECA« 



FIG. 3. STANDARDS OK GENERAL DETAIL, SCHOOLHOUSE DEPARTMENT, CITY OF BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. PLATE 15. 




■1 . 

FRONT ELEVATION. 



IM 1 



i lllllmilillmi 







-L I ' LM- 



Aj>ft.£.r<C M/tD 





BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




SIDE ELEVATION. 



ELEVATIONS AND PLANS, Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, DECATUR, ILL. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. p LATE 28 . 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



33 



FLOOR- WASH- 



^J-i&^'oiihco 



• PUAM 



^pi =*;!">*' 



SECTION 



BLOW-OFF-TANK- 







•section- ■ Plan- 



CONDUCTOR-TRAP- 



it 







ll 



-SLATE-SINK.- 




m p*.«r»o *o»». LaKCC Sinks 

iN BAtCMCiT WJ BE ««.t&.h*j> mt'i , ,v»»<*J iH in-ClPKIlrQ^f 

-SLATE-URINAL? 



AVATORY- BOWLS 

IMUU 




3' 



-EUVAT10N- -RAN- \\ ( ^ i 
•CORNER- •CORNta»\\^y 



BOWL* *&OWL* 




"■"•"Hi 



• PLAN- -SIDE- EJ_tVATlON 

-HIHCES- 

-WATER- rt 7 ' 
CLOSET- DOORS- M/l 




._. HMO, .' .Pi.AH OF-V->*«-' 




Low" .*. Miwct. 



i-; 



tUEVtWTMM Of 

UMULMMfl. 

•EL aVATIOAj. -StCTlON- 3" SCALE ShowjnC- 

BR.AS5- HrNCCS 



PORCELAIN-LATRINES- 



C«>i-imC Limb 




trr^ 



TRAP 










> 1 

ft 








D O 




ulD 



•PLAN 



TIDE -TRAP- 



RUNNING -TRAP- 



FIG. 4. 




PLUMBING STANDARDS, SCHOOLHOUSE DEPARTMENT, C1TV OF BOSTON. 



34 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




JLsaais i 









THE BRICKBUILDER 



35 



side in the grammar schools. 
They do not insist on this, 
however, believing it to be 
to a certain extent a matter 
of administration, and so fol- 
low the wishes of the mas- 
ters in this respect. In the 
matter of urinals, however, 
they have been unable to 
come to an agreement with 
the other school authorities, 
and install the continuous 
urinal, without partitions, 
which they consider the most 
sanitary and easily cleaned. 
Repairs. 

Besides the work of con- 
structing new buildings a 
great deal of work has been 
done in repairing the old, 
principally in repairing and 
altering the heating and 
ventilating systems, installing new sanitation, and in the 
furnishing of more adequate fire protection. The Board 
conferred with the fire chiefs in this matter before adopt- 
ing a policy. They feel that the ordinary exits will be 
most efficient in case of fire, and while they have 
equipped some twenty-seven schools with outside fire- 
escapes, they believe it to be saner to do what is possible 
towards the fireproofing of the walls and floors enclosing 
the heating apparatus, and so reducing to a minimum the 
danger of a fire getting started. 

In the year 1903-1904, nearly $250,000 was expended 
for new sanitation in the older buildings, and last year, 
for such sanitation and heating repairs, about $125,000 
was expended. 

The Christopher Columbus School. 

This was the first primary school built after 
Board had formulated its 
first guide to economy of 
planning; that is, that a 
total floor area should be 
not greater than twice the 
area of the schoolrooms on 
that floor. The guide for 
cubical contents had not at 
that time been settled. 

Its plan is conventional 
in scheme, the central cor- 
ridor, with stairs at either 
end modified in detail to 
fit the special conditions of 
a restricted lot. It is built 
out to the lot line on North 
Bennet Street, as it faces a 
playground on that side, 
thus allowing an open gar- 
den space to assist the 
lighting on the narrower 
Tileston Street. The ex- 
isting Eliot School occu- 
pies the end of the lot, 




THE TUCKERMAN SCHOOL. 

Primary, Lincoln District, corner L and E. Fourth Streets, So. Boston. 

Charles K. Cummings, Architect. 

10 rooms: 500 pupils. 

Cube, 306,748 (350,000). Cost cubic foot, $0.25 ($0.22). 

Cost, $77,065.90 ($77,000). Cost per pupil, $154 ($154). 

(Figures in parentheses are limits set by the Board. 



leaving no room for ade- 
quate playgrounds. If the 
roof playgrounds installed in 
the Washington School 
prove successful, it will be 
possible at any time to equip 
this school in a similar man- 
ner. A number of the class- 
rooms are below standard 
size, as, in this neighbor- 
hood, many of the children 
are foreigners, and are put 
in ungraded classes of from 
thirty-five to forty, instead 
of the usual fifty. 

The heating is by the 
gravity system, and is of 
sufficient capacity to heat the 
Eliot School as well, a four- 
teen-room building. This 
added somewhat to the cost, 
which is considerably above 
the low limit which should apply to a twenty-four room 
building. It is about midway between the two limits 
set for primary schools. 

The building has proved satisfactory, the master 
finding nothing to criticise, and it fills all the require- 
ments of the Board. 

The Sarah J. Baker School. 



the 



THE SARAH J. BAKER SCHOOL. 

(Illustrated on Plate 24 of this issue.) 

Primary, Lewis District, Perrin Street. 

J. A. Schweinfurth and John J. Craig, Architects. 

24 rooms: 1,200 pupils. 



Cube, 708,607 (720,000). 
Cost, $157,161 93 ($158,400). 



Cost cubic foot, $0.2217 ($0.22). 
Cost per pupil, $131 ($132). 



(Figures in parentheses are limits set by the Board). 




DETAIL, THE JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIEK SCHOOL. 



This school was con- 
tracted for in March, 1905, 
about two years after the 
Christopher Columbus. 
Their requirements are 
identical. In plan it is 
quite different, being prac- 
tically two four-room floor 
plans, back to back, each 
with its set of staircases 
and entrances, with emer- 
gency doors in the dividing 
wall. It is located in a 
residence district with 
plenty of trees, and no high 
buildings, or the immedi- 
ate likelihood of them, to 
obstruct light. The lot is 
large enough for small play- 
grounds, a girls' and a 
boys' yard at each end 
serving independently the 
two parts of the building. 
In the basement the toilets 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS SCHOOL. 

Primary, Eliot and Hancock District, North Bennet Street. 

Winslow & Bigelow, Architects. 

24 rooms: 1,200 pupils. 

Cube, 727,068 (720,000). Cost cubic foot, $0.236 ($0.22) 

Cost. $173,512.08 ($158,400). Cost per pupil, $144.59 ($132.00). 

(Figures in parentheses are limits set by the Board.) 

are similarly separated, and there is as well a large com- 
mon playroom and a smaller separate one for girls. 

The heating system is a combination pump and grav- 
ity return system, with plenum fan for ventilation, like 
that installed in the Mather School. The main ducts, for 
the distribution of air to the lower ends of the various 
vertical ducts, are of masonry, below the basement floor, 
instead of galvanized iron on the basement ceiling as in 
previously constructed schools. The ducts are large 
enough for a man to walk in, and so give free access to 
the bottoms of all uptakes, allowing of ready cleaning, 
and substituting for the more or less perishable metal- 
work a permanent construction. 

The area and cube are well below the standard, doubt- 
less due to the economy of hall area in this scheme of 
plan. The cost per cubic foot is slightly in excess of the 
standard, but the total cost is still within the limit. 

This school, built under a single contract, with bonus 
and forfeiture clause, has just been completed, well 
within its contract time, sustaining the claim of the 
Board that delays in completion will be obviated by this 
method of procedure, of the other schools, for various 
reasons, very few have been built in this way, and in al- 
most every case delays, sometimes serious, have occurred. 

The single contract and time limit tend to increase 
slightly the cost, but assurance that a school will be ready 
for occupancy on time is a legitimate purchase. 

The Tuckf.kman School. 

A long and narrow lot has developed for this school a 

plan analogous to that of the Baker School, in that it has 

a three-room plan and a two-room plan, end to end, with 

emergency doors in the dividing wall. The two parts 



are entered from the ends of a narrow terrace raised 
some few steps above the sidewalk. The play yards are 
at either end of the lot, with the service drive entering 
at the rear between the two wings. There is one com- 
mon playroom in the basement. As in all the other 
schools, the construction is fireproof throughout. 



THE JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER SCHOOL. 

(Illustrated on Plate 24 of this issue.) 

Primary, Henry L. Pierce District, Southern Avenue. 

Parker & Thomas, Architects. 

10 rooms: 500 pupils. 

Cube, 325, 051 (350,000). Cpsl cubic foot, $0.22 ($0.22). 

Cost, $72,26g.7o($77,ooo). Cost per pupil, $144 54(3154). 

(Figures in parentheses are limits set by the Board.) 




detail, the christopher columbus school. 
The John Gref.xi.eaf Whittier School. 

This and the Tuckerman School are the two latest and 
the two smallest primary schools built by the Board. It 
has been generally more difficult to build the smaller 
schools within standard limits than the larger, and it is 
a significant fact that of these two latest schools, both 
are well below the standard in cube, and that one is but 
$65.90 above the standard limit of $77,000, while the 
other is $4,7.51 or six per cent below it. 

The Whittier School is on an ample lot, with a ceme- 
tery at the rear assuring unrestricted south light for the 
rooms on that side. The other rooms open off the ends 
of the corridor, with its two stairways and storerooms. 
The basement, as usual in a primary school, has merely 
the heating and toilet arrangements and playrooms open- 
ing on to the play yards at either end of the building. 
( ( oncluded. ) 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



37 



Architectural Faience Competition B. 

REPORT. 

Prize Design. In placing this design first it was felt 
that the whole design was very agreeable in proportion 
and balance, and that the detail was kept in good scale 
throughout. 

The outline of the cartouche in the central panel 
might be somewhat improved. The color, if well han- 
dled, would add greatly to the beauty of the design ; and 
it is one which lends itself 
peculiarly to the use of color, 
and also very suitably to the 
material. 

First Mention has most 
of the merits of the prize de- 
sign, but the lower supports 
seem unduly heavy, and the 
proportions not quite as 
agreeable as in the other de- 
sign. The color is well han- 
dled, and the drawing good. 

Second Mention is a de- 
sign of an entirely different 
type from any of the others, 
and as such deserves special 
mention. It would of course 
be very suitable to an informal 
room, and suggests the club- 
house mentioned in the pro- 
gramme. The figures are 
somewhat large, and would 
have to be in very low relief 
not to overpower the design ; 
but as the columns project 
considerably there might be 
some difficulty between the 
capital and the figures. 

This design shows great 
cleverness, is an extremely 
interesting drawing, and the 
color is well handled. 

Third Mention is a very 
good drawing, and is very 
pleasing in proportions; but 
the detail is not as interesting 
as the general disposition. 

Fourth Mention is beau- 
tiful in color and execution, 
but the top part of the design seems to crush the sup- 
ports. This could have been obviated had the opening 
been made considerably higher. 

Fifth Mention is a well composed design, and the 
drawing extremely painstaking, but it would be more 
interesting if not executed with the same care and pa- 
tience over its entire surface. The double frieze seems 
rather too heavy for the rest of the composition. 

Sixth Mention is quite different from any of the 
others in type, and as such deserves mention; espe- 
cially as it lends itself extremely well to execution in 
faience. 

Henry Forbes Bigelow. 




m^^Mt fypMjy 




PROGRAMME. 

Subject: A Large Mantel with Hood. 

one cash prize only, fifty dollars for best design, 
also mentions. 

At the end of a large hall, such as would occur in a 
clubhouse or in the main lobby or dining-room of a hotel, 
it is desired to place a large mantel with a hood, similar 
in style to that of the period of Francis I of France. 
This mantel should be designed to be executed in archi- 
tectural faience in one or more 
colors. 

The color scheme may be 
indicated by a key. 

The mantel is to occupy a 
wall space of not more than 
150 square feet. 

Drawings required. Plan 
and elevation at a scale of one- 
half inch to the foot. 

Drawings may be rendered 
at will on a sheet of unmounted 
white paper, measuring 16 
inches by 20 inches. 

Each drawing is to be 
signed by a nam dc plume or 
device, and accompanying 
same is to be a sealed envelope 
with a nom dc plume on the 
exterior and containing the 
true name and address of the 
contestant. 



FOURTH COMPETITION 

ALUMNI FELLOWSHIP 

IN ARCHITECTURE, 

UNIVERSITY OF 

PENNSYLVANIA. 



T 



PRIZE DESIGN. 
SUBMITTED BY MAURICE P. MEADE 



HE Trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania 
announce the fourth competi- 
tion for the Alumni Fellow- 
ship in Architecture. This 
Fellowship, of the value of 
one thousand dollars, was 
established in 1903 for annual 
award during a term of five 
years in recognition of the 
boston. action of the General Archi- 

tectural Alumni Society in securing by general subscrip- 
tion among its members, for the needs of the School of 
Architecture, a fund of five thousand dollars. 

All persons under thirty years of age, who have taken 
at the University of Pennsylvania either the degree of 
B. S. or M. S. in Architecture or the certificate of the 
two-year special course in architecture, are eligible to the 
Fellowship, save only such as may have already secured 
opportunities for foreign travel and study equivalent to 
those conferred by this Fellowship. The holder of the 
Fellowship is expected to sail for Europe not later than 
September 1, 1906, where he will be required to spend 
not less than one year in travel and study. 



38 



THE BRICKBUILDER 











FIRST .MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY ROBERT FULLER JACKSON, BOSTON. 



SECOND MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY JOSEPH W. WILSON, CHICAGO. 




■ T.liXA-.. * - 







THIRD MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY HOMER KIESSLING, ROSI.INDALE, MASS. 




<y* 



m 




e 

i 




UUBtowmm 

I 

MM YIU*W '«» 



FIFTH MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY CALVIN KIESSLING, BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



39 




FOURTH MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY JOHN J. CRAIG, BOSTON. 










i -s 




aSE; * 




; •«x.H^.BUi< kuYij lien 

■ COMtHTi 'I'l'HON'.K 

','aiMVr I; i t. Wj 



A^sjrcup II 

I 

■;:< tt.'Mt j'll" 



SIXTH MENTION. 
SUBMITTED BY ARTHUR HOWELL KNOX, CHICAGO. 



CONVENTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL 
LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

THE Seventh Annual Convention of the Architectural 
League of America was held in New York City- 
January 31, February 1 and 2. That the interest in the 
League is wide and that its effort is earnest may be realized 
in noting the personnel of the convention. The delegates 
included architects, draughtsmen, university teachers 
and their senior students in architecture, and painters 
and sculptors of national reputation. The purposes of 
the League became clear to the onlooker who heard the 
discussions of the three days' business session and lis- 
tened to the reports of the standing committees. 

One evening during the convention, according to cus- 
tom, was open to the general public. Prof. A. D. F. 
Hamlin, head of the Architectural School of Columbia 
University, gave an interesting address on "The Rela- 
tion of Decorative Sculpture and Painting to Architec- 
ture." The subject was treated in an historical way and 
was illustrated with lantern slides. Mr. Hugh M. G. 
Garden, of Chicago, followed with a paper on "Architec- 
tural Styles and American Life." 

The National Sculpture Society acted as host to the 
delegates on the first day, and conducted them on an 
automobile tour around the city, visiting notable archi- 
tectural works, and ending with a luncheon in the Bor- 
ough of Richmond, in sight of the beginnings of Staten 
Island's great Municipal Ferry Terminal, and where they 
were welcomed by President Cromwell, who told of 
future plans for his borough. 

For the second day of the convention the National 
Society of Mural Painters acted as host and entertained 
the delegates at luncheon, after which they were con- 
ducted on a tour through the interiors of several of New 
York's finest buildings. This permitted them to meet 



Mr. John La Farge, who gave an informal explanatory 
talk beneath his great painting, "The Ascension." A 
view was also had of Mr. Robert Blum's mural decora- 
tions in Mendelssohn Hall, the interior of the new Park- 
hurst Church, the new Appellate Court Building, the inte- 
rior of the St. Regis Hotel, the apartments of Mr. Louis 
Tiffany, and C. Y. Turner's new paintings for the De Witt 
Clinton High School. 

On the third day the delegates were guests of the 
Architectural League of New York, and the convention 
ended with the annual dinner, which at the same time 
marked the opening of the New York League Exhibition. 
President Richard H. Hunt, of the Architectural League 
of New York, presided at the banquet, and speeches were 
made by the newly elected president of the Architectural 
League of America, Mr. Ernest J. Russell of St. Louis, 
Mr. George B. Post, Mr. E. H. Blashfield, Mr. Karl Bitter, 
Mr. Calvin Tompkins, president of the Municipal Art 
Society, Mr. Frank Miles Day, president of the American 
Institute of Architects, Sir Caspar Purdon Clarke, F. Hop- 
kinson Smith and others. 

The work of the League for the past year is well pre- 
sented in the following report submitted by the Execu- 
tive Board: 

REPORT OF THE FXECUTIVK HOARD. 

Your Executive Board respectfully submits the following report : 

As provided by the Constitution of the League, your president, repre- 
senting the Chicago Architectural Club, selected the following gentlemen 
from that club to act with him : Mr. Richard E. Schmidt, V.-l'res. ; Mr. 
John L. Hamilton, Sec; Mr. Herman V. von Hoist, Treas. ; Mr. Alfred 
Hoyt Granger, Mr. Howard V. D. Shaw, Mr. Elmer C. Jensen, who, to- 
gether with your president, N. Max Dunning, have constituted the Exec- 
utive Board. 

The meetings of this Board have been held approximately every two 
weeks, at which time questions of routine business have been taken up 
and disposed of. 

The Executive Board has been particularly fortunate this year in 
having had its line of action largely mapped out for it by the convention 



40 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



in Pittsburg and has bent its efforts toward putting into active operation 
the projects recommended by the retiring Hoard, and by the Standing 
Committees in their reports to that convention. 

We have succeeded in a measure, and I am pleased to report the fol- 
lowing results : 

School Scholarships. In our effort to establish scholarships in the 
architectural schools of the country, we met with a most generous re- 
sponse from the President and Fellows of Harvard University, receiving 
from them by gift three "scholarships in architecture," each equivalent 
to one year's free tuition at Harvard. Two of these scholarships are 
awarded upon the result of a competition in design conducted and judged 
under the auspices of the League, in the various constituent clubs and 
open to any of their members. The third scholarship is awarded to that 
member of the League who passes the highest regular entrance-examina- 
tion. The first competition for these scholarships was held simultane- 
ously in all of the clubs last September and two scholarships were 
awarded. The men receiving these scholarships are at present pu'suing 
their studies in Harvard. While there were but few competitors, this 
fact was easily attributable to the short notice that could be given and it 
would be an unfair criterion by which to judge of the success of the 
scholarship idea. Announcements have been issued for the second com- 
petition, which will be held early in March and upon the results of which 
the scholarships for next )ear will be awarded. It is only clue to the 
President and Fellows of Harvard and to I'rof. Warren, who has so ear- 
nestly championed our cause, that a large number should compete and 
show that we are deeply sensible of the great assistance they have given 
us in carrying out our programme of education. 

While we have not as yet received scholarships from other architec- 
tural schools, the manner in which they have taken up the question and 
the interest shown in its possibilities lead us to expect that eventually we 
will have other scholarships to offer to our members. 

Traveling Scholarships. — We have also secured pledges of the funds 
necessary for establishing an " Architectural League of America Travel- 
ing Scholarship " of a value of 51,200. A part of these funds are already 
in the League treasury and we anticipate no delay in receiving the re- 
mainder. Announcement of this competition has already been sent out, 
and the programme has been written, but this will not be made public 
until the time of the preliminary competition. 

It has been the intent of the Kxecutive Hoard to make the restrictions 
as to eligibility as broad as can be made, consistent with the best interests 
of the scholarship and its recipient. 

We will require from all competitors an essay in which they will set 
forth their opinion as to what is the function of such a scholarship as 
this, and what, if any, are their natural predilections, with the intention 
that their designated study may be made congenial to their tastes and 
impose the least possible restriction on the individuality of their work. 

We will require that the holder of the first scholarship observe par- 
ticularly some designated subject pertaining to the improvement of cities, 
and report to the Executive Hoard. 

Your Executive Hoard has given this question of a Foreign Traveling 
Scholarship deep consideration, and are greatly impressed with its future 
possibilities and inestimable va'ue. We therefore respectfully recommend 
that this project be continued and developed. We would further recom- 
mend that, at the earliest mon ent it may be found expedient, the League 
establish Traveling Scholarships in Mural l'ainting and in Sculpture. 
The Annual. — A contract has been signed with Mr. John C. Haker, of 
Philadelphia, to assume the management of The Architectural Annual, 
and this work will be carried to completion without the League assuming 
any financial responsibility whatever. 

We have every reasonable assurance that The Architectural Annual 
will not only be a volume which will be a credit to the Architectural 
League of America, as a resume of the current work in Architecture, 
Painting and Sculpture, but that it will also maintain the Foreign Travel- 
ing Scholarship in Architecture and probably, in the near future, in alter- 
nate years, scholarships in sculpture and mural painting. 

The Executive Hoard have had published the document issued by the 
Committee on Education and have also had published and distributed in 
pamphlet form the Report of the Committee on Civic Improvement, as 
authorized by the last convention. 

Your Executive Board recommends : 

That the question of periodical bulletins be considered. These to set 
forth the prospective work the League has in mind, in order that it may 
be incorporated in the programmes of the various clubs. 

That archives for the preservation of club documents should be estab- 
lished. 



That a Committee on Foreign Correspondence be made a standing 
committee. Their duty to bring about a closer harmony between our 
organization and foreign similar organizations, to the end that our trav- 
eling scholars shall be given a better standing and increased opportunities 
while abroad, and the international question of better government as ex- 
pressed in concrete examples of civic improvement may be more univer- 
sally studied and the knowledge more systematically disseminated. 

That the Architectural League of America appoint a delegate who is 
thoroughly familiar with the League's work and ideals to attend and repre- 
sent it at the World's Congress of Architects to be held in London in 
July. Our position as an architectural body and our interest in the prog- 
ress of architectural thought seem to demand that this be done. 

Finally, it is the opinion of your Executive Board that, considering 
the personnel of our society, the sphere of its greatest usefulness is an 
educational one in the broadest sense. That we must use our good offices 
to encourage in the minds of the younger members of our organization 
high ideals of architectural expression and professional practice. 

And that we shall exert in the greatest degree possible a strong influ- 
ence in molding the public mind to a better appreciation of art. 



INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ARCHITECTS. 

THE Seventh International Congress of Architects 
will be held in London, July 10 -21. This will be 
the first session ever held in an English-speaking coun- 
try. It is the desire of the American Section that the 
next Congress may be held in America. 

For the information of those not familiar with the 
work of the Congress the American Section of the Per- 
manent Committee begs to state that this is the only 
organization of its kind in the world. 

The sessions are held every three years, and in the 
interim the work is in charge of a Permanent Committee 
now composed of architects representing seventeen dif- 
ferent countries. This committee directs the policy of 
the organization, selects the character of subjects to be 
discussed, and considers whatever matters may be 
brought before it. 

The members of the American Section of the Perma- 
nent Committee are: W. L. B. Jenney, Chairman; Wil- 
liam S. Eames, Vice-President; Francis R. Allen, Glenn 
Brown; George O. Totten, Jr., Secretary. 

An International Congress of Architects affords an 
opportunity of visiting a foreign country under particu- 
larly favorable circumstances, of meeting men of one's 
own profession of different nationalities, of great personal 
benefit derived from the discussions and debates of the 
Congress and the elevation of the profession and the 
public in general in matters of art. 

Any architect in good standing may become a mem- 
ber on payment of the subscription. National Architec- 
tural Societies and the individual chapters comprising 
them, as well as local architectural clubs, may have the 
privilege of appointing delegates upon payment of the 
subscription to the Congress. 

As there is already a very general interest shown in 
the Congress by American architects, it may be possible 
to arrange several parties which will add to the pleasure 
of the trip, to sail on different dates. If those desiring 
to join such parties will send their names as soon as pos- 
sible to George O. Totten, Jr., 808 Seventeenth Street, 
Washington, D. C, Secretary of Permanent Committee, 
or to Glenn Brown, Sec. A. I. A., Washington, D. C, 
sailing lists and other information will be sent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



4i 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

Editor The Brickbuilder : 

In the January issue of New York Manufacturer ap- 
pears an article professing to be an abstract of a speech 
delivered by Mr. E. N. Hunting of Pittsburg, on rein- 
forced concrete, in which the following gems occur, bring- 
ing to mind an editorial in Cement Age of May last : 

"The cause of reinforced con- 
crete construction would seem to 

be in danger of being damned, 
not by faint praise, but by too 
much praise Some warm admirers 
of this system of construction have 
rushed into print with articles at- 
tributing to concrete every virtue 
which it is possible for a building 
material to possess. They have 
gone so far that one may question 
whether their motives have always 
been disinterested." 

Mr. Hunting, after informing 
his audience (the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers) that con- 
crete is a mixture of sand, stone, 
cement and water which can be 
obtained everywhere locally, goes 
on to say : 

"The mixtures of the aggre- 
gates can be made by very efficient 
mechanical devices — or by the use 
of the most ignorant class of labor 
— with the same good result . 

" Forces of nature, no matter 
how severe, have but little effect 

on con- 
crete; 
nei t he r 
do acid 
fumes 
and high 
tempera- 
tures af- 
fect it. 

"Al- 
though 
winter 
construc- 
tion in 
concrete 
is not 

commonly considered good 
practice among engineers, we 
are of the opinion that cold 
weather is the most advanta- 
geous time to handle this class 
of work, because when tem- 
peratures are low the aggre- 
gates of concrete are of the 
smallest volume, and contrac- 
tion due to temperature stresses 
is seldom found in work car- 
detail by price & mc lana- ried out in winter. Cracks sel- 
han, architects. dom develop from expansion 

,. ... . , „ c 4.* — almost entirely from con- 

Conkhng-Armstrong Terra Cotta -' 

Co., Makers. traction." 



I have been a close reader 
of your publication from its 
start, have studied numerous 
works on cement and con- 
crete ; lately an exhaustive 
one by Louis Carlton Sabin, 
B. S. C. E., and the only con- 
clusion I have been able to 
reach is that the claim made 
by Mr. Hunting, that the 
most ignorant class of labor 
is competent to mix concrete, 
is radically wrong. In the 






fire department house, long island city, l. 1 

Parish & Schroeder, Architects. 



DETAIL EXECUTED 

BY NEW JERSEY 
TERRA COTTA CO 



numerous cases cited by you of col- 
lapsed reinforced concrete construc- 
tion, many are attributed to just 
ignorance. 

The Engineering Record of Jan- 
uary, 1904, in an editorial stated: 
"Concrete-steel has one character- 
istic that renders imperative the 
greatest possible care, both in de- 
sign and construction, viz., the pro- 
cess of manufacture of the material 
is concurrent with the building of 
the finished structure. The faults 
of manufacture manifest them- 
selves only in the weakness or fail- 
ure of the structure, and this is 
precisely why so large a number 
of concrete-steel failures, mostly 
or all in buildings, have been lately 
recorded. ... It is unqualifiedly 
imperative that the best class of 
workmanship in every respect 
should be found in concrete-steel 
construction." 

Sabin states: "The desirable 
elements in concrete are, first: 
That when treated in the proposed 
manner it shall develop a certain 
strength at the end of a given pe- 
riod ; second: That it shall contain 
no compounds within itself which may, at any future 
time, cause it to change its form or volume, or lose any 
of its previously acquired strength; third: That it shall 
be able to withstand the action of any exterior agency to 
which it may be subjected that would tend to decrease its 
strength or change its form or volume. . . . The defects 
which lie hidden in cement may be even greater than 
those in lumber and cast iron in proportion to its possible 
strength, and defects in cement are often more treach- 
erous because their development may be deferred for 
some time. The importance of knowing whether the 
cement fulfills the second and third requirements noted 
above is therefore evident." 



42 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




COOK COUNTY NORMAL SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS, CHICAGO. 

W. B. Mundie, Architect. 

Fin-proofed by National Fireproofing Company. 



To a layman it would seem from the foregoing argu- 
ment that the most skilled of labor is demanded for con- 
crete construction, and not, as Mr. Hunting asserts, the 
most ignorant. 

A. N. Muller. 

New York. 



have merged their in- 
terests. The merging 
corporation will be 
known as The Ludo- 
wici-Celadon Company. 
The united strength of 
these two organizations 
makes a formidable ag- 
gregation o f assets, 
plants and salesmen, 
with immeasurable fa- 
cilities for the produc- 
tion of clay roofing tiles 
and equal facilities for 
marketing its ware. 

The maintenance of 
four large factories — at 
Chicago Heights, 111., 
New Lexington, O., 
Ludowici, Ga. , and Al- 
fred. X. V. will prove 
of vast importance in 
the rapid distribution 
of material, and at the 
same time enable The 
Ludowici - Celadon Company to meet architects' and 
engineers' specifications with any quantity of roofing 
tiles, of any shape, in any color, at any time. Branch 
offices will be established in all the large cities. 



AN INTERESTING EXAM- 
PLE OF BRICKWORK. 

THE new Long Island Stor- 
age Warehouse at Brook- 
lyn, Helmle & Huberty, archi- 
tects, illustrated in the plate 
form of this issue, is a very in- 
teresting example of the use of 
brick pattern-work in large wall 
surfaces. The centers of the 
diamond shapes, which form 
the pattern, are of old gold 
mottled brick, the outline being 
in light buff. This combina- 
tion of colors gives to the wall 
a warm, mellow tone which 
contrasts well with the light- 
colored terra cotta trim of the 
building. The bricks were fur- 
nished by Sayre & Fisher Com- 
pany of New York, and the 
architectural terra cotta by the 
Perth Amboy Terra Cotta Co. 



CONSOLIDATION OF 

ROOFING TILE 

CONCERNS. 

THE Ludowici RoofingTile 
Company and the Cela- 
don Roofing Tile Company 




BREWERS EXCHANGE, BALTIMORE, Ml). 

Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 

Entire Front of Terra Cotta, except Brick in Second and Third Stories. Work executed by New York 

Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



43 




DETAIL OF PETT1BONE-PEABODY COMPANY BUILDING, APPLETON WIS. 
H. H. Waterman, Architect. 
Executed in White Enamel Terra Cotta by American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Company. 



<«f'<#'«»«''»* :1 »* , l«r*' 



}^f^^^~^~ -* -^ - w ~ w -~~-?" 



- — ~^w 

^'w4 . P 




— r- H 


gDW! 


4 

3 [ 


£ 



jir jir jK.nr w 

jjj r r ruTiiiii. 



DETAIL BY ALEXANDER MACKINTOSH, 
ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



IN GENERAL 

George G. Teeter, architect, Winnipeg, 
taken offices at 536^ Main Street, that city, 
turers' catalogues and samples solicited. 



Man., has 
Manufac- 



DETAIL 

St. Loui 



Peter Brust and Richard Philipp have associated them- 
selves under the firm name 
of Brust & Philipp, for the 
general practice of archi- 
tecture. Offices, 82 Wiscon- 
sin Street, Milwaukee. 

Oliver J. Popp, architect, 
St Louis, Mo., has removed 
his office to 4976A Reber 
Place. 

A. O. Hoddick, architect, 
New York City, has removed 
his office to 29 West 34th St. 

The Ludowici - Celadon 
Company have 
just completed a 
full-glazed green 
Spanish tile roof 
for the Carnegie 
Technical School 
at Pittsburg, Pa., 
Palmer & Horn- 
bostel, architects. 
They will also 
supply their 
Conosera tile for 
the house and 
stable of E. B. 
Corey, Esq., Far 
Rockaway; their 




French A tile for Public School No. 19 at Yonkers, C. 
C. Shipman, architect, and College Library at Huron, 
S. D., Patton & Miller, architects; their flat shingle tile 
for the new Lutheran Church at Dayton, Ohio, Peters, 
Burns & Pretzinger, architects. 

The Grueby Faience Company are supplying for the 
City College buildings, New York, George B Post & Son, 
architects, a dull finish green tile dado. There are 
eleven thousand running feet of this work, which is six 
feet high, made up of tiles 4^ inches by 9 inches, with 
base and cap. 

The new garage at Baltimore, of which Beecher, Friz 
& Gregg are architects, will be roofed with a green un- 
glazed Spanish tile furnished by Bennett's Roofing Tile 
Works, Baltimore. This building, which is unusually 
interesting, will, when completed, be published in The 
Brickbuilder. 

The South Amboy Terra Cotta Company will supply 
their terra cotta for the following buildings, St. Mary's 




BY FISHEIt & LAURIE, 
ARCHITECTS. 
s Terra Cotta Company, 
Makers. 



BLOW SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

W. B. Ittner, Architect. 

Roofed with American S Tile, made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile and Terra Cotta C... 



44 



T H E BRICKBUILDER 



School, Wilkesbarre, Pa., Owen McGlynn, architect; 

addition to Powell Building, New York City, Henri 

Fouchaux, architect; Mt. Carmel Rectory, Astoria, L. I., 

John E. Kirby, architect; thrity-two apartment houses, 

corners of Willoughby and Wychoff streets, Brooklyn, 

N. Y., Robert T. Rasmussen, architect. 

Architects 

W.T. Bray and 

Carl E. Nys- 
tr o m have 
consolidated 
their business 
interests and 
are now locat- 
ed in the offi- 
ces of the for- 
mer, 610 Pala- 
dio Building-, 
I >uluth, Minn. 
Joseph II. 
Casey-, archi- 
tect, has open- 
ed an office at 
Anderson, S.C. 
Manufactu- 
rers' catalogs 
detail by c. b. j. snyder, architect. and samples 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co , Makers Solicited. 





DETAIL EXECUTED BY NORTHWESTERN TERRA COTTA CO. 



WANTED — Four Architectural Draughtsmen of experience. 
Steady positions. State salary wanted. Rubush & Hunter, Archi- 
tects, Indianapolis, Ind. 

WANTED — Two good Draughtsmen, one for general working 
drawings, the other for preliminary work, including perspective 
rendering. R. H. Hunt, Architect, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

WANTED — Two good draughtsmen; salaries $80 to $150 per 
month to the right men. In answering give age, training and experi- 
ence. Pittsburg, care " The Brickbuilder." 

WANTED — Position with an architect. West preferred. Have 
been used to general office work ; specifications, designing, detailing' 
structural steel and superintendence. Twenty years' experience. 
Five years in government service. Address Washington, care "The 
Brickbuilder." 

WANTED — By an Architect, with a well-established practice in 
the East, an exceptionally proficient young man. a student of the 
Beaux Arts and since in practical work in an office of good repu- 
tation, to become associated and given an interest in the business. 
Address, with particulars, R. E. W., care of " The Brickbuilder." 



Competition tor Photographs and Plans of Two Small Brick Houses. 

First Prize, 5 100.00; Second Prize, $50.00; Third Prize, S25.00 ; 
Fourth Prize, 515.00; Fifth Prize, 5 10.00. 



J 



i 



— 10". 



Place Here 

Photographs of One House 

Trim to Fit Space. 



Place Here 

First and Second Floor Plans 

of House Shown Above 



Place Here 

Photographs of One House 

Trim to Fit Space 



Place Here 

First and Second Floor Plans 

of House Shown Above 



Give Here 
Location. Name ol Ai 
Cost, and Cubical Contenis. 



Give Here 
Location. Name of Architect, 
Cost, and Cubical Contents. 



Submitted by 



Competition closes June 1, 1906. 

PROGRAM. 

The object of the Competition is to obtain a collection of photo- 
graphs and plans of well designed, well planned houses which have 
been built of brick at a cost ranging from $}.ooo to $7,000 each. 

The best in design and plan for the cost, whether this be $3,000 or 
$7,000, will be given the prizes. 

The houses must be detached, and built entirely of brick, except 
the trim, such as porches and cornices, may be of other materials. 

Spei IFIC REQUIREMENTS. Onapieceof heavy cardboard measuring 
exactly 12x15 inches, inside border lines drawn 1 inch from edge of 
cardboard, shall be mounted (at the top Of card) in spaces measuring 
4 x 5 inches each, one photograph each of two houses. 

These photographs should be mounted (pasted on) with care and 
trimmed to actual size of the Spai 

Below these photographs, in spaces measuring 5 x 7 inches each, 
shall be drawn or mounted the first and second Boor plans of each 
house. 

In the panels below these spaces shall be clearly printed the loca- 
tion (city or town and state), the names of the architects, total cost of 
each house, and cubical contents. 

Below these panels should be given the nom de plum,- o\ the con- 
testant, consisting of only one word. 

The accompanying diagram indicates exactly the manner in which 
subjects should be presented. 

These sheets are to be delivered at the office of The Brickbuilder, 
85 Water Street, Bust. .11, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before June 1, 
1906. They should be carefully packaged to prevent damage in tran- 
sit. Accompanying each sheet is to be a sealed envelope with a 11 m 
deplume 00 the exterior and containing the true name and address of 
the contestant. 

The Competition will be judged by two well-known architects. 

Competition open to every one. 

The groups awarded prizes are to become the property of The 
BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or 
all of the others. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 2. PLATE 16. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 2. PLATE 17. 




FRONT ELEWkTIION. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT HOUSE, LONG ISLAND CITY, L. I., N. Y. 
Parish & Schroeoer, Architects. 



L i i 

SIDE ELEVATION. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. PLATE 18. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. PLATE 19. 




LONG ISLAND STORAGE WAREHOUSE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

HELMLE & HU8ERTY, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. 



PLATE 24. 




THE JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER SCHOOL, BOSTON. 
Parker & Thomas, Acrhitects. 




THE SARAH J. BAKER SCHOOL, BOSTON. 

J. A. SCHWEINFURTH AND JOHN J. CRAIG, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. 



PLATE 25. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 15, NO. 2. 



PLATE 26. 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 

CATHEDRAL OF ST. VIBIANA, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 2. PLATE 27 . 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 15 



MARCH 1906 



No. 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of RAYMOND F. ALMIRALL, C. H. BLACKALL, BORING & 
TILTON, COPELAND & DOLE, GREEN & WICKS, LORD & HEWLETT, 
JAMES PURDON, ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



REMAINS OF A MAUSOLEUM AT SAMARKAND, PERSIA Frontispiece 



EDITORIALS 

CATHOLIC CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. PAPER II Charles D. Maginnis 

BUILDINGS OF THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. PAPER II. Irving K. Pond 

THE VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. ARTICLE II Oscar Enden 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



45 
46 

52 
59 
61 



PROGRAMME OF COMPETITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS OF SMALL BRICK HOUSES... 61 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 15 No.3 



DEVOTED • TO THE • INTERESTS • OF| 
[ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF CLAY/ 



MARCH 1906 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office a6 Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE INSURGENTS. 

ARCHITECTURE as practised to-day in this country 
is represented by two radically different schools, 
one of which clings to classic tradition, which accepts the 
lessons of the past and strives to build up upon our inher- 
itance, which emphasizes a rational, logical solution of 
all problems, and endeavors to work in the lines which 
the great masters of the past have found worthy. The 
other school, in a perfectly sincere desire for individual- 
ity, would cut loose from traditional art, would seek its 
inspiration straight from nature, and would condemn all 
art which does not have its fountain spring in the imagi- 
nation. This latter school has evolved some beauti- 
ful creations and is a vivifying force which cannot for 
one moment be ignored or belittled in considering the 
artistic possibilities of our country. Its best exponents 
rank among the keenest, most sensitively balanced minds 
in the profession, and they have contributed enormously 
to the artistic progress which has marked the past few 
years, both directly by their own productions and in- 
directly by the influence their work has exerted upon 
even the most rigid formalist who has had occasion to 
study them and their methods. But, as with nearly all 
minority enthusiasts, they have inclined to the mistaken 



idea that the other school is necessarily antagonistic, and 
that holding views apart they are justified in ignoring the 
majority of their professional brethren. The discussions 
of the American Institute of Architects have rarely fallen 
into the hands of the idealists. This is to be regretted. 
An honest difference of opinion publicly expressed gen- 
erally means a mental exercise which is good for both 
parties. If the votaries of the newer art have a grievance 
against the Ecole des Beaux Arts, what better place is 
there to discuss it than in the ranks of the American In- 
stitute, which are certainly large enough and sufficiently 
all embracing? The distinctions are not whollv geo- 
graphical. Art ought to be the same on Lake Michigan, 
on the Hudson Riveror beside Beacon Hill; and when the 
time comes that the conventions of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects will be attended and participated in, not 
by all the architects who think just alike but by all who 
think differently on matters of art and design, on matters 
of education and precedent, and when these different 
elements will meet on the common ground of their love 
of the creative art, and will give each other points, criti- 
cise each other's methods, and where their neighbors are 
wrong tell them so and help them to get better, then will 
come a great day for the architectural future of our land. 
We are none of us wholly right, and few of us, we hope, 
are wholly wrong, while all of us have possibilities of 
growth. So that it is not a epiestion of East or West or 
North or South, but rather of honest differences being 
aired and rubbed together as the best kind of stimulant 
for national growth. And meantime neither side is doing 
well to confine its proselyting efforts, its convincing 
arguments, to its own votaries who are already fully 
converted. 



THE Managing Committee of the John Stewardson 
Memorial Scholarship in Architecture announces, 
by authority of the Trustees of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, who act as trustees of the Memorial Fund, a com- 
petition for a scholarship of the value of one thousand 
dollars, the holder of which is to spend one year in 
travel and in the study of architecture in Europe under 
the direction of the committee. 



THK Executive Committee of the T-Square Club an- 
nounces the third competition for the Walter Cope 
Memorial Prize. The prize consists of seventy-five dol 
lars' worth of architectural books. The programme calls 
for a kiosk for a subway station. 



4 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Catholic Church Architecture. 



BY CHARLES D. MAGINN1S. 



Paper II. 



T( ) what extent should we permit the architectural 
traditions of Europe to govern the development of 
church architecture in America ? Do there exist any pe- 
culiar conditions or tendencies here which make a demand 
upon the architect for a less historic expression ? Does 
the traditional organism of the church building logically 
meet all the requirements of modern congregational 
needs ? 

These are questions which frequently obtrude upon 
the mind of the architect in the absence of any au- 
thoritative definition of his problem. It is remarkable 
that the clerical contributors to this discussion offer little 
encouragement to what was assumed to be a real demand 
for a departure from the traditional plan in respect of the 
use of side aisles for seating. Yet the innovation of the 
fixed pew has undoubtedly introduced anew condition, if 
a purely utilitarian one, which has not been frankly met. 
In European churches, where the altars are so numerous 
and the pavement is left quite free, so that processions 
can cross the floor in all directions, columns and piers 
offer no impediment. But in the American church, where 
the high altar is the center of interest, — the focal point 
for an entire congregation, — the division of the floor 
space into three parts by two rows of columns, which ob- 
struct the vision of a considerable number of people, ap- 
pears arbitrary and irrational. To omit the columns 
altogether, however, is simply to rob the church of its 
traditional aspect, substituting an auditorium character 
which is very objectionable. No expedient can be enter- 
tained which does such violence to historic sentiment. A 
compromise commonly resorted to consists in reducing 
the diameter of the columns, often to a grievous attenua- 
tion, which is only begging the question. What might 
be considered a reasonable solution is illustrated in the 
plan of the new Cathedral designed for Los Angeles, 
Cal. Here the optical condition is satisfied and the 
traditional perspective at the same time preserved by 
making the nave fairly broad and the side aisles merely 
of ambulatory width. The transepts, which are ordina- 
rily more or less screened from a view of the altar by the 
big piers which normally result from the intersection of 
the nave, are here rendered entirely available by the 
splaying of the corners. As this large central space can 
find logical architectural expression only in a dome, which 
is essentially a cathedral feature, such a plan would re- 
quire modification to fit the needs of the parish church, — 
a modification of which it is quite susceptible, as shal- 
lower transepts would obviate the necessity for splaying 
the piers at the crossing. With the basilica type of plan, 
however, there is the difficulty that the ambulatories 
would not be wide enough to permit of being terminated 
by side altars. The ambulatory feature, therefore, is to 



Note. — In connection with this second and concluding paper by Mr. 
Maginnis, we have chosen to present some of the work which has been 
done by his firm for the reason that we believe it best illustrates his 
ideas concerning Catholic Church design. — Em 1 1 >RS. 



be recommended, in association with the basilica, only 
for the smaller churches where, by means of ventilated 
niches in the outer walls, it may be made to give excellent 
place to the confessionals, without the usual displace- 
ment of seats. 

There need be no outrage done to tradition, therefore, 
in satisfying an utilitarian condition which, if it be not 
arbitrary, is at least considered frequently to be of some 
importance. 

Should the new papal recommendation in respect to 
church music prove to be widely effective, it will make 
for the deepening of the chancel, which will be a great 
gain from the artistic point of view. At present the chan- 
cel has, nearly always, too little architectural dignity and 
is not seldom reduced toabig niche in the rear wall. The 
spirit of such a change as this would be singularly op- 
posed to that which is working towards the auditorium- 
izing of the church. One is toward the historic plan, 
the tendency of the other away from it. Whatever 
the issue, the deep and lofty chancel would be unques- 
tionably in the interest of good architecture. In Gothic 
designs we too rarely see the gable-ended chancel of the 
English type, which gives such fine opportunity for a 
noble mullioned window. The objection to a flood of 
light over the altar may easily be met by employing for 
the window decoration such a subject as the Crucifixion, 
which would require a low, mellow tone in the glass. 

The basement church is a source of perplexity to the 
architect, as it is often very difficult to express it exteriorly 
without prejudice to the general effect. Ideally, the base 
of any formal architectural composition ought to be as 
nearly as possible unbroken in order to convey an impres- 
sion of repose. The piercing of this base, then, by a 
series of windows large enough to carry light into a wide 
and very low apartment must serve to impart a more or 
less restless look to the superstructure. Many of our 
buildings in consequence look restless and undignified. It 
is not by any means, however, an artistically impossible 
condition of the architect's problem. Indeed, I believe 
that the basement church may be given a decidedly seri- 
ous and artistic character, being, at the same time, well 
aware that its effect is nearly always hideously ugly. 
Architects appear to have been satisfied to regard this 
untraditional feature of the church as hopelessly utilita- 
rian. The idea of this secondary church is utilitarian, 
but it is a church and ought to be treated responsibly. 
That it is susceptible of some measure of architectural 
dignity is fairly demonstrated by St. Margaret's, Brock- 
ton, Mass. Here, by a steel girder construction, the usual 
clutter of small columns has been avoided, the number 
introduced corresponding to that designed for the church 
overhead. These columns have been given a sturdy 
character with capitals of rich symbolic pattern, close- 
knit in a Byzantine manner, the capitals varying in design. 
The line of the chancel is marked by a vigorous seg- 
mental arch, and, within, distinction and importance 
have been given the altar, horizontally rather than verti- 
cally, by carrying the reredos the width of the nave. The 
altars and reredos being executed in white cement, the 
expense was much less than would have been necessary 
to purchase a small altar of marble which, in itself, 
would be inadequate to furnish the chancel. The sta- 
tions of the cross are set in the wall and surrounded, not 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



47 




4 8 



THE BRICK BU I LDER. 



— — — 




INTERIOR OF BASEMENT, CHURCH AT BROCKTON, MASS. 




MAIN ALTAR, BASEMENT, CHURCH AT BROCKTON, MASS. 




PLAN, CATHEDRAL, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 





PLEASING DECORATIVE SETTING TO AN ORDINARY 
COMMERCIAL PANEL. 



CHURCH AT CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 




CHURCH AT NORTHAMPTON, MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



49 



by ready-made frames, but by arabesque borders of spe- 
cial design. If the basement is a necessary adjunct of 
the parish church, and there are many reasons for con- 
sidering it such in populous centers, it ought to be worthy 
of serious artistic study. 

A word may well be said on the subject of the window 
lighting from the point of view of the architect. There 
is such a curiously general sentiment in favor of bright 
interiors that one feels diffident about proclaiming it as 
mistaken. Yet it is undeniable that our church interiors 
have often too lively an effect to be devotional. The light 



electric extravagances which suggest the theater rather 
than the church. He has little religious sentiment, 
indeed, over whose imagination the little ruby light of 
the chancel has not more power than a thousand Edison 
lamps. 

The relative adaptability of historic architectural 
styles to church building in America has been a matter 
of much interesting discussion. So far as it is an academ ic 
question, however, the battle of the styles need not be 
regarded under the circumstances as a very vital affair. 
That it should be necessary to canvass the merits of par- 




Example of Monumental Church Building for whose Style there was found Authority in the Immediate 
Traditions as well as in the Climate of the Locality. 



is too uniformly distributed, so that there is little or no 
shadow 'to give effect of mystery. In aggravation of 
this, the mural decoration is frequently thin and pale, so 
that the whole effect is rather bizarre than solemn. I do 
not advocate such an atmosphere as will make the read- 
ing of one's prayer-book a strain upon the eyesight, but a 
system of lighting may easily be devised which would 
greatly contribute to the emotional appeal of the archi- 
tecture. On the subject of artificial lighting, I shall 
not enter further than to express the hope' that, in the 
same interest, time may moderate the passion for those 



ticular systems of architecture at all is a curiously anoma- 
lous condition which we owe to the evolution of the camera 
and the steamboat. In other times an architectural 
system obtained for centuries, during which a particular 
civilization expressed itself, generation after generation, 
with all the spontaneity of a common speech, with all the 
unconsciousness of geographical isolation, so that its 
manners and customs and its social and political history 
are clearly recorded in its architecture. Contrast such a 
condition with our own, and is it to be wondered at if, 
with all the architectural precedents from Pericles to 



5° 



T HE HRICKBUILD E R 




APSE AND ALTAR AT RKIt.llloN, MA 




ALTAR AND EAST WINDOW 

IN CHURCH AT 

MARLBORO, MASS. 



Ul_i.> - " i 1 



TkkkH 





CHANCEL COLUMN IN BASEMENT, CHURCH, 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



INTERIOR ST. LEO S, LEOMINSTER, MASS. 
ILLUSTRATING A VITAL SYSTEM OF CONSTRUCTION. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



5 



McKinley, from classic Greece to Oklahoma, bound in 
volume at his elbow, the modern architect is embarrassed 
and self-conscious ; that, allured by the beauty with 
which other times and other manners have been expressed, 
he is apt to be persuaded into a false expression of his 
own? It is thus that our architecture to a great ex- 
tent is merely an epitome of past architectural epochs, 
an historical panorama, — even in its very confusion, 
however, full of intelligibility to the future historian of 
the time, to whom it cannot fail to be likewise occasion- 
ally diverting, as he observes the flippancy and caprice 
with which we have dealt with our artistic heritage. But 
if there has been much of playfulness in the spirit with 
which we have dealt with the materials of the past, there 
has been, too, a great deal of serious experimentation 
based upon the principle that a true architecture must be 
essentially national and racial, though it has so far devel- 
oped no thorougly vital and expressive system. That the 
history of art, long and varied as it is, should fail to fur- 
nish forth, ready-made to our hands, an architectural 
style which lends itself to the instant expression of a civ- 
ilization so intensely individual, and withal so exceed- 
ingly complex as ours, is not remarkable. Indeed, it is 
not easy to say which one of several historic styles now 
much employed offers the most promising claims for 
adaptability. The gradual assertiveness of our own pecu- 
liar needs, of our own racial genius, accompanied by a 
lessening consciousness of tradition, a more national self- 
reliance, must tend to the ultimate development of a 
native architectural system. Whether a style of archi- 
tecture, however, which is the product of the intense civic 
activities of the nation will have any pertinence to eccle- 
siastical needs is another matter. So venerable an organ- 
ization as the Catholic Church at least will, it is safe to 
say, be slow to express itself in terms unfamiliar or 
unhistoric. There is some danger, on the contrary, of 
its continuing architectural traditions which have long 
ceased to be valuable; for, in spite of its temporal uni- 
versality and its consequent indifference to the changing 
fashion of the day, the architectural history of the Cath- 
olic Church has its dead bones. As Father Heuser points 
out, much of what we admire, even in the art of the 
church, is related to antiquated social and political con- 
ditions. In estimating the probability of a development 
towards a nationally uniform ecclesiastical style, however, 
we must not lose sight of so determining a consideration 
as the diversity of climate which naturally characterizes 
so vast a territory as ours and, especially, of the great 
ethnical complexity of the Catholic body in America, a 
condition which in itself must be a powerful impediment 
for many years to come. 

Since an organic ecclesiastical style is unlikely to issue 
spontaneously from the existing conditions, it would seem 
that nothing short of an hierarchical pronouncement could 
bring order out of the present chaos, and a most worthy 
question it would be for the determination of the hier- 
archy. Short of this measure there might be developed 
an admirable, most interesting and experimentally in- 
structive condition if the architecture of a particular dio- 
cese or archdiocese were confined to one style. The act 
of choice would thus, instead of being based upon the 
caprice of the clergyman or the architect, be magnified 
into an affair of dignified deliberation. It would make 



for a coherency of architectural expression, an organic 
orderliness within the precise geographical limits of each 
ecclesiastical district, which would be edifying to a 
degree. 

To examine at any length the relative claims on our 
consideration of the various historic styles already in 
use amongst us would be impossible in such an article 
as this. Something, however, ought to be said, if 
there were room for nothing else, towards removing an 
apparently widespread disbelief in the vitality of a style 
which, on many accounts, makes the most powerful claim 
upon our sympathies of them all. I refer, of course, to 
the Gothic, which is conceded, even by those who profess 
to regard it as an obsolete system, to be the most admi- 
rable artistic tradition of the church. That the possibil- 
ities of this wonderful art have not yet been exhausted, 
that it still holds something for our life and time, is 
attested by the vigorous revival which is proceeding in 
England and in our own country, a revival which is 
earnestly stimulated by a few serious and conscientious 
architects of ability. While the Catholic body in Eng- 
land, inconsiderable as it is, has associated itself with 
this interesting movement to such purpose as was denoted 
by the high quality of its recent architecture illustrated 
in a previous paper, it is humiliating to realize that in 
this country the fruits have gone almost exclusively to 
the Episcopal Church, to which we appear to have effectu- 
ally given over the Gothic tradition. It is not to be sup- 
posed that such a statement takes no account of the 
statistical fact that we have thousands of professedly 
Gothic churches of our own; but it is undeniable that, ex- 
cepting St. Patrick's, New York, and a few parish churches 
of exceptional quality, there is no worthy Gothic architec- 
ture whatever in America to which we can lay claim. To 
say, therefore, that the Gothic style is commonplace in 
America, in any sense that would imply that we have 
much of it that is scholarly or serious or beautiful, is 
not true. When good Gothic architecture becomes hack- 
neyed in America we will have reached a rare level of 
culture indeed. 

A misapprehension exists, for which it is not easy to 
account, that the Gothic is an expensive style, but it is 
not necessarily more so than any other. It is a style of 
wonderful flexibility whose genius can adapt itself to the 
modest parish church as well as to the great cathedral. 
Amiens might be divested of its lovely intricacies and 
be ho less Gothic, so there still remained that magnificent 
sincerity of structure which must always be the first at- 
tribute of noble architecture. The most available model 
of the Gothic system for the needs of the Catholic Church 
in America and the most beautiful and stately is the 
parish type of the perpendicular Gothic of England, than 
which no better tradition could be intrusted by the church 
to the hands of the sympathetic architect. 

The early round-arched typesof Lombardy and Sicily, 
illustrated in the previous paper, developed as they have 
been from the materials of brick and terra eotta, with 
which our means require us chiefly to deal, are likewise 
so beautifully suggestive for our uses that it is wonder- 
ful why they have been so long disregarded. Many of 
these have an interesting Byzantine feeling which would 
encourage the development of that beautiful system of 
ornament which one sees so gloriously exemplified in the 



52 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



interior of v St. Mark's at Venice and in the old church of 
Ravenna and Sicily. Inexpressibly noble and beautiful 
in their mosaic orderliness of color, these interiors are 
surpassed in devotional character only by the very highest 
expression of Gothic, which has almost no color what- 
ever. In the light of this Byzantine tradition, how can 
we patiently tolerate the gaudily tinted walls and the 
parti-colored statuary which distinguish so many of our 
American churches ? 

Surely the time has finally arrived when the Catholic 
Church in this country should seek some level of artis- 
tic expression which will do less injustice to her religious 
culture. To longer endure the trilling of ignorant hands 
with the shaping of her material temple is to fatuously 
conceal the divinity of her message. Naught but an ac- 
tive sense of the dignity of her own inspiration is now 



wanting to the development of an artistic symbolism 
which shall manifest that inner beauty which, at present, 
is so persistently falsified in architectural ugliness and 
insincerity. The native art is intelligent and vital. In 
the buoyant grace and beauty of its secular activities we 
can see the promise which it holds for lofty accomplish- 
ment and its adequacy even to that supreme challenge 
which the Catholic Church alone can give it. This may 
be given or it may be withheld, for the church need feel 
no sense of obligation to contemporary art. But the 
obligation to itself is one which can no longer be ignored 
without serious loss of prestige and consequent injury to 
the effectiveness of its mission, namely, the obligation to 
express itself in such intelligible and coherent and there- 
fore beautiful and scholarly terms of art as shall give a 
more convincing testimony of its divine constitution 



Buildings of the Young Men's Christian Association. 11, 



BY IRVING K. POND, C. E., AKCHITFXT. 



IN speaking more particularly and in detail of the 
features of the ideal buildings for each of the classes 
noted, the General, the Railroad, the Student, it is well 
to note first those rooms and requirements which are 
common and essential to all, such as the office, the 
reception room, the parlors, the game rooms, the read- 
ing rooms, the assembly room, the cloak and general 
toilet rooms, etc., etc. In general, the extent and char- 
acter of the membership and the special character of the 
work will dictate the size, number and detailed arrange- 
ment of these rooms; but certain rules maybe laid down 
and certain suggestions made. The office must be so 
placed that it shall command, in so far as possible, the 
entire situation. It shall be directly accessible from the 
entrance, shall command a view of the general rooms, 
and command the approach to all main corridors and stair- 
ways. It should not give to the reception hall the char- 
acter of the hotel lobby, but should be more in the nature 
of the office of the refined social clubs, and the atmosphere 
of the entire social portion of the building should be that 
which surrounds the home just as far as it is possible to 
produce that atmosphere by arrangements, proportions 
and furnishings. The ideal of the Association is not to 
rob the young man of a home, but to furnish him with 
one and to make him capable of appreciating and deserv- 
ing it. So the open and unfurnishable rotunda is to be 
avoided and the parlors and game rooms are quietly and 
unostentatiously to proclaim their several uses. 

In smaller buildings, that economy and efficiency of 
service may be highest, the office, the secretary's room, 
— which frequently are one and the same, — the board 
room, the physical director's room and the physical exam- 
ination room should be in conjunction; of course the last 
two rooms must be directly connected with the gymna- 
sium. An ample check roon, as nearly as possible under 
the direct supervision of the office, should be provided 
for the storage of hats, overshoes, overcoats and wraps 
which cannot conveniently be placed in the private lock- 



ers. Convenient to the check room should be the general 
toilet room, with its full equipment of lavatories, urinals 
and water-closets. This room is absolutely distinct from 
that in connection with the gymnasium bath and locker 
rooms. If an assembly room to which women are admitted 
upon occasion is a feature of the building, a separate and 
distinct toilet room should be provided for the use of 
these women. In the reception room or in an alcove 
opening upon it members may converse with visiting 
friends, who generally are not allowed the freedom of 
the building without a pass from the secretary. The 
visitors' gallery of the gymnasium is generally made 
readily accessihle to the public, who, however, in entering 
and leaving the gallery should pass under the regard of 
the secretary or of the physical director. 

The parlors are furnished for general conversation and 
social uses. Easy chairs, tables for book sand papers, lounges 
or settles and a generous fireplace are considered as desir- 
able furnishings. The ample fireplace is almost a neces- 
sary feature in social rooms. More remote than the parlors 
should be the game rooms in which there often is the 
louder noise of laughter and less of self-contained enjoy- 
ment. The character of the membership (and the regu- 
lations of the board) will dictate the equipment for the 
"games," which range from billiard and pool through 
ping-pong, shu file-board and tiddle-de-winks to "authors" 
and the newest puzzles. More remote still from the 
direct surveillance of the office are the cluhrooms and the 
classrooms for spiritual instruction The furnishing of 
these rooms should meet the requirements of good taste 
and their special uses. Appropriate pictures may adorn 
the walls. 

These rooms above enumerated, together with the 
assembly room, constitute those which are common to 
all Association buildings. The assembly room is an im- 
portant factor and takes on many forms according to the 
location and the nature of the work of the Association 
using it. An assembly room of some sort is necessary to 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



56 





06 -_> 

3 s 




54 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



55 



every Association building, but it is not always necessary 
or desirable that every Association building shall contain 
a large auditorium. When there is conveniently at hand 
a suitable public hall in which larger gatherings may be 
held and in which larger entertainments may be given, it 
may be unwise to cumber the Association property with 
a large hall. A hall which can be let for outside uses, 
and thus furnish a revenue, may be a desirable feature, 
though it be not in constant use by the Association. Not 
infrequently the Association auditorium is furnished with 
a curtained stage on which scenery may be set. More 
freqiiently, however, the hall is equipped with a recessed 
platform flanked on either side by dressing rooms or 
retiring rooms with toilet equipment. The smaller 
assembly halls are furnished with but a rostrum from 
which the lectures and music are heard. To enhance the 
size of the assembly room, two or more lecture rooms 
may be made to open into it with wide doors. Some- 




Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Boring & Tilton, Architects. 

times in the assembly halls, in order to accom- 
modate a large number on small ground area, a 
gallery or galleries are introduced in amphi- 
theatrical form. This form in no way ministers 
to the devotional mood, and Associations which 
have halls of no other form may well hold their 
larger and more important religious services in 
some chapel which has been designed to minister 
to the feelings of love and reverence and de- 
votion. 

The swimming pool and bathrooms equipped 
with tubs and showers are rarely to be found 
in general department buildings which contain no gym- 
nasium. They are fairly common in some form or other 
in student department buildings and indispensable to the 
work of the railroad departments. The baths are so 
closely concerned with the gymnasium that they will 
be discussed in connection with that feature. 



The general department makes a special feature of 
the work of education, through the medium of the vari- 
ous clubs, of duly organized day and evening classes, of 
quiet intercourse with learned men when the student 
member drinks at the fountain of knowledge in a manner 
most enticing. Unless the department carries on the edu- 
cational work upon a large scale the various classes meet 
in the clubrooms, which may easily be transformed into 
rooms suitable for class work. Not infrequently, though, 
in the larger Association building special rooms are fitted 
up for special uses and devoted to them. It is not un- 
common to find rooms equipped for manual training, 
with wood and sometimes metal working machinery and 
tools. Laboratories in which electrical problems may be 
studied and demonstrated and darkrooms for photo- 
graphic work are not rare in Association buildings. The 
classroom is generally less formally furnished than the 
typical schoolroom, a room which really has no place in 
the Association building. 

The portions of the building which are to be regarded 
more especially as income producing are now to be con- 
sidered. It would be pleasant all around, for the archi- 
tect as well as for the Association boards, if space for rental 
were not a requisite, as it is in a great majority of 
instances. Membership dues, fees for classes and clubs, 
locker rentals, etc., do not bring in sufficient with which to 
carry on the work; and so, as a Young Men's Christian 
Association department is rarely endowed, it is found to 
be a matter of constant necessity to solicit funds from 
members and outsiders that the work of the department 
shall not fail. To make the burden of this continued so- 
liciting as light as possible and to secure a certain definite 
and regular income, it has been found practicable to pro- 




J'AM- Ml-.NT PI. A.I 



vide for rent certain space in the buildings of the Asso- 
ciation. How this space is to be employed is for the 
Association providing it to decide. If the building is in a 
congested business district, shops or offices will naturally 
be considered. As these will rob the building of its dis- 
tinctive character — if not of distinction and character — 
their introduction is to be deplored. The importance 



56 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



which of necessity must be given to shops and offices 
will make the Association appear like the tail end of a 
commercial proposition. But the presence of shops and 
offices is better than that the work should languish or 
cease. 

The barber shop and the restaurant will find appro- 
priate lodgment in the Association building. Whether 
these shall be for the public as well or for the sole use 
of Association members will depend upon conditions. 
The subdivision of the rentable space into domitories 
and rooms and suites for young men is now recognized 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN 

(SLEEPING ROOMS OH FOURTI OR.) 

V. M. C. A. BUILDING, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Poring & Tilton, Architects, 

as a practicable and desirable method of producing 
income and at the same time of helping the young men. 
This arrangement aids the architect, too, for space so 
devoted is most easily and effectively subordinated to 
the greater masses. These apartments are very desirable 
in buildings situated in residence and hotel districts. 
The portion of the building devoted to residential quar- 
ters should be reached through its own special street door, 
to which each resident should possess a key, that his 
movements may be as free as if he were in a private home. 
The plan, however, should afford the secretary conven- 
ience of access to and direct supervision of these quarters. 
Only in special cases are domitories to be provided. 
In general single rooms or suites, consisting of a 
study and one or two bedrooms connecting, each with 
sufficient closet space, is the arrangement to be desired. 
Storage room, linen room, bath and toilet rooms, ample 
in size and in the number of fixtures provided, janitor's 
closet, are all necessary features of the residential por- 
tion. The rooms should be planned and arranged for 
convenience as well as with an eye to taste ; with space 
for bed, study table, chiffonier and two or three chairs, 
one at least of which shall be an easy chair. That these 
chambers for young men should be located in the upper 
stories, especially in buildings of medium size, would 
seem to be a foregone conclusion. 



The question will frequently arise as to the compara- 
tive desirability of extending the residence space over 
the gymnasium ceiling, when by so doing the requisite 
number of rooms can be obtained in one story; or of 
providing two stories of smaller floor area. The ques- 
tion in the latter case simply concerns the possibility of 
unity in external appearance when the building is to be 
designed with a, say, four-story portion backed up by a 
two-story portion. Where the street facade only is seen 
this inequality in heights does not so much matter, but 
where the building is to be seen from three or four sides 
it may cause concern. The matter of having to mount 
the extra flight of stairs to the rooms in a fourth story 
does not need grave consideration in a building to be 
occupied by young men given to athletics. When four 
stories in height is exceeded the elevator is a necessity. 
The real drawback in the case of extending the resi- 
dence floor over the gymnasium lies in the difficulty of 
keeping the jar and the noise from the superimposed 
rooms. It is possible, and especially so in fireproof 
structures, to insulate the upper story, but in any case 
the matters of floor deadening and the running of heat- 




SKCOND FLOOR PLAN 

ing and plumbing pipes, which are great conductors of 
sound, must receive the most careful attention. 

In railroad departments the bedrooms may be small, 
just large enough, in fact, to contain comfortably a man, 
a bed and a chair, as all functions of the toilet are per- 
formed in the general toilet and bath rooms, which must 
be planned and located with this in mind. The partitions 
separating these small sleeping compartments, as they 
really are, should be vermin-proof and are best con- 
structed of solid plaster to the height of about seven feet. 
Above that height, and up to the ceiling of the large room 
which contains these lesser chambers, the partition is 
carried in the form of a heavy wire screen of about an 
inch and a half mesh. This netting will prevent en- 
croachment or intrusion and at the same time will allow 
ventilation. Each of the smaller chambers should have 
a window to the outer air. The reason for this arrange- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



57 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST KLOOR PLAN. 



NAVAL BRANCH Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, BROOKLYN N. Y. 
Parish & Schroeder, Architects. 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ment is to furnish the greatest number of individual and 
detached bedrooms in a given space, and, too, to subserve 
the interests of economy in construction and operation. 
The restaurant of the railroad department should contain 
a quick service lunch counter which shall continue in 
operation the whole night. 

Dormitories, small chambers and general and private 
study rooms, together with the quick service restaurant, 
are features of the student departments which are located 
in the proximity of the large professional schools of a 



devoted exclusively to boys' clubs and work among the 
boys. These embryonic members are allowed the use of 
the gymnasium at stated hours, and special locker facili- 
ties are provided for them. Whenever possible their 
domain is best located in the basement or lower stories, 
with a separate and direct entrance from without, so 
that the boys need not invade the portions of the build- 
ing which are devoted to the regular membership. 
Special effort should be made to keep the noise, which 
is sure to emanate from the boys' domain, from penetrat- 




KOURTH, Flllll AND SIXTH FLOOR PLANS. SEVENTH FLOOR PLAN. 

NAVAL BRANCH V. M. C. A. BUILDING, BROOKLYN, N. V. 



great city. The Young Men's Christian Association 
carries its work into army posts and to the naval bases, 
but an understanding of what is needed in these special 
cases must come from study of local conditions aided by 
a knowledge of how other conditions have been met. 

In the general departments congnizance is taken of 
the desirability to develop a constituency and, while 
insuring a fuller membership, make easier the training 
of the young man by beginning with the boy. And so in 
nearly every general department building some space is 

( To In 



ing elsewhere the building and disturbing those engaged 
in social and educational labors. Really the boys should 
not be in the building during the hours of its occu- 
pancy by the regular members, but this is a detail of 
management and not of planning. The need of extreme 
care in planning and construction, that noise shall not 
reach and disturb those engaged in social and intellectual 
activities, must be emphasized now that the gymnasium, 
bowling alley, swimming pool and such noisy portions of 
the building are to be discussed. 
continued, l 




FARM BUILDINGS AT PRINCETON, N. J. R. C. GtldersHeve. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



59 



The Village Courthouse. 
Article II. 

KY OSCAU ENDEKS. 

THE rapid development of our country, the progress 
of civic culture and law-abiding tendencies, and the 
requirements of communities for the maintenance of law 
and order, have made the county courthouse an essen- 
tial requisite of modern living. 

The rude enclosures of one hundred years ago, which 
met the demands of those early times, must necessarily 
give way to more modern structures because of this 
development. Modern requirements are in a constant 
state of evolution, new departments are being continually 
created in response to the demands of civilization; thus 
older buildings naturally fail to meet these new require- 
ments. 

A village courthouse may be described as an en- 
larged justice room ; it must serve in a complete man- 
ner the purposes for which it was designed, it must 
conform to certain requisites. 

First. It should contain suitable rooms for every 
department, properly located. 

Second. It should be simply planned, and compre- 
hensive to all who may have business there. 

Third. Its exterior design should be expressive of 
its purpose, and at the same time so dignified as to im- 
part to all the fact that obedience to the law is conducive 
to liberty. 

Such is the ideal of a county courthouse. It is one 
that has been seldom thought of and more rarely at- 
tained. Until recently architects have been content to 
copy from their predecessors, adding some features 
which never told the story correctly. In borrowing 
their designs they should have given back again a build- 
ing invested with so much added beauty that it would 
have made the repayment of the loan a gift. Court- 
house aberrations have thus been multiplied, and, in 
some cases, mass and detail have been given which had 
no appropriatness to the purpose of the building. 

Fortunately, in recent years, architects have become 
far more careful and exacting, and the courthouses now 
being built in some of our western towns are becoming, 
in a truer sense than ever before, faithful and conscien- 
tious productions. 

The author of the accompanying sketches has en- 
deavored to fulfill the foregoing requisites, as well as to 
conform to the requirements set forth in the programme. 

The design submitted is not the traditional "dome 
capped and porticoed " courthouse, and has not been 
confined to a mere archaeological exhibition of conven- 
tional motives. 

By going briefly over the sketches it will become 
apparent that the best method of dealing with the site 
is to plan a building to follow the contour of the land, 
and so, by convenient locations for the different floor 
levels, secure means of easy access to the various depart- 
ments. The point where the plan should not fail is in 
the concentration of departments and good intercom- 
munication. 

On entering the building we ascend by means of 
adjacent staircases to the main floor, then upward to the 



second floor, terminating in one broad flight. A single 
stairway, thoughtfully designed, with something distinc- 
tive about it, if attainable without sacrifice of convenience 
in any way, is preferable to commonplace steep and 
cramped ascents. The staircase would be of stone, with 
balustrades of white marble. 

The central lobby measures thirty-six feet by forty- 
five feet, and is abundantly lighted through the open 
well above by means of a skylight, which is screened by 
a ceiling light, paneled and filled with ornamental glass; 
additional light is introduced through the three large 
windows on the grand staircase. 

A colonnade of white marble columns supports the 
gallery formed by the open well, the walls in rear of 
which it is proposed to decorate with frescoes represent- 
ing scenes in the history of the county. The floor would 
be paved with burnt clay mosaic. 

The various rooms of the respective departments are 
placed upon the floors assigned to them in the programme. 
The grand jury room, being approached directly from the 
stair landing, occupies the right center and measures 
25 feet by 25 feet, by 12 feet 6 inches in height. It is 
lighted by three large mullioned windows. The ceiling 
is flat, with molded and enriched panels. A room for 
witnesses, a vault for documents, a toilet room and ante- 
room are immediately adjacent to this first group. 

Similar in lay-out is the group opposite, occupying the 
left center, and contains rooms for the district attorney, 
his clerks, an anteroom, toilet and vault. Connected 
with the district attorney's rooms is the sheriff's room, 
which it was thought proper to locate in close proximity 
to the court room. 

The third group, containing the large court room, 
judge, counsel and jury rooms, occupies the central rear, 
and may be closed off and used independently of the 
remainder of the building without in the least degree in- 
terfering with the workings of the departments. It is 36 
feet by 45 feet, by 27 feet in height, with coved and en- 
riched ceiling, supported on pilasters. An open balcony, 
entered from the second floor level, is provided over the 
principal entrance to this court room. It will be noted 
that this group of rooms is raised above the main floor 
sufficiently to bring it level with the street at rear of lot. 

The department of registrar, his clerks and waiting 
room, as also the probate court room, with rooms for 
judge, jury and witnesses, are placed upon the second 
floor. There are also on this floor public toilets for men 
and women, and a retiring room for the latter. 

The basement, of which no plan is given, contains 
storerooms for records, janitor's quarters and rooms for 
the heating and ventilating apparatus. 

While it is true that the exterior should, in a measure, 
be an archetype of the structures in this section of our 
country, which, by some, maybe looked upon as express- 
ive of the artistic wealth of former times, and granting 
that we cannot afford to discard the lessons of the past, 
there is no reason why we should make ourselves the 
slaves of the past, or imitate what is no longer appro- 
priate. 

So let the exterior design speak for itself. During the 
delightful task of evolving it, the first consideration has 
been the convenience of plan, and in no case has this 
been sacrificed in order to improve the exterior, which I 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 






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UmluuL I I =F 



A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. Oscar Enders, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



believe has lost nothing by this course of procedure ; de- 
veloping naturally from the plan, it expresses externally 
the internal arrangement, and thus gains immeasurably 
in interest and variety. 

Elaborate ornamentation has been avoided, and what 
little there is shall be in low relief, concentrated in 
masses and contrasted with broad effects of plain wall 
surface. 

The fitness of the ornament has been carefully con- 
sidered, and while its flatness may be thought unfit by 
some, the effect that results from contrasting it with plain 
surfaces justifies, I think, its use. The seated eagles on 
four corners add a note of interest to the building. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. 

The tower is centrally locaced. It is twelve feet square 
externally at the base, and designed in three stages, 
reaching a height of one hundred feet above the pavement. 

The materials for the outer walls shall be Missouri 
red granite for the base and steps, granite also for the 
columns forming the main entrance ; these to be mono- 
liths and polished ; the remaining portions of all elevations 
to be of brick and terra cotta. The brick to be shrimp 
red in color, laid up in white mortar, with horizontal 
joints one-half inch thick and vertical joints struck flush. 
The dressings to be of pink terra cotta, except the vermic- 
ulated panels, which are to be of white glazed terra cotta. 

Calculating the cubical contents of the building at 
thirty cents per cubic foot, it would cost $115,000. This 
includes the electric wiring, heating and ventilation, but 
no mural decorations. It is within the power of architects 
to advise or influence public bodies, and to so direct 
public taste that enactments may be passed providing for 
the development of our towns in accordance with a well- 
ordered scheme; in this scheme should be embodied and 
centrally located the village square, upon which nothing 
could be more fittingly placed than a. simple, dignified and 
well-designed courthouse. 



A CONTRACTOR'S RESPONSIBILITY. 

IT is not uncommon to find in an architect's specification 
a clause which instructs a builder to determine all 
grades and building lines, to conform to all building 
regulations, and even in some cases to assume all re- 
sponsibility for strength of construction. The question 
whether or not an architect is justified in so transferring 




ENTRANCE, ST. MICHAEL S CHURCH, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Raymond F. Almirall, Architect. 

the responsibility to some one else's shoulders is an open 
one. H. H. Richardson use to say that no architect need 
ever bother himself about constructive details ; that that 
was properly the province of the builder, and it was the 
architect's' function solely to treat architecture as a fine 
art. Unfortunately, however much the architect may 
wish to classify himself above mere sordid detail, his 
clients are very apt to consider him as the final arbiter 
on all matters both structural and artistic ; and however 
strongly a specification may be drawn to transfer the re- 
sponsibility to some one else's shoulders, clients have a 
very provoking habit of refusing sometimes to accept such 
transfer and holding the architect pretty rigidly to the 
result, either structural or otherwise. The art of archi- 
tecture is, after all, what makes it worthwhile, but in out- 
opinion the architect neglects not only his clients but his 
own opportunities when he declines to accept full respon- 
sibility for everything having to do with the profession. 
The architect surely is not a master builder, and is quite 
right in declining to even consider matters which pertain 
purely to the functions of a foreman or master mechanic; 
but it is mere sophistry and a confession of weakness to 



62 



THE BRICKBUILUER 




ORCHESTRA HAH, CHICAGO. 
D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

Fireproofed by the National Fireproofing Co. 

ignore the necessary business and practical details in 
volved in the laying out and construction of a large 
building. Architecture loses as it becomes nothing but 
ornament and decoration. It is at its best when it is 
thoroughly and rationally structural; and aside from any 
question of whether or not it is quite fair to ask a builder 
to do the architect's work, the architect, for his own sake, 
for the sake of the best phases of his own art, should 
retain an immediate and personal hold upon even the 
humblest structural details. 



GUARANTEED ARCHITECTURE. 

IN one of the semi-architectural periodicals there ap- 
peared recently the advertisement of an enterprising 
New York concern which announced its readiness to 
assume the entire charge of constructing any sort of a 
building, taking all burdens of every sort off of the 
owner's shoulders, employing the contractors, hiring an 
architect, selecting the furniture, and in fact asking the 
owner only that he shall obligingly keep out of the way 
until his house or building is entirely completed ready for 
use, and even guaranteeing that the cost shall keep within 
a stated sum. The awful example of the architect who 
so frequently is unable to build a house for what the 
owner is willing to pay was cited as one argument in favor 
of employing such an agency. An advertisement of this 
sort might appeal to some unfortunate individuals in this 
world who are under the necessity of building themselves 
a house, but we can hardly imagine that any such concern 
as was represented by this advertisement would even in 
the slightest degree interfere with the practice of the 
self-respecting architect who loves his profession ; for the 
owner who would be willing to so give up everything to 



anyone, architect or any other; who cared so little to see 
the house grow, to see the ideas take shape, that he was 
willing to abandon all control of its development for the 
mere sake of a doubtful guarantee, would not be the kind 
of client that would be worth anything to an architect 
with ideals. There is no occupation which can be more 
enjoyable, can be more full of pleasant associations and 
can leave a larger number of delightful memories than 
building one's own house. Only as the owner's individ- 
uality is cleverly combined by the architect into the prac- 
tical working out of the design can any dwelling be 
considered an artistic success, so that the true architect 
who loves his work would regret most of all to see his 
client sail away to Europe and leave him with carte 
blanche. The value of services such as were heralded by 
the advertisement is beneath consideration. Any one 
can guarantee to keep within a certain sum of money in 
the building of a house if he cares nothing for details and 
has the whole control of those details in his hands. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Building Construction and Superintendence. By F. 
E. Kidder, C. E., Ph. D., Architect. Part III: Trussed 
Roofs and Roof Trusses. 306 Illustrations. Section 
I. New York : William T. Comstock. One large Svo 
vol., pp. 298. Price, $3.00. 

This work is the last of the series of " Building Con- 
struction and Superintendence " from the hand of Mr. 




A FACTORY WITH DETAIL OK ENTRANCE, LA SALLE, ILL. 
Pond & Pond, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



63 




arches, circle on circle work, niches, 
Classic and Gothic stonework, piers 
and other stonework, plain and orna- 
mental. 

The seventh edition of the Archi- 
tects' Directory, containing the names 
and addresses of all the architects of 
this country and Canada, has just been 
issued by William T. Comstock, 23 
Warren Street, New York. Price, 
I2.00. 




CAPITAL DESIGNED BY J. S. CAMPBELL 
Standard Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



DETAIL BY H. B. MULL1KEN. 
Made by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. 



It is a work 



Kidder and the closing work of his life, 
that he had been engaged on for years. 

The following subjects are treated : ' ' Types of Wooden 
Trusses and the Mechanical Principles Involved " ; 
" Types of Steel Trusses "; " Layout of Trussed Roofs 
— Bracing of the Roof and Trusses"; "Open Timber 
Roof^s and Church Roofs " ; ' 'Vaulted and Domed Ceilings, 
Octagonal and Domed Roofs"; "Coliseums, Armories, 
Train Sheds, Exposition Buildings, etc."; "Computing 
the Purlin and Truss Loads and Supporting Forces"; 
" Stress Diagrams and Vertical Loads for Trusses Sym- 
metrically and Unsymmetrically Loaded." 

The Twentieth Century Bricklayer's and Mason's 
Assistant. Two Parts. By Fred T. Hodgson. Chicago: 
Frederick J. Drake & Co. 

Comprising a series of exhaustive instructions in all 
kinds of bricklayer's work, including laying foundations, 
bonding, arching, gauged work, construction of damp 
courses, coping, building bridges, piers, chimneys, flues, 
fireplaces, corbeling, plain and fancy cornices, brick panel- 
ing, pilasters, plinths and other brickwork, plain and 
ornamental. 

Practical instructions for the use of stone masons, 
stone cutters, marble workers and stone contractors, 
showing how to layout and work all kinds of arches; 
stone steps, stairs and hand-rails, skew bridges and 



IN GENERAL. 

The Brooklyn Chapter of the American Institute of Architects will 
hold its sixth annual exhibition at the Pouch Gallery, Clinton Avenue, 
Brooklyn, from the 7th to the 19th of May inclusive. 

Exhibits of drawings, photographs, sculpture and objects of indus- 
trial art are desired from all interested. 

In order to stimulate the artistic development of the pupils in the art 
schools of Brooklyn, the Chapter has instituted a competi- 
tion for a cover design for the Catalogue of the 1906 exhi- 






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PAVEMENT TILES MADE BY GRUEBY FAIENCE CO. 



MANTEL FOR RECEPTION ROOM. 
Executed in Colored Mat Glaze Faience by Rookwood Pottery Co. 

bition, to be limited to the pupils of these schools only. 
A prize of $25 for the first and $15 for the second best 
designs will be awarded to the sticcessful competitors. 

In order to increase public interest in the subject of 
good architecture the Chapter has instituted a competi- 
tion in connection with its annual exhibition and will 
award a bronze medal for the photograph of the most 
architectural detached house located in the Borough of 
Brooklyn. There will also be a first and second men- 
tion for those next in merit. 

Butler, Rodman & Oliver, architects, announce the 
dissolution of their partnership by mutual agreement. 
Messrs. Butler and Rodman, under the firm name of 
Butler & Rodman, will retain the present office at No. 
16 East Twenty-third Street. Mr. Marshal Francis Oliver 
has removed his office to Nos. 35-37 West Thirty-first 
Street. 

The various officers and chairmen of committees 
of the Architectural League of America for the year 
1906-1907 are as follows : 



64 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





HOL'SE AT CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Built of Brick made by Ohio Mining & Manufacturing Co. 






Executive Hoard. Presi- 
dent, Ernest J. Russell; vice- 
president, Frederick M 
Mann; corresponding secre- 
tary, William B. Ittner; re- 
cording secretary. Krnest 
llelfensteller, Jr.; treasurer, 
John C. Stephens; Samuel L. 
Shererand Jesse X. Watson. 
all of St. Louis. 

Chairmkn of Committees. 
Publicity and Promotion, 
John Molitor, Philadelphia; 
Current Club Work, J. P. 
I lynes, Toronto; Education, 
Newton A. Wells, Crbana, 
111. ; Co-operation with the 
Institute, William B. Ittner, 
vSt. Louis; Civic Improve- 
ment, Frederick S. Lamb, New York; Foreign Scholar- 
ship, N. Max Dunning, Chicago. 

The Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company of New 
York are making extensive 
additions to their plant to 
accommodate the increas- 
ing demand for their dull 
enamel white marble finish 
terra cotta. There is a 
marked tendency, in the 
East especially, to employ 
glazed and colored terra 
cotta in buildings of 
nearly all types. 

The Ohio Mining and 
Manufacturing Company 
have installed at their 
Shawnee, Ohio, brick plant 
a complete electrical equip- 
ment besides new brick 
presses. This improve- 
ment is made necessary by 
their increased business. 

detail by price* mac lanahan. The Tiffany Enameled 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co. Brick Company, Momence, 



DETAIL BV RICHARD E. SCHMIDT. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co.. Makers. 

111., have opened general offices in the Chamber of Com- 
merce Building, Chicago. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company has recently 
closed a contract with the Fuller Construction Company 
for the architectural terra cotta for the entire three 

fronts, from second story up, 



'A 




DETAIL BY YORK A SAWVER. 
Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 



i2 w_ *wl 

w 



of the Plaza Hotel, New 
York City, H. J. Harden- 
bergh, architect. The ma- 
terial to be used is their dull 
enamel white marble finish 
terra cotta. They will also 
furnish about half a million 
enameled brick of the same 
material to be used in this 
building. The company has 
recently completed two large 
buildings with this material: 
the Buckingham Building, 
Waterbury, Conn., Me Kim, 
Mead & White, architects; 
and the Berkeley Galleries, 
Boston, Mass., Codman & 
Despradelle, architects. This 

material has all the advantages of the sand-blasted glaze, 

without the many disadvantages. 

NEW AND OLD 
'HE Boston Custom House is a solid, substantial 
looking edifice of Ouincy granite which in its day 
was con- 
sidered a 
marvel of 
architecture, 
and stories 
are still told 
about the dif- 
ficulties en- 
countered in 
getting out 
the granite 
coin m n s 
w h i c h sup- 
port the pedi- 
ment of the 
front and 
which were 
hauled by 
oxen from 

(Juincy to WIDMANN> WALSH * boisselier, architects. 
Boston after Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



T 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



65 




FIRST METHODIST 



Roofs 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND WOMAN S COLLEGE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 
t>f all the buildings covered with Bennett's roofing tiles. 



being stalled on the way for sev- 
eral months. It is a structure 
of very simple design, and is 
one of the city's treasured 
monuments, even though the 
requirements of the Custom 
House Department have long 
since outgrown the narrow 
quarters which this building 
affords. 

There is now b e i n • ■ 





DETAIL BY HELME, HUBERTY & HUDSON 
Perth Amboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

Of 



FIGURE DESIGNED BY JOHN E. 
KIRBY. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Co., 

Makers. 



completed on Tremont 
Street, at Scollay Square, 
a building to be occupied 
by the Suffolk Savings 
Bank. It has been de- 
signed by Mr. Cass Gil- 
bert, and, allowing for 
the difference in site and 
grades, it follows very 
closely the general lines 
of design which were 
worked out in the old 
Custom House. It is in- 
teresting to compare these 
two structures, both of 
them monumental in char- 
acter, both of them thor- 
oughly and well designed 
in every detail, and to 
consider how admirably 
adapted the style must be 
for the purpose that it can 
serve so fitly for two build- 
ings so far apart in date as 
these structures are ; for 



DETAIL BY MC KIM, 

MEAD & WHITE. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta 

Co., Makers. 



while the actual time which 
has elapsed in years since the 
Custom House was designed 
is not a great deal, measured 
by the development of the 
country it is a very long 
period. The bank is in no 
sense a copy ot the older structure. The scale is 
different, the plan is totally unlike, but the same spirit 
of refined, studied classicism has given both buildings a 
similar stamp. 




ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH, MEMPHIS, TK.NN. 

Chighizola, Hanker & Cairns, Architects. 

Brick made by Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. 



66 




E BRICKBUILDER. 

Draughtsmen Wanted 



YORKVILLE BANK, NEW YORK CITY. 

Mynicke & Franke, Architects. 

Entire trim of terra cotta, made bv Excelsior Terra Cotta C( 



WANTED -Architectural Draughtsman by Toronto firm ; must 
be able man. State experience fully and salary expected. Address, 
Toronto, care " The Brickbuilder." 



WANTED By a New York City Architect, a Draughtsman 
to do tracing ; clean and accurate work and a good general 
draughtsman. Write, stating experience, references and salary. 
New York, care " The Brickbuilder." 



MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION. 
No. 61 Elm Street, New York. 

PUBLIC NOTICE is hereby given that an open competitive examination 
will be held for the position of 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAUGHTSMAN. 

Wednesday and Thursday. April 18 and 19, at 10 a. m. 

The receipt of applications will close on Wednesday, April n, at 4 p. m. 
For scope of examination and further information apply to the Secretary of 
the Commission. 

WILLIAM F. BAKER. President, 
R. ROSS APPLETON, 
ALFRED J. TALLEY. 
FRANK A. SPENCER. Secretary. Civil Service Commissioners. 

MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION. 
No. 61 Elm Street, New York. 

PUBLIC NOTICE is hereby given that an open competitive examination 
will be held for the position of 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAUGHTSMAN DESIGNER, 

Wednesday and Thursday. April 25 and 26. at 10 a. m. 

The receipt of applications will close on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. at 4 p. m. 
For scope of examination and further information apply to the Secretary of 
the Commission. 

WILLIAM F. BAKER, President. 
R ROSS APPLETON, 
ALFRED J TALLEY, 
FRANK A. SPENCER. Secretary. Civil Service Commissioners 



Competition tor Photographs and Plans ot Two Small Brick Houses. 

First Prize, 5ioo.oo; Second Prize, J50.00; Third Pzize, 525.00; 
Fourth Prize, 515.00; Fifth Prize, 5 10.00 

1 u - -^» Competition closes June I, 1906. 



J 



i 



Place Here 

Photographs of One House 

Trim to Fit Space. 



Place Here 

First and Second Floor Plans 

of House Shown Above 



Give Here 
Location, Name ol Architect. 
Cost, and Cubical Contents. 



Place Here 

Photographs of One House 

Trim to Fit Space 



Place Here 

First and Second Floor Plans 

ol House Shown Above 



Give Here 
Location, Name of Architect, 
Cost, and Cubical Contents. 



Submitted by 



PROGRAM. 

The object of the Competition is to obtain a collection of photo- 
graphs and plans of well designed, well planned houses which have 
been built of brick at a cost ranging from $?.ooo to $7,000 each. 

The best in design and plan for the cost, whether this be $3,000 or 
$7,000, will be given the prizes. 

The houses must be detached, and built entirely of brick, except 
the trim, such as porches and cornices, may be of other materials. 

11 ic REQUIREMENTS. Onapieceof heavy cardboard measuring 
exactly 12x15 inches, inside border lines drawn 1 inch from edge of 
cardboard, shall be mounted (at the top of card) in spaces measuring 
1 \ 5 inches each, one photograph each of two houses. 

These photographs should be mounted (pasted on) with care and 
trimmed to actual size of the spaces. 

Below these photographs, in spaces measuring 5 x 7 inches each, 
shall be drawn or mounted the first and second floor plans of each 
house. 

In the panels below these spaces shall be clearly printed the loca- 
tion (city or town and state), the names of the architects, total cost of 
( ach house, and cubical contents. 

Below these panels should be given the nom de p/iim,- of the con- 
testant, consisting of only one word. 

The accompanying diagram indicates exactly the manner in which 
subjects should be presented. 

These sheets are to be delivered at the office of Thk Brickbu 11. per, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before June 1, 
1906. They should be carefully packaged to prevent damage in tran- 
sit. Accompanying each sheet is to be a sealed envelope with a nom 
de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address .if 
the contestant. 

The Competition will be judged by two well-known architects. 
Competition open to every one. 

The groups awarded prizes are to become the property of The 
BRir-KBi'ii.nKR. and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or 
all of the others. 



TH E 1 

VOL. 12. NO. 11. 



TOJ* »*• .MAAfl ^ 






"'JEKEBT. 




JAMES E, YEATMAN SCKM 



Oliisfcd© , 




?! 



n 



"■ : 



■ilinJ 



r~^i 



w, t 



^.ivV 



> I' 



Q 



i<t 



i ii 

! ! 



!il 



I 




PLANS. JAMES E. YEATMAN AND WILLIAM McK] 



.DER. 

PLATES 84 and 85. 




nnriTiTiiTiiMrrT^^ 



^^^^^Hto^ 



10. William B. Ittner, Architect. 





HOOLS, ST. LOUIS, MO. William B. Ittner, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3, PLATE 29. 




i'i ih lh lh ih th h £h <L— sh 




FRONT ELEVATION, AND DETAILS SHOWING CORNICE. 

AUDITORIUM BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, CHAMPAIGN, ILL 

C. H. Blackall, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 30. 





SIDE ELEVATION AND LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 

AUDITORIUM BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 

G. H. BLACKALL, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 31. 




SIDE ELEVATION.- 




i : 

FRONT ELEVATION. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. 
Albert Randolph Ross, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 32. 





. EDI! 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, FRESNO, CAL. 
Copeland & Dole, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 33. 




r-Ti fit 4 

• ... ..« • 



ST. MICHAEL'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Raymond F. Almirall, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 3. PLATE 34. 




3 1 



J 





J) 



^ 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOP PLAN. 



SOUTH BRANCH LIBRARY, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Lord &. Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 3. PLATE 35. 



felP 





■ Mil 

p--::.4.--jp •■•. 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, BUFFALO, N Y. 

Green & Wicks, architects. 




YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, BROOKLYN. N Y. 

Boring & Tilton. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 36 . 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



PHI DELTA PSI CLUBHOUSE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

James Purdon, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 37 . 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY, ATLANTIC CITY. N. J. 
(8uilt of white glaze terra cotta.) 
Albert Randolph Ross, Architect. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 38. 




LOOKING TOWARD ALTAR. 



TRANSEPT FROM NAVE. 



ST. MICHAEL'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 
BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Raymond F. Almirall, Architect. 




LOOKING TOWARD ORGAN GALLERY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 3. PLATE 39 . 




THE BRICKBUILD E R . 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 40. 




H 
o 
o 

p g 

-> y 

< a 
</> 

S-T ° 

PC 

<! J 

s § 

to* 

< 
E- 
H 
P 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 3. PLATE 41 . 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 3. p LATE 42 . 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV 



APRIL 1906 



Number 4 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $ 

Single numbers ................*...... 

To countries in the Postal Union ...................$ 

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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



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Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following oide* 



PAGE 

II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 



PAGS 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work of 
R. L. DAUS, J. H. FREEDLANDER, JAMES GAMBLE ROGERS 

AND 

HOUSES AT PORT SUNLIGHT, ENGLAND 

LETTERPRESS 

DETAIL OF A MAUSOLEUM AT SAMARKAND, PERSIA... Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 6 7 

BUILDINGS OF THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. PAPER III Irving K. Pond 68 

THE HOTEL BLENHEIM, A NEW TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 7* 

EDITORIAL AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 

ASSISTANCE TO SAN FRANCISCO ARCHITECTS s s 

INTERESTING CAPITAL S6 



THE BWCFEMLDEN 



'«&$&&# 



VOL. 15 No. 4 



DEVOTED -TO-THE • 1NTERESTSOF1 
lARCHITEOVREINMATERIALS OF CLAY/ 



APRIL 1906 



Z^^C 



AND NOW SAN FRANCISCO. 

THIS is beyond question the severest test which has 
been given to the steel cage construction. It would 
perhaps be impossible to construct an edifice which would 
be earthquake proof; but thus far there have been no 
published reports which would cause a modification of the 
first expressed beliefs that the buildings in San Francisco 
which were constructed on modern approved systems 
realized in this test all that had been expected of them. 

However well the isolated structures may have with- 
stood the combined effects of earthquake and fire, the 
fact undoubtedly remains that the heart of the city is 
swept pretty nearly clean ; that practically all of it must 
be rebuilt. The city now offers a clear field, and the 
world will await with a great deal of interest the outcome 
of the attempts to build a new and a better San Francisco. 

It is certainly to be hoped that one of the first results 
will be the dispelling of the idea that there is any busi- 
ness necessity for a business structure of more than eight 
stories in height. However the San Francisco buildings 
may have actually withstood the shock of the earthquake, 
it is unquestioned that other things being equal the high 
buildings would suffer most; and if the city is to avoid a 
repetition of the horrors and the terrible loss of property 
which it has just experienced its building laws must be 
at once so modified that building expansion shall be lat- 
eral rather than vertical, that no structure of any sort 
shall be allowed in the center of the city which could be 
so damaged by a slight earthquake shock as to be a 
menace to its neighbors, that absolutely nothing but 
first-class steel cage construction shall be tolerated 
within the business limits of the city. San Francisco 
owes it to itself, as well as to the country at large, to 
insist upon such regulations being carried out at once ; 
for while the money damage appears to fall first and 
most heavily on San Francisco, a very large proportion 
of the loss is bound to be distributed over the whole 
country, so that we will all be losers by this terrible fire. 
We will be losers by the fire if we consider only the 
material damage, but if this catastrophe leads to building 
a modern city properly from the ground up, we will at 
least have some compensation for this loss. The world, 
however, learns its lessons very slowly. The Chicago of 
1876 was hardly better than the Chicago of 1866, though 
the fire made all things possible. Baltimore, with its 
fine chance to rebuild in a better and more thorough 
manner, failed almost entirely to make any real improve- 
ment; but in the two years since the Baltimore fire this 
country has awakened to a sense of civic duty which was 
never experienced before. Most of our large cities have 



felt the necessity for beautifying the municipality, and 
large, carefully thought out schemes of municipal im- 
provement have been considered, and in some cases 
partially carried out. San Francisco itself has felt the 
movement, for before this disaster a scheme was par- 
tially worked out providing for a very comprehensive 
municipal improvement. So that we can at least hope 
that the discouraging inertia which prevented the proper 
rebuilding of Baltimore may give way in San Francisco 
to the enthusiasm on the subject of municipal art which 
has sprung up in such widespread manner of late years. 
In this rebuilding the architectural profession has its 
great opportunity. Of course most of the buildings 
which will be constructed immediately will be of the 
crudest type and will afford very little opportunity 
for architectural display, if, indeed, architects are em- 
ployed upon them at all. But with the field so nearly 
free it ought not to be assumed for a moment that the 
old lines are to be followed, as they were in Baltimore ; 
but that when the first hysteria of fright and distress 
shall have passed away the lines of the new city shall be 
laid out right, and that what is done, either for public or 
private work, shall be parts of a scheme which will com- 
mend itself to those who have studied this question so 
carefully. This is not an occasion for individual greed. 
The architectural profession will undoubtedly have a 
great deal to do, and the San Francisco architects will be 
rushed with work as they never were before ; but we 
hope that the profession in the western city will pull as 
a unit for better, more beautiful building, and will not 
let themselves be swept off their feet by the desire for 
haste, nor allow petty jealousies and professional dis- 
trust to interfere with the kind of cooperation which is 
so essential to a city beautiful. 

The first feeling in the presence of a catastrophe of 
this nature is one of hopeless helplessness. The forces 
of the earth and of the fire seem too much for man's 
strength, while we ask ourselves how soon a similar 
catastrophe could recur. There is one fact about which 
we can be perfectly sure ; — San Francisco will be rebuilt, 
and rebuilt at once. Earthquakes will undoubtedly come 
again, but if the city is to be prepared to meet them the 
reconstruction must be throughout of steel, knit together 
as we know perfectly well how to do it, and thoroughly 
protected against the flames which will ever be with us. 
Steel construction and a severe restriction of height is 
the answer to the San Francisco catastrophe; and coop- 
eration and determination to do the best, and to make 
the city beautiful, must be the keynote for the work 
which is to lie before the architectural profession. 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Buildings of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. III. 

BY IRVING K. POND, C. E., ARCHITECT. 

{Continued from page 52, March number.) 

AS the systematic training of the body is one of the 
three primary functions of the Christian Association 
in its development of young manhood, the space devoted 
to this work must receive full and careful consideration in 
the planning of the building. The gymnasium is not all 
there is to the Association building, any more than ath- 
letics is all there is to college life, 
though the volume of noise would 
almost make the outsider think so. 
However, the gymnasium and its 
appurtenances are of sufficient im- 
portance to merit a fairly close study 
here. Other rooms may be adapted 
or readapted to other purposes than 
those originally intended, but the 
gymnasium can be nothing but a 
gymnasium. It never can be a ban- 
quet hall nor an audience room and 
impart to the banqueter or the audi- 
tor any sense of congruity, and every 
extraneous use to which the gymna- 
sium is put robs it of its proper and 
higher use as a gymnasium. Club- 
rooms opening into one another give 
more congenial surroundings for 
feast or flow of wisdom. 

The character of work done in 
the gymnasium in a great majority 
of Associations is broad in the ex- 
treme, including as it does class work 
in calisthenics, hand, basket and in- 
door base ball, apparatus and track 
work. The spirit of the times is 
forcing the work more and more 
into competitive lines, to the exclu- 
sion unfortunately of pure gymnas- 
tics, for there is nothing better than 
tumbling and apparatus work, such 
as the use of the bars, horizontal and 
parallel, the rings and horses, to de- 
velop the body, and the spirit through 
the body, while the spiritual gain in 
the " meets " and competitive games 
is problematical, to say the least. 
Possibly the discussion of these 
matters will seem as remote from 
the purpose of this paper as a dis- 
cussion of styles, so it will not be contimied. However, 
whether athletics or gymnastics is to dominate will 
affect in a marked degree the equipment and conduct 
of the gymnasium. Track work calls for the running 
track, and no running which is for speed rather than for 
exercise can be done on a track in a room under fifty feet 
square. In a room under forty feet square the track 
curtails the space required for indoor and basket ball. 
A room forty by sixty feet, ground dimensions, is a well 




YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

BUILDING, WEST TWENTY-THIRD 

STREET, NEW YORK. 

Parish & Schroeder, Architects. 



proportioned room for general work, and is found to be 
practically the minimum where athletics is to be indulged 
in extensively. The size of the regular classes dictates 
the dimensions of the room in many cases. Each adult 
requires at least forty square feet and each youth at 
least thirty square feet of floor area for class work in 
calisthenics. 

If, as is the tendency, athletics is to monopolize 
time and space in the gymnasium, smaller rooms should 
be provided for apparatus, for tumbling and wrestling 
and bag punching. Bag punching especially should be 
given its own proper environment, as no other work can 
be carried on simultaneously with it in the same room. 
The indiscriminate batting or throw- 
ing of balls about the gymnasium — 
a disease which, together with a 
general roughness of play, seems to 
be incidental to athletics — is danger- 
ous to limb and discouraging if not 
disastrous to fine work in any acro- 
batic or gymnastic line which is 
attempted in the same room. 

It is well to panel the walls of the 
gymnasium in wood to such a height 
as may be required to attach all wall 
apparatus For unity of effect and 
to meet all conditions, this paneling 
would best reach from the floor to the 
underside of the running track. The 
pipes or coils which supply heat by 
direct radiation should be suspended 
from the supports of the running 
track and not set on wall brackets, 
nor ever be placed upon the floor of 
the gymnasium. To place radiators 
upon the floor is both dangerous and 
uneconomical of space. Registers 
for indirect heating and ventilating 
should be placed in the walls. The 
platform of the running track is 
rarely at a lesser height than eight 
feet in the clear from the floor, 
more generally a clearance of ten 
feet is desirable, and even more than 
this should be given if the track is 
more than moderately wide and if 
general work is to be carried on 
upon the floor under the track. To 
the walls under the gallery are 
attached the chest weights, the 
machines for developing special sets 
of muscles, the club and dumb-bell 
racks, the ladder bars, etc., etc. 
There are no fixed standards of 
gymnasium equipment, but each Association will furnish 
and equip according to its means and the necessities. No 
list of apparatus is attempted here. Data is furnished 
in pamphlets, catalogues and through correspondence by 
the various makers of gymnasium goods and apparatus. 
These makers, in conjunction with a trained secretary 
who has studied the situation, can balance cost over 
against needs and desires and so furnish a satisfactory 
equipment. The curved forms and padding of the run- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




yo 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



7» 



ning track are regarded as a part of the equipment, and 
unless the building is in the hands of an architect com- 
petent in gymnasium planning the track bed should be 
furnished and installed by the makers, at least data as to 
radii and inclinations should be furnished by them. 

The billiard and pool tables and the bowling alleys, 
which are coming more and more to be attractive features 
of Association club life, are to be considered as aids to 
the social rather than the physical development. The 
alleys are mentioned here because of their necessarily 
close proximity (in a good plan) to the locker rooms and 
the baths. When alleys are installed it should be in pairs, 
and the practical work of manufacture and installation 
can best be done by the specialist. The plan should 
afford convenient and readily accessible space for spec- 
tators, in addition to the space allotted to the players 
and separated therefrom. The visitors' space should be 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




immediately beneath the locker rooms. The locker rooms 
should be airy and well ventilated, by forced draught if 
needs be. There should be separate and separately 
entered compartments, containing in one the men's 
lockers, in another lockers for youths, and in a third 
the boys' lockers. It is well that these classes should 
not commingle in the locker rooms. The men's lockers 
are the largest in size, those for the youths somewhat 
smaller and the boys' lockers of still lesser dimensions. 
These lockers are made in metal or of wood of standard 
sizes, by regular makers who will furnish lockers or data. 
Not infrequently it has been found desirable to cater to 
another and distinct class of members, the business men, 
who are provided with a separate room furnished with 
lockers of the largest size or with individual dressing 
rooms and equipped with separate showers and toilet. 
Such lockers or dressing rooms rent at a much higher 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




ISASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



PLANS, YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, JACKSON, MICH. 
Leonard H. Field, Jr., Architect. 



entered independently of the players' space, and from a 
public corridor and not through locker or other private 
rooms. Extreme care should be exercised in the con- 
struction of the alley room that the noise and shock shall 
not be communicated to other portions of the building. 
In general, the best situation for the alley room will be 
found to be directly beneath the gymnasium when the 
main floor of that room is not coincident with the base- 
ment floor. 

The location and relative positions of the gymnasium 
and its appurtenances must be given the fullest considera- 
tion. An ideal arrangement in buildings of the medium 
size is to have the main floor of the gymnasium above 
the locker rooms, and to have the locker rooms, baths, 
toilet and swimming pool in one and the same story. 
Where cramped floor area requires it, the pool and bowl- 
ing alleys, and toilet and baths even, may be in the story 



rate than do the ordinary lockers, and are furnished as 
an inducement to business men to aid in the work of 
maintenance. Individual dressing rooms for the regular 
members, rented at what would seem to be even a high 
rate, have been found to be not economical of space and 
in some instances are being abandoned. In the larger 
Associations, however, it is well to provide a few indi- 
vidual dressing rooms. 

The subject of the baths calls for careful considera- 
tion, both as to the location and as to the type. In loca- 
tion the baths should be convenient both to toilet and 
locker rooms. For Associations which cater to athletics 
the shower is the most desirable form to install. The 
sharp shower and hard rub are most invigorating after 
violent team or track work. The tub generally is little 
used except by members who seek only the luxury of the 
bath. In a majority of Associations are to be found a 



7- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




PLANS, YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, SOMERVILLE, MASS. 
Brainerd, Leeds & Russell, Architects. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



73 




YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, 

SOMERVILLE, MASS. 

Brainerd, Leeds & Russell, Architects. 

few members who care for the bath independently of 
the exercise. Where such conditions exist one tub to 
six or eight showers will be found to be ample. The 
showers (which should have shower and not needle 
heads) should be supplied with hot and cold water which 
shall flow through a mixer or mixing valve, so perfect 
in its operation that water at the extreme of heat or 
cold need never strike the body unless the bather so de- 
sires. A steam room and a massage table are desirable 
features of any bath equipment, but features which are 
not absolutely necessary in the smaller and more moder- 
ately endowed Associations. 

Two important considerations arise in connection 
with the location of the swimming pool : first, its posi 
tion with reference to the toilet and locker rooms; and, 
second, its situation as affecting economy of operation. 
The necessity of frequent changes in the entire body of 
water in the pool makes it desirable that its bottom 
should be well above sewer line, otherwise a sump and 
expensive pumping are required. Against this item of 
continued expense must be set off the extra cost of the 
increased size of the building and of constructing the 
pool out of the ground, as will be necessary if its bottom 
is above basement floor level. In solving this problem 
local conditions must control. An item which affects 
economy of cost, both of construction and operation, is the 
size of the tank. The general desire is for large pools of, 
say, twenty feet by sixty feet in clear dimensions, with 
water eight feet deep at the deep end. As great a length 
as possible is desirable in long-distance swimming con- 
tests, and great width is desirable for races and games. 
Swimming can be learned and enjoyed and can be made 
to furnish sufficient exercise in a much smaller pool, in 
one say eighteen feet by forty feet clear measurement, 
with depth of water the same at the ends as in the case 
of the larger pool. But as remarked before, contests, races 
and games rather than sane health building exercise seem 
to be the tendency of the day. The average number of 
bathers dictates in a measure the size of the pool. 



Access to the swimming pool should always be had 
through a vestibule containing showers, where the per- 
son is thoroughly cleansed before the bather is permitted 
to enter the pool. The reason in this is sufficiently 
apparent. The clear height above the water should be 
such as to allow the use of a spring board and, if possi- 
ble, of a horizontal bar. It is well, when conditions are 
favorable, to furnish the tank room with a considerable 
space for spectators that aquatic games and swimming 
matches may be witnessed. The approach to this space 
follows the rule which governs the approach to similar 
spaces in the bowling alley and the gymnasium proper. 

A practical matter, touching upon economy of service, 
is that relating to the positions of the locker, bath and 
toilet rooms. These rooms should be entered severally 
and directly from an anteroom in which are located the 
desk of the attendant, the towel cabinet and the supply 
cases. Where conditions demand it a bicycle storage 
room for the use of members may be provided on or 
near the ground level and as convenient to the locker 
room as may be. 

It has been the purpose of these papers to present the 
definite and distinctive points which must be considered 
in the planning of buildings for the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association in the United States. In what manner 
and how effectively these various points have been met 
in the plans which accompany these notes is left for the 
reader to determine. Into a study of the plans let this 
consideration enter: any plan which comes from an archi- 




YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, 

ALLENTOWN, I'A. 

Wallace E. Ruhe, Architect. 



74 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



75 



tect of reputation, and which seems at a glance to reveal 
a discrepancy or an idiosyncrasy, may call for a study of 
conditions. So if an auditorium seems overlarge for 
the plan, it may be, as in at least one case it is, that the 
nature of the work in that special locality demands that 
an intellectual and spiritual appeal be made to the public 
at large. If the gymnasium seems oversmall, it may be 
that the out-of-door life and sports, summer and winter, 




all that that means. If school and lecture rooms predomi- 
nate it will undoubtedly be found that in its work the 
Association is catering to the tastes of a serious-minded 
constituency which is ambitious and determined to rise 
above the deadly plane of daily life in office and shop. 
The work of the Association is broad, and each locality 
will be found to present its own interesting and indi- 
vidual problems. To solve these problems is the duty 




FOURTH FLOOR I'LAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SKCOND FLOOR I'LAN. 



PLANS, YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, HARRISBUKG, PA. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 



of the community which supports the Association make 
altogether unnecessary a larger and more thoroughly 
equipped room for indoor exercise. If the social rooms 
seem to outweigh in importance the classrooms, it is barely 
possible that club interests or an awakened spiritual con- 
sciousness in that locality have been found to be a much 
more vital factor than a call to the intellectual life in saving 
and reclaiming boys and young men from the streets, with 



of the well-trained and sympathetic secretary, sustained 
by a broad-minded and sympathetic board. To appreciate 
the view-points of secretary and of board, to grasp under- 
standingly the greater problem and to make the building 
in beauty and simplicity minister economically and ef- 
fectively to all the needs of the work, is the interesting 
task set for the architect who is called upon to serve pro- 
fessionally the Young Men's Christian Association. 



76 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THE 

FIRST FLOOR 

PLAN. 



THE 

SECOND FLOOR 

PLAN. 





THE 

BASEMENT 

PLAN. 



YOUNG MEN S 

CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

BUILDING, 

COLORADO SPRINGS, 

COLORADO. 

Thomas P. Barber, 
Architect. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



11 




78 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Hotel Blenheim. 

A NEW TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION. 

BY J. FLETCHER STREET. 

THE one thought which should be kept in mind in 
designing a hotel is that the construction be of a 
tvpe which meets every requirement and condition of a 
truly fireproof building. In the Blenheim, erected at 
Atlantic City, N. J., the architects have given due con- 
sideration to this most vital and im- 
portant point, and have studied it 
both in the light of their own ex- 
perience and by the results of severe 
and practical tests so recently im- 
posed upon fireproof and so-called 
fireproof structures. 

The building is about 600 feet 
long, 125 feet wide, eight stories 
high, with a dome equal to twelve 
stories in height. It was started on 
I une 12, 1905, and was practically 
completed, ready for finishing and 
furnishing, on December 1, 1905. 

A time limit for the completion of 



the use of structural steel was the noise that would result 
in the assembling of members and in the driving of 
rivets. As this would be a disturbing element to the 
guests of the Marlborough, an adjacent hotel and one 
under the same management, a construction thoroughly 
practical, and yet one that could be carried forward with 
the least possible delay and in the quietest manner, 
needed to be decided upon. 

Estimates were obtained for steel fireproofed with 
hollow tile, and an armored concrete and tile construction. 




45* 457 456 455 454 453 7***? 405 494 1 



LV3 : J_ m _JE] b _L_ m A 



4*0471) 471 472 473474 475 476 477 47.S 479 480 

rri I 'T 1 ' T Ml't 1 ' r T 

{,.; J. 

JLJ 





TYPICAL BEDROOM FLOOR PLAN. 




. * * ."SEE . . i~£2 l- 



r \ % l t T - R O O M 



• • * S 1 • BUKOPtAN-fLAN' 




D I .n I N G - R. O o M 



K t T C M B W 



KIRST FLOOR PLAN. 







T 



W\nJ 






HA1 'tlNJN> ROOM 






GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 



the building having been imposed, it was thought advis- 
able not to take chances with the uncertain conditions of 
the steel market, as former experiences had shown that 
much serious delay frequently results from this source. 
Another and perhaps one of the strongest objections to 



Not only was the latter system cheaper, but it was the 
only type which could be guaranteed, under a heavy 
penalty, to be completed within the specified time. 

The contract price for the clay tile and concrete con- 
struction — the one adopted — was $126,000, while the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



79 




FRONT OK THE HOTEL FROM THE PLAZA. 

THE NEW HOTEL BLENHEIM, ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. 

Price & McLanahan, Architects. 



So 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FRONT AND SIDE VIEW FROM BOARDWALK. 




PAVILIONS, CONTAINING THE STORES AND SOLARIA. 
THE NEW HOTEL BLENHEIM, ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



81 



lowest bid for the steel and tile construction was $220,000. 
The steel necessary for the latter construction could not 
have been had under four months, whereas work was 
immediately begun with the sys- 
tem adopted and carried on at 
the rate of about a floor per week. 
With the successful issue of 
the building the fact has been 
clearly demonstrated that here is 
a system of firCproofing which 
can not only be installed in less 
time than is required by any 
other system, but also at a much 
less cost. 

A thorough consideration of 
all these conditions made clear 
the pronounced advantages of 
this construction under the re- 
quirements imposed. 

The significant feature of the 
construction is the introduction 
of hollow tile in combination 
with the concrete floor slab. The 
exterior walls are built entirely 
of hollow tile, the floors being of 
long span hollow tile construc- 
tion, reinforced with steel bars, 
and reinforced columns and gird- 
ers of concrete. Twelve-inch 
terracotta tiles, varying in depth 
according to span, were placed 
between the lines of concrete 
joists, which had a uniform width 
of four inches. 

Besides greatly lightening the 
construction, this system 
has the advantage of giving 
a drier floor and one more 
nearly sound-proof. But 
the remarkable distinction 
is realized in the shorter 
time occupied in erection 
over that consumed by any 
system where a solid con- 
crete slab is used. 

The use of hollow clay 
tile in the outside walls of 
the building was peculiarly 
advantageous. With this 
came the solution of giving 
the finished cement surface 
of the building the desired 
bond back into the body of 
the wall, which is of the ut- 
most importance where sur- 
faces so treated are exposed 
to driving storms of great 
energy common along the 
coast. The outside sur- 
faces of these wall tiles are 
made with a depressed 
groove which gives a very 
strong bond to the plaster. 




BALCONIES TO BEDROOM FLOORS. 




A GABLE TREATED WITH INLAID TILE. 



The double air-chambers of the tile make impossible 
the conveyance of water through the wall. One of the 
greatest advantages gained is in the elimination of inside 

wall furring, the plaster being 
J BfiVV applied direct to the tile. Many 

/^^H oilier advantages are gained, 

> 5 PjB^tf sucl1 as the g reat ly decreased 

cost of insurance and repairs, 
and the more satisfactory insula- 
tion of heat and cold. 

This use of a definite prin- 
ciple in regard to the construc- 
tion has given rise to a certain 
expression in the design which 
accentuates the sturdy character 
and strong masses of the struc- 
tural parts. This is particularly 
evident from within, where the 
beams and girders necessary to 
meet the requirements of dura- 
bility are carefully considered in 
their treatment so as not to de- 
tract from the feeling of the real 
purpose of the construction. 

The structure in itself is 
virtually monolithic. With a 
foundation of piles it rises from 
floor to floor by means of solid 
concrete piers regularly dimin- 
ishing in size as they ascend. 
Into these are framed the neces- 
sary girders and beams for sup- 
porting floor joists and outside 
walls. All walls are curtain 
walls and are carried at each 
floor level by their respec- 
tive girders. This gives 
the great advantage of 
permitting work to be ad- 
vanced at any number of 
story levels at the same 
time. 

The building as an ar- 
chitectural achievement is 
most interesting, the design 
being influenced somewhat 
by ancient types of Spanish 
and Mexican work. In the 
treatment of the exterior 
the true character of the con- 
struction has been frankly 
confessed. The walls are 
coated with a gray cement, 
the dullness of which is re- 
lieved by a liberal use of 
colored tiles in friezes, span- 
drels and panels. The de- 
signs are simple and almost 
entirely geometric in char- 
acter, and in only a few 
instances has the desired 
effect been sought in a pic- 
torial way, the most con- 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




These Hours are of varying span between girders according to the exigencies of the 
plan, and are for spans up to 18 feet. After the wood centering is in place, the tiles, which 
are Sx8 inches with cross webs, are set end to end in tiers about four inches apart. The 
reinforcing steel bars are then set between them, and the concrete is tamped into this space. 




spicuous example being the band encircling the head 
house at the sixth floor level. Here, within a well de- 
fined border of dull blue tile, is depicted a continuous 
series of sporting dolphins ex- 
ecuted in red. Whether or not 
the detail of this decoration ap- 
peals to one, it must be allowed 
that the general effect is bril- 
liant and a decided relief to 
the more conventional forms 
employed. 

Otherwise than in these 
panels and bands of tile the 
entire exterior decoration con- 
sists of ornamental terra cotta 
of a suitable light green shade. 
The manner of applying the 

cement coating to the outer FLOOR construction 

walls deserves notice. The exposed outer surface of 
concrete columns and beams being in the same plane as 
the tile blocks of the wall, a different strength of cement 
mortar was found necessary in the application of the 
scratch coat on account of the varying adhesive quality 
of the two materials, and it was only 
in the finishing coat that a uniform 
mix could be applied to the surface 
of the walls. 

The dome has been made the 
principal feature in the design of the 
exterior. This motif results by a 
number of interesting transitions 
which occur above the sixth floor 
level, where the typical nature of 
the floor arrangement ceases. This 
permits the introduction of broad 
and spacious balconies along these 
upper stories, giving a distinct ad- 
vantage to rooms opening thereon. 
At the eighth floor level two smaller 
domes occur, forming cover for the 



porches at this point. These very 
successfully balance the main dome 
and, with their heavy buttressed 
angles, mark the return of the broadly 
extending head house into the narrow 
and somewhat attenuated body struc- 
ture. 

At the front of these, forming per- 
haps the most conspicuous features 
of the entire building, are the two 
broad stacks which mark the termina- 
tion of the principal mass of the struc- 
ture. Each of these stacks encloses 
a series of flues leading from the fire- 
places located in the special suites 
planned for this portion of the build- 
ing. The large fireplaces in the ex- 
change, solarium and lobby also have 
their outlets into these stacks. The 
long facade of the body house is 
happily relieved by a series of bays 
extending through the first four sleep- 
ing floors. These are broken by a 
continuous balcony at the fourth floor level, following 
in its contour the lines formed by the projecting bays. 
The level of this balcony is abruptly changed and raised 

another story when the rear 
wing is reached, confessing in 
a satisfactory manner the extra 
story height of this part. All 
these balconies are partitioned 
off between the individual 
rooms, so that the result is one 
of a series of private porches 
extending entirely around the 
building. 

The accompanying floor 

plans show that the hotel may 

be entered directly from the 

Boardwalk through a spacious 

corridor flanked on both sides 

by stores, which in their character will add greatly to the 

convenience and accommodation of the hotel guests. 

This passage leads directly into the main lobby. Here 

is found a low extending hall, which runs back towards 

the center of the building, where the secondary entrance 




SHOWING EXTERIOR WALLS OF HOLLOW TILES DEEPLY GROOVED TO GIVE 
A STRONG BOND TO THE PLASTER FINISH. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



83 



#"■>':' ;'■;>;' 



:X.'' ■■:•■'.* 



from Ohio Avenue is situated. It is provided with the 
usual administrative accessories, and has space set apart 
to be used as writing and billiard rooms. 

A wide octagonal stairway leads up from the lobby 
into the exchange. Here is en- 
tered a great, irregular hall cov- 
ering an area of seven thousand 
square feet. The design of this 
is conspicuous in the introduc- 
tion of massive columns and 
piers, which in reality are the 
principal supporting elements 
of the structure above this 
point. They have been treated 
in a frank yet conservative man- 



DETAIL OF WINDOW JAMb - 



rium. Its purpose is at once expressed in that it is entirely 
enclosed by glass, except where the necessary supporting 
piers are introduced. Where emphasized by a broad, 
low dome it divides and sweeps out in easy contour, to 

be finally interrupted by the 
two square pavilions directly 
overlooking the Boardwalk. 

Included within this spread- 
ing horseshoe of the solarium 
is the plaza, an open porch of 
broad expanse. The outer cir- 
cumference of this, extending 
back within the inner line of the 
solarium, provides a suitably 
protected area where breakfast 








33 




ION A — J 



r,A/vT- a icrvfTR a > 





MULLION 



BAY WINDOW JAMB 




Wk&Z&ZZZZZMSh 



Dctail. Or E/.TCKIOK Wauu 
■SCCTION THROUGH SAY WINDOW. 



CXTCRIOR WALL OF 3' x I Z HOLLOW TIL C 

PL t A S T CRCD OUTSWC M I /V S / D C 



PldStatl-- bloclc 

Cd r* p«t" -5TV- i p, 
•:- '..' .- ■ ■ • ".mil: 



ner, which in no way detracts 
from the expression of the 
construction. 

The general office of the 
hotel is placed at the rear of 
the exchange, across from 
the two forward elevators, 
which are calculated to do 
the greater amount of ser- 
vice required. The height 
of the exchange gives a well- 
proportioned room and al- 
lows for a gallery at one end, 
where the house orchestra 
may be placed without interfering in any way with the 
general accommodations of the hotel. 

The principal circulative space of the hotel is the sola- 




■ TYPICAL FLOOR. CONSTRUCTION" - 

-.Showing u.5<z of" hollow "til «-• 



may be served in the open 
air, after the custom of well- 
regulated European hotels. 
A preparation room for this 
purpose occurs on the floor 
below. The front of the 
plaza, reaching out with a 
large radius, extends well 
beyond the building line, 
affording ample and splen- 
did opportunities for unob- 
structed views of Atlantic 
City life. A plain wrought 
iron railing is designed with 
the purpose that the outlook may be interfered with as 
little as possible. This open porch is paved with a 
graded floor of cement laid out in geometrical designs, 



8 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







accentuated and modified by such colors 
as give a characteristic and harmonious 
whole. 

Towards the back of the solarium 
and under the small dome is the space to 
be used as a dance hall. On each side of 
this, somewhat 
apart from the 
general circula- 
tion, are four in- 
teresting fire- 
places for the 
comfort of those 
not caring to take 
any active part in 
the festivities. 

Out of the ex- 
change and ap- 
proached by the 
principal stair- 
way is the sun gallery which, extending 
back along the body of the building, 
turns and circles across Ohio Avenue, 
there connecting with a similar parlor on 
the Marlborough side, thus forming the 
principal artery of the two hotels. 

Opening from this sun gallery the 
European dining room occupies the re- 
maining space afforded by the main body 
of the house. This will be adaptable to 
the use of the two hotels. The ar- 
chitectural and decorative treatment 
shows much study and serious design. 
The lower portions of the heavy piers 
occasioned by the construction are left 
severely plain. 

Opposite this room and across the 
corridor is the banquet room, a room 
of like character and capacity, but 
one that will be used only on such 
occasions as its name suggests. 

These dining halls connect directly 
with the kitchen by a common pas- 
sage at the rear of the main corridor. 

The majority of bedrooms in the 
main body of the house have been 
treated with individual projecting 
bays which permit of an extended 
range of view. Connected to each 
bedroom is a private bath. Running 
ice water is supplied by a system of 
circulation heavily insulated, and all 
baths are provided with fresh and 
salt, besides hot and cold water. All 
plumbing and steam risers have been 
concealed by the use of permanent 
pipe ducts installed on the walls of 
all bathrooms. An opportunity for 
ready inspection at every floor is made 
possible by the use of an adjustable 
duct cover. This entirely does away 
with the always objectionable condi- 
tion of exposed piping. The bath- 





A GROUP OF TERRA COTTA 
DETAILS. 




DETAIL OF STACK. 



rooms are finished with a plain seven- 
eighths inch ceramic tile and sanitary 
base. 

Although every precaution has been 
taken to make the building as nearly 
fireproof as possible, several fire escapes 
have been pro- 
vided, also a fire 
tower with solid 
walls twelve 
inches thick, en- 
closing a stairway 
running the en- 
tire story height 
of the structure. 
Fire danger 
against outside 
sources is guard- 
ed against by the 
adoption of an 
extended sprinkler system occurring on 
the south side of the building. This pro- 
vides an outlet over each window or series 
Of windows, so that in case of fire from 
adjoining properties a veritable sheet of 
water can be sprayed down the face of 
the wall. 

The kitchen and machinery building 
at the rear of the hotel proper is a 
structure 102 feet by 115 feet, three sto- 
ries in height. Provision has been 
made for the ready inspection by 
guests of the manner and methods 
employed in conducting this portion 
of the business. 

The mechanical equipment in- 
cludes six 150 horse-power boilers of 
the return tubular type. For the 
supply of electricity for lighting and 
power purposes a 250-kw. direct-con- 
nected generating plant has been in- 
stalled. For refrigeration there are 
two six-ton ammonia compressors run 
from a belt driven line shaft, and one 
forty-ton compressor direct-connected 
to a Corliss engine. From this ex- 
tended line shaft is driven the ice 
water circulating pump, feed pump 
and house circulating pump, besides 
machines for minor services, such as 
motor power for the laundry. 

The first floor is devoted entirely 
to the appurtenances of the kitchen. 
Overlooking the kitchen at one end is 
a gallery from which the guest may 
have opportunity to inspect the prep- 
aration of meals. 

This innovation from the usual 
style of hotels shows a distinct mark 
of progress in design and construc- 
tion, and will always demand atten- 
tion from those interested in work not 
bound by precedent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



85 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



ASSISTANCE TO SAN FRANCISCO 
ARCHITECTS. 

WHILE the flames were still blazing over the ruined 
city, the officials of San Francisco telegraphed to 
several of the larger eastern cities asking how many 
architects and draughtsmen could be sent on at once. 
This call is only one of the many instances of foolish 
hysteria which this catastrophe has developed. Unfor- 




GRACE CHURCH CHAPEL, CHICAGO. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 
Interior trim of terra cotta, made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 

tunately some of the relief committees in the eastern 
cities were affected much the same way, and in Boston a 
call was made at once upon the Boston Society of Archi- 
tects to furnish architects and draughtsmen by the car- 
load to be shipped offhand to the West. 

Those who recall the experiences at Baltimore imme- 
diately after its fire will appreciate the position that 
architects could be forced into who would trust them- 
selves unasked upon a community at a crisis of this sort, 
and the Boston Society of Architects wisely declined to 
be rushed into an ill-considered action. At the urgent 
request, however, of the relief association, a committee 




TERRA COTTA CAP BY HOPPIN & 

KOEN, ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. 

Makers. 



of the Society of Archi- 
tects called for volun- 
teers to go as draughts- 
men to the West to offer 
their services to the San 
Francisco architects. 

There were over 
eighty responses, and 
out of this number a 
selection of twenty 
capable, experienced 
draughtsmen of various 
grades were sent at the 
expense of the relief 
committee to San Fran- 
cisco, with instructions 
to place themselves at 
the disposal of the San 
Francisco architects and 
to assist them in any way they could. 

Similar requests have been sent to other cities. At 
this writing, however, it is not known in just what form 
the response has been made. It is quite certain that there 
will be a large amount of the rebuilding intrusted to 
architects outside the city, but aside from the question 
of professional conduct it certainly would be poor busi- 
ness for an architect without any local affiliations or influ- 
ence to thrust himself unasked upon the San Francisco 
community. We sincerely trust that the self-respecting 
architects everywhere will feel disposed to help in any 
manner the San Francisco architects, but will appreciate 
that their western brethren are perfectly able to cope 
with the great bulk of the work which will be done in that 
city. 

This is an emergency which calls for cordial coopera- 
tion, but does not require undercutting competition. 




DETAIL OF RAILWAY STATION, BAY CITY, MICH. 

W. T. Cooper & Son, Architects. 

Built of " Ironclay " Brick. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




BUILDING FOR THE RUMKORD FALLS POWER CO., RUMFOKD FALLS, ME. 
Stone, Carpenter & Willson, Architects. 
Built entirely of gray terra cotta, made by Excelsior Terra Cotta Co. 



INTERESTING CAPITAL. 

IT cannot be too strongly emphasized that 
the great damage at San Francisco was 
chargeable to the poor character of the 
buildings, which were easily shaken down 
and put in shape to become a ready prey for 
flames. In the rebuilding of the city large 
amounts of money will be needed at once. If 
San Francisco desires to make investments 
attractive in the burnt district the city must 
at once revise its building laws and make 
such regulations as will give security to in- 
vested funds. Building is an exact science 
to a very considerable degree, and it is so 
perfectly possible to rebuild the city in such 
shape that a recurrence of this disaster shall 
be well-nigh impossible, that there ought not 
to be the slightest tolerance within the busi- 
ness district of anything but thoroughly 
first-class construction. This will mean that 
the cost of building will undoubtedly be in- 
creased, but the increase will be comparatively 
insignificant in comparison with the terrible 
damage which has already been charged up, 
and which is liable to occur again if condi- 
tions in the future are as they have been in 
the past. A business community like San 
Francisco can better afford to pay for first- 
class building than to pay for a first-class fire. 



I 



NATIONAL SOLDIERS HOME, 
JOHNSON CITY, TENN. 

N addition to the illustrations of the 
National Soldiers Home at Johnson City, 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY 

SOUTH AMBOV TERRA 

COTTA CO. 



which are published in this issue, there were 
published in The Brickbuilder for April, 
1903, plans of the Hospital Group; plans, 
elevation, and details of the Hospital Ward 
Building ; plans and elevations of the Kitchen 
Building, and plans and elevations of the 
Hospital Administration Building. And in 
The Brickbuilder for May, 1904, views of 
the Mess Hall and portions of the Hospital 
Group. 

MATERIALS EMPLOYED IN THE 
HOTEL BLENHEIM. 

THE structural work for the Hotel Blen- 
heim was executed by the National 
Fireproofing Company; Celadon tiles were 
used on the roof; Moravian and Grueby tiles 
were used in the decoration of the walls, 
and the terra cotta details were furnished 
by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta 
Company. 

IN GENERAL. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson have been 
selected as architects for the new St. Thomas' 
Church, New York City. 

Cass Gilbert has removed his New York 
office to 1 1 East 24th Street. 

Washington University, St. Louis, has 
offered one scholarship, for a regular student 
in architecture, to the Architectural League 
of America. The value of the scholarship is 
one hundred and fifty dollars annually. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



87 



President Ernest J. Rus- 
sell and ex-President N. 
Max Dunning will repre- 
sent the Architectural 
League of America at the 
International Congress of 
Architects to be held in 
London during July. 

The Gargoyle Club, 
composed of the younger 
architects and draughtsmen 
of New York City, has been 
organized. The objects of 
the club are to promote 
social intercourse and good 
fellowship among the mem- 
bers, and to study the fine arts. Henry C. Van Cleef, 
architect, 220 Broadway, is the president. 

The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, 
College Station, Texas, now offers courses in archi- 
tecture and engineering. Manufac- 
turers' catalogues and samples are 
desired for this department. 

The following named architec- 
tural firms are desirous of receiving 
manufacturers' catalogues and sam- 
ples: L. Engelmann, 20 Lafayette 
Building, Portland, Ore. ; Irving D. 
Porter, 1421 F Street, N. W., 
Washington, U. C. ; R. N. Hocken- 
berry & Co., Washington Building, 
Portland, Ore.; L. D. Brackney, 1 
Morehouse Block, El Paso, Texas. 




face bricks, also salt glaze 
bricks. The present ca- 
pacity will be doubled. 

The South Amboy Terra 
Cotta Company will furnish 
the architectural terra cotta 
for a large stable, which is 
to be built in New York 
City by Thompson-Starrett 
Company. Hill & Stout 
are the architects. 



TERRA COTTA COLUMNS TO FENCE AND GATEWAY, CREAM 
OF WHEAT BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Harry W. Jones, Architect. 
American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Co., Makers. 




The terra cotta used in the 
churches at Leominster, Mass., and 

Northampton, Mass., illustrated in connection with Mr. 
Maginnis's article in The Brickbuilder for March, was 
made by the Excelsior Terra Cotta Company. 

The Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company will 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY THE NEW JERSEY 
TERRA COTTA CO. 



BUILDING OPERA- 
TIONS FOR MARCH. 
AT what may be regard- 
ed as the opening of 
the building season the outlook is decidedly promising. 
Official reports received and formulated by the Ameri- 
can Contractor, from more than forty of the leading cities 
of the country, show a general and quite decided gain as 
compared with the corresponding 
month, March, of 1905. The follow- 
ing figures show the percentage of 
gain in cities where the increase is 
most marked: Cleveland, 43; Chat- 
tanooga, 49 ; Duluth, 668 ; Louis- 
ville, 54; Los Angeles, 84; Mobile, 
46; St. Paul, 35; San Francisco, 23; 
Scranton,5o; Syracuse, 40; Salt Lake 
City, 31; Trenton, 252; Toledo, 22. 
The losses reported are somewhat in 
excess of last month. The following 
statement shows the percentage in 
leading cities : Cincinnati, 45 ; Colum- 
bus, 49; Hartford, 32; Kansas City, 
70; Milwaukee, 23; Minneapolis, 42; 
Nashville, 73; Philadelphia, 19; St. Louis, 55; Wash- 
ington, 49; New York, with $22,928,906, only fairly 
holas its own, the gain being 2 per cent. At this 
time last year the building movement was decidedly 
strong, and to have fairly maintained it is an excellent 





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DETAIL BY CASS GILBERT, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

furnish about two million of their dark speckled buff 
brick for new schoolhouses in Chicago. 

The Hydraulic-Press Brick Company of St. Louis has 
added another to its already long list of brick plants 
located in the best clay belts of the country. The new 
one is the Ayer-McCarel Clay Company of Brazil, 
Ind. , the Jproduct of which is vitrified gray and buff 



DETAILS BY GILLESPIE & CARREL, ARCHITECTS. 
Brick Terra Cotta and Tile Co , Makers. 

showing. It is deeply significant that New York makes 
a slight gain over March, 1905, in spite of the enormous 
amount of construction work that has been in progress 
there during the past year. Baltimore shows a loss of 
only 4 per cent, although the work of rebuilding was 
at its height a year ago. Conditions are favorable for a 
prosperous year in construction lines. 



88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




ENGINE HOUSE, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

James A. Smith, Architect. 

Terra Cotta furnished by St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. 



WANTED — Architectural draughtsmen. State experience and 
salary expected. Address " Buffalo," care " The Brickbuilder." 



WANTED — An architectural draughtsman. Address Cudworth 
& Woodworth, Architects, Norwich, Conn. 




A ROOF COVERED WITH "AMERICAN S TILE. 
Made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile & Terra Cotta Co. 



WANTED By a New York City Architect, a Draughtsman 
to do tracing ; clean and accurate work and a good general 
draughtsman. Write, stating experience, references and salary. 
New York, care " The Brickbuilder." 



WANTED, SUPERINTENDENT OF CONSTRUCTION — 
By a Company engaged in erecting from time to time Bank Buildings 
of moderate size at different places. Duties would be to examine crit- 
ically plans and specifications received from the architects ; advertise 
for and collect tenders; make recommendations regarding contracts, 
after conference with the architects; see that detail drawings are 
promptly furnished, and exercise a general supervision over the work 
of the architects and contractors. Salary $200 a month at outset to 
properly qualified person. Address " Construction," care "The 
Brickbuilder." 



Competition for Photographs and Plans of Two Small Brick Houses. 

First Prize, $100.00; Second Prize, $50.00; Third Pzize, $25.00; 
Fourth Prize, $15.00; Fifth Prize, Si 0.00 

Competition closes June I, 1906. 



J 



i 



Place Here 

Photographs ol One House 

Trim to Fit Space 



Place Here 

First and Second Floor Plans 

of House Shown Above 



Place Here 

Photographs of One House 

Trim to Fit Space 



Place Here 

First and Second Floor Plans 

of House Shown Above 



Give Here 
Location, Name of Architect, 
Cost, and Cubical Contents 



Give Here 
Location, Name of Architect, 
Cost, and Cubical Contents. 



Submitted by 



PROGRAM. 

The object of the Competition is to obtain a collection of photo- 
graphs and plans of well designed, well planned houses which have 
been built of brick at a cost ranging from $3,000 to $7,000 each. 

The best in design and plan for the cost, whether this be $3,000 or 
$7,000, will be given the prizes. 

The houses must be detached, and built entirely of brick, except 
the trim, such as porches and cornices, may be of other materials. 

Spkcific Requirements. Onapieceof heavy cardboard measuring 
exactly 12x15 inches, inside border lines drawn 1 inch from edge of 
cardboard, shall be mounted (at the top of card) in spaces measuring 
4x5 inches each, one photograph each of two houses. 

These photographs should be mounted (pasted on) with care and 
trimmed to actual size of the spaces. 

Below these photographs, in spaces measurinK 5 x 7 inches each, 
shall be drawn or mounted the first and second floor plans of each 
house. 

In the panels below these spaces shall be clearly printed the loca- 
tion (city or town and state), the names of the architects, total cost of 
each house, and cubical contents. 

Below these panels should be given the nom de plume of the con- 
testant, consisting of only one word. 

The accompanying diagram indicates exactly the manner in which 
subjects should be presented. 

These sheets are to be delivered at the office of The Brickbuii DEB, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before June 1, 
1906. They should be carefully packaged to prevent damage in tran- 
sit. Accompanying each sheet is to be a sealed envelope with a nam 
deplume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of 
the contestant. 

The Competition will be judged by two well-known architects. 

Competition open to every one. 

The groups awarded prizes are to become the property of The 
Bru khuii.der, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or 
all of the others. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 4. PLATE 43. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN, FLATBUSH BRANCH. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN, FLATBUSH BRANCH. 



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BASEMENT PLAN, GREENPOINT BRANCH. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN, GREENPOINT BRANCH. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 4. PLATE 44. 




GROUND PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, MEMORIAL HALL. 

NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS, JOHNSON CITY, TENN. 

J. H. Freedlander, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 4. PLATE 45. 



□ .□ 




FOUNDATION PLAN. 




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MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 
CHAPEL. 



ROOF PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, LAUNDRY. 

NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS, JOHNSON CITY, TENN. 

J. H. Freedlander, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 4. PLATE 46. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 4. PLATE 47. 




HOSPITAL GROUP, LOOKING SOUTH. 




MEMORIAL HALL. 

NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS, JOHNSON CITY, TENN. 

J H. Freedlander, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 4. PLATE Ai 




CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY, FLATBUSH, N. Y. R. L. Daus, Architect. 




CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY. GREENPOINT, N. Y. R. L. Daus, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 4. PLATE 49. 






COTTAGES AT PORT SUNLIGHT, ENGLAND 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 4. PLATE 50. 




THE BRICKBU IL DE R 



VOL. 15. NO. 4. 



PLATE 51. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 4. PLATE 52 




MESS HALL. 




CHAPEL. 

NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS, JOHNSON CITY. TENN 

J. H. Freeolander, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 4. PLATE 53. 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 4. PLATE 54. 



U£= 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, BARRACKS. 

NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS, JOHNSON CITY, TENN. 

J. H. Freedlander, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. . 

VOL. 15, NO. 4. PLATE 55. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 4. 



PLATE 56. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV 



MAY 1906 



Number 5 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada .......■■■■ $5'°° P er veal 

Single numbers 5° cenIi 

To countries in the Postal Union # 6 -°° P er y ear 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Teria Cotta 

Brick .... 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



page 

II 

II 

II and III 

III 



Brick Enameled 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 

IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



From Work of 



J. MILTON DYER, ALEXANDER C. ESCHWEILER, BENJAMIN PROCTOR, JR., WINSLOW 
& BIGELOW, WOOD, DONN & DEMING, C. C. ZANTZINGER. 

LETTERPRESS 

GRAVE TOWERS AT KUM, PERSIA ■.• : Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 

CATHOLIC CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 

THE TARSNEY ACT 

BURNT CLAY CONSTRUCTION AT SAN FRANCISCO 

CONCRETE VS. HOLLOW TILE 

THE FIRE AND QUAKE TEST OF STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION 

SOME INTERESTING OLD CHURCHES AT PANAMA 

ANOTHER THOUGHT IN ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



Glenn Bt own 

Charles //. Atden,Jr, 



If. G. Ecob 



9° 
95 
98 

IOI 

102 

103 

■°S 

1. <> 




GRAVE TOWERS AT KUM, PERSIA. 



THE BWCKJWEIK 



VOL. 15 No. 5 



• DEVOTED • TO THE • INTERESTS • OF 1 
ARCHrTECTVI^INMATERIALSOF CLAY( 



MAY 1906 



FIRE WASTE AND FOREST DESTRUCTION. 

NO country, however great its resources, can long 
continue to stand a yearly fire loss of $250,000,000. 
The consumption of wood per capita is also increasing 
in this country, and has risen from eleven to fourteen 
feet, board measure, per annum. With these two in- 
creases it is evident that the destruction of the forests 
and the destruction by fire are going along hand in hand 
toward our national bankruptcy. 

The destruction of the forests means the loss of 
water-storing soil and the consequent washing out of the 
soluble plant food stored therein, and therefore the wast- 
ing of the fertilizing materials which would reproduce 
the vegetable growth. 

It is therefore apparent to the least observant that we 
are surely burning the candle at both ends, and this 
double destruction should be brought home to the minds 
of the building public. The waste through fire of the 
products of the forests which have been incorporated 
into buildings brings about another element of destruc- 
tion in the waste of other building materials and the 
contents of the buildings. 

It is almost incredible that . $250,000,000 could be 
wiped out of existence in a year's time through fire 
losses, and yet we find people of intelligence willing to 
invest their money in buildings having wooden interior 
construction. Architects owe it to their clients, news- 
papers owe it to their readers, and builders owe it to 
their patrons to use all their influence toward the pre- 
vention of this extravagant and useless waste of good 
materials. 

It is estimated by competent authorities that white 
pine lumber will disappear from the markets within 
eight years, and that the long leaf pine forests, which are 
rapidly giving way to the sawmills, will soon disappear 
and that structural and finishing lumber will rapidly ad- 
vance in price. There are two ways of checking this 
waste ; one is to curtail the consumption of lumber by 
using other materials for building, and the other is the 
reforestration of large tracts of land by the national gov- 
ernment. Under existing conditions of ownership of 
land, this latter scheme is possible only to a limited 
degree, and then only on waste or government land. 

The elimination of wood structural material from 
buildings is quite possible by a slight increase in cost over 
the ordinary methods of wood joist and stud construc- 
tion, and the more elaborate the building the smaller the 
percentage of increase of cost. It is quite possible for 
an architect to make a comparison in each instance, and 



if carefully done he will find that the greater part of the 
increased cost is in the floor systems and the partitions. 
When the very superior construction of the floors is 
taken into consideration there is no room for argument, 
as the shrinkage of the wood joist and the studs, with 
their attendant openings along the washboards and the 
cracking of plastered walls, alone are sufficient to con- 
demn the use of wood in any but the cheapest buildings. 

If the architect will use his knowledge and informa- 
tion with his client, he will find that it is possible in 
many instances to persuade them to use non-combustible 
construction, if the merits and the relative costs are prop- 
erly placed before ihem. It is indeed the moral duty of 
every one connected with the building trades to stop the 
waste by fire and forest destruction, and no effort should 
be spared by those having the knowledge to disseminate 
it for the benefit of mankind. 

Looking at it from an immediately practical stand- 
point, if $250,000,000 is regarded as a yearly interest at 
five per cent it will cover an investment of $5,000,000,000. 
Every intelligent man in the building trades can see that 
if this additional amount of money was permanently in- 
vested 'in building materials it would mean, not only more 
business for him, but easier living. Money that is 
burned up is wasted and ceases to earn money, and is 
wiped off as "capital account," and goes to the "loss 
account," and is absolute waste. 

The replacement of burned material prevents its use 
in new structures which would in turn earn money and 
provide additional facilities for comfort and increase of 
business. 

It needs some good hard talking on the part of those 
who know the truth about waste to make the average 
man understand that fire loss is waste, and not merely 
taking money from one pocket and putting it in the 
other, as many suppose. 

An argument often advanced by the unthinking is 
that fires "put money into circulation." They seem to 
be unable to realize that money is merely the token of 
values, and if its interchange does not represent equiva- 
lent values, then one party to the transaction is not 
getting a square deal. It is always possible to either 
prove or disprove an argument by taking it to its limits. 
If it is a good thing, as some people argue, to " put money 
into circulation," then it might be possible easily to ac- 
complish this, by say, having the government employ 
men to pump out the sea. Of course this needs no 
answer, neither does the argument of the unthinking 
people who argue that fire waste is a good thing because 
it " puts money into circulation." 



go 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Catholic Church Architecture. 

BY C. GRANT LA FARGE. 

( The church work shown in connection with this article is by Hein 
I.a Purge.) 

IN the discussion of ecclesiastical architecture as 
applied specifically to the building of Catholic 
churches in this country, perhaps we shall find it of 
interest to compare the views presented by the professors 
of that faith with the trend of opinion manifested by the 
adherents of the Episcopal Church. These involve princi- 
pally the professional relations between the client and 
the architect, and the general question of style. 

Let us look first at the professional relation. 

There has been an enormous and widespread build- 
ing of Catholic churches in America, extending over a 
considerable period of years, and so far as the Catholic 
clergy have had anything to say, in the columns of this 
magazine relating to their experience with architects, it 
has been to express 
what seems to be a 
fairly acute dissatis- 
faction, on grounds 
in the main of lack 
of professional integ- 
rity. This is a mat- 
ter, on the one hand, 
of vital moment to 
the clergy charged 
with the responsibil- 
ity of building; and 
on the other it is one 
of intense interest to 
those members of the 
architectural profes- 
sion who desire to 
exercise their talents 
in the designing of 
churches. 

If we examine the 





INTERIOR, CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF MT. CARMEL. 

Example of light, strong and easily built roof truss entirely of planks 





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CHAPEL AT WEST POINT, N. Y. 

great mass of the Catholic buildings here, what do we 
see? Certainly not a notable quality of contribution to 
that architectural achievement which is one of the most 



CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF MT. CARMEL, TUXEDO PARK, N. Y. 

striking manifesta- 
tions of our national 
growth. In the great 
march of artistic de- 
velopment it has 
lagged pitifully be- 
hind, — poverty o 
construction; paucity 
of aesthetic idea ; ig- 
norance of the funda- 
mentals of sound and 
traditional design to 
the point of illiter- 
acy; inconceivable 
tawdriness of deco- 
ration and appoint- 
ment; cheap shams 
and mock gorgeous- 
ness, where honest 
simplicity would 
have satisfied the 
eye, and left the soul in tranquillity. There are excep- 
tions to this, of course ; woe betide the writer were it not 
so, but in the main the postulate holds painfully true. 

Of Protestant building there is a different story to tell. 
It will not do to look too far back, for we should find 
ourselves in a time when the Catholic Church was with- 
out the means to express itself upon the soil of the New 
World. But since the time when it has possessed and 
employed those means, it is fair to make the comparison. 
During a part of that period it is true that Protestant 
church building has shared the general poverty of archi- 
tectural resources that characterized our efforts in other 
directions, but it is also true that it produced examples 
notably in advance of the general average, such, for 
instance, as the work of Upjohn and Renwick. And 
coming down to our own time, the works of its architects 
which merit serious consideration, and frequently high 
praise, at the hands of their professional brethren and of 
the public at large, make a long list that need not be 
rehearsed; the pages of this and other technical journals 
conclusively exhibit the fact. The question we may prop- 
erly ask is, whether the architectural achievements in 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



9i 





CATHEDRAL AT SEATTLE, WASH. 

The building stands on a height overlooking Puget 
Sound, and will be visible from a vast distance, hence 
great importance is given to the towers. 




PRESENT CONDITION OF BUILDING. 



I'LANS. 



9 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



this particular field correspond in value, practically and 
ideally, with that of the architectural product of the time 
in the civic, the domestic and the commercial fields; and 
to this question the answer must be in the affirmative. 

Now, in all that the Episcopal clergy have to say in 
their discussion of the subject in these columns there 
is no hint of distrust or dissatisfaction with the architects 
whom they have employed upon what may be desig- 
nated as ethical grounds, — and surely they speak from 
a long and wide experience. We have then, to state it 
briefly, on the one hand, banal inferiority and the pro- 
ducer viewed with marked suspicion ; on the other, a 
very fairly high grade of achievement, with presumably 
no disposition toward its authors other than that of 
counsel to aid them in the efforts yet before them. This 
is not to say, by any manner of means, that the valuable 
and suggestive papers contributed by the Catholic clergy 



oldest of all the Christian creeds, its deep and abiding 
faith, its continuity and its power. Such a condition as 
is indicated must be to him a source of lively regret, and 
he most naturally inquires as to the reason for its 
existence. 

One obvious fact appears : that the architects charged 
with the erection of Protestant churches have numbered 
among them the foremost men of the profession, men of 
authority, holding convictions and competent to maintain 
them, to guide their clients when guidance has been neces- 
sary ; while, except in a few rare cases, the designers of 
the Catholic edifices are men who have failed to command 
either recognition from their fellows or any adequate 
measure of public esteem. There is no difficulty in deter- 
mining who those are that may reasonably be expected 
to fall within the former category; Mr. Maginnis has indi- 
cated this so clearly that no more need be said. 





CHURCH OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, PROVIDENCE, R. 1. 

FACADE: Red brick, red terra cotta and brownstone. Church begun in 1899 and still lacks the finish of vestibule and the stone entrance 
steps The triple arches of entrance will stand open, the bronze doors of the inner vestibule being set quite far back. This will give deep 
shadows under the arches. The campanile is built with a vertical curve or entasis. 

NAVE: The cinquefoil ceiling is of cypress wood. All the lower walls clothed with marble. The marble has been used very carefully to 
make a well-considered color scheme, increasing in richness as it goes toward the sanctuary. The electric light brackets arc temporary. 



are not filled with practical advice that we owe it to our- 
selves to lay to heart, as well as with the exposition of 
just those points of theory which they, above all others, 
must advance and from which our greatest stimulus must 
come. But it is the one aspect alone that is just now 
under consideration, and that only because what we seek 
is a true mutual understanding. Whatever will shed 
light upon that is too valuable to be passed by in a mat- 
ter of so great concern as this is at the present time. No 
thoughtful architect who regards his calling with a 
proper pride or a due sense of its serious responsibilities, 
no architect of scholarly attainment — certainly no such 
architect who belongs to the Catholic faith — but must 
keenly appreciate the momentous importance of this 
problem that lies before his profession, — to give ade- 
quate structural expression in his native land to this 



Now why should there be this divergence in practice be- 
tween the opposite bodies? It is not easy to accept quite 
the view advanced by Mr. Maginnis as to the preoccupa- 
tion of the church with problems of development and or- 
ganization. The history of past epochs does not seem to 
point this way, for to instance only a few, the time that 
saw the beginning of the great abbeys and monastic insti- 
tutions of France was one that demanded of the church no 
less than the establishment of a whole scheme of civiliza- 
tion ; and the stupendous flowering of the Gothic grew 
from the midst of a struggle, both religious and political, 
as great as any in which she has ever been engaged. 
And for some nine hundred years she wrestled with so 
serious a problem as the celibacy of the clergy, — from 
before Calixtus I in the first quarter of the third century 
until the final settlement in 1027, — a period that covers 



THE BRICKBIHLDER 



93 



the exquisite beauty of Byzantium, Ravenna and Roman- 
esque Italy, as well as the vast body of precursors of the 
Gothic of France. Instances, too, are not wanting — the 
quality of Mr. Maginnis's own work shows that — in our 
own moment of time. One naturally hesitates to dwell 
upon personal experience, but it is strikingly true of the 
writer's that the client who has been most sympathetic 
and open-minded, most keenly appreciative of artistic 
necessity down to ultimate detail of every sort, most 
patient under the limitations of material resource for 
many years, has been the pastor of a parish that presents 
all the difficulties that beset the growth of our typical 
Catholic communities in New England. 

But Mr. Maginnis carries conviction, indeed, when he 



beginnings of that local culture which is, after all, but a 
pretty recent affair. This isolation, moreover, and the 
composition of the parishes, at the same time that they 
have separated the church from much of the artistic 
activity of the more leisured and wealthy sections of the 
community, have also contributed to produce a fertile 
ground for the action of a sort of parochial politics, under 
which the artistic destinies of the church have been too 
often confided to the incapable hands of those chosen for 
other reasons than proved fitness. To determine the fact 
is to indicate its remedy. Many of the conditions hastily 
touched upon above are passing — have passed in large 
measure, and with their disappearance it is not too much 
to expect that the church will play a part as distinguished 





CHURCH OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, PROVIDENCE 



SOUTH TRANSEPT ■ Shows side altar : partly in marble and partly in modeled plaster relief. The panels in wainscot bearing crosses are 
ultimately to be replaced by the Stations of the Cross, in colored relief. The rectangular panel over altar and the circular space in the wall above 

are to receive figure paintings. ,....„ 

HIGH ALTAR AND BALDACHINO: Dome of copper gilded, rest of marble. All the details, even to the crucifix and altar candlesticks, 

designed by the architects. 



points out the detachment of the clergy and the influence 
exerted by that condition in saying: "The high standards 
now prevailing in our civic and domestic architecture, 
however, afford the most pertinent evidence of the remark- 
able elevation in national taste. That the Catholic Church 
will come into more sympathetic touch with this beau- 
tiful development is inevitable, as the conditions 
which have made for its detachment become gradually 
relaxed." 

The church here in the beginning was regarded as an 
alien; its large and rapidly growing parishes have been 
made up for the most part of the poor and the newly 
arrived citizen, and under such circumstances it has not 
been strange to find it isolated to a great extent from the 



in the development of American art as she already has 
in other fields ; that she will come in fact into her birth- 
right. 

When we lay our course upon the sea of discussion of 
style we are in troubled waters, vexed by cross-currents 
of conflicting opinion, and lashed by the winds of vehe- 
ment controversy. They roar from the Gothic North, 
and rage from the Renascent South; dark squalls scurry 
out of the Byzantine East, and from the West queer little 
whirlwinds born of that iridescent dream, the " Ameri- 
can style," dance their brief fantastic way through the 
confusion ; while in certain latitudes there is easy sailing 
in the favorable trade winds of Beaux Arts Paris. The 
vehemence rises sometimes to passionate heights, and 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



goes so far that it even has become a curious manifesta- 
tion of the odium theologicum, on the part of one of the 
most brilliant contributors to these papers, Mr. Cram, 
who, forgetting his own previous animadversions upon 
the sad example of Ruskin, would have us believe that all 
of art and religion, morality and the Divine Glory, shall 
be forever imprisoned in what Henry James must forgive 
us for calling "horrific vitreous Perpendicular." Yet, 
however the intending navigator may at first feel em- 




dominant and its most natural expression through the 
inspiration of the English Gothic. 

The Catholic clergy, on the other hand, while also 
giving vent to the idea that a wide range of choice 
is to be contemplated, show no general tendency to 
fasten upon any one style as the most suitable to 
the concrete embodiment of their church. To lay 
this to indifference on their part, to failure of atten- 
tion or absence of the interest necessary to produce 
personal conviction, in a matter of such imme- 
diate consequence to the welfare of that which lies 
in their charge, would be unfair. Distracted they 
may be by the contrariety of view among the 
architectural practitioners, or disheartened fre- 
quently by the failure of those whom they have 
unfortunately and unwisely confided in to give 
worthy expression to such aspirations as they 
may themselves have had ; lacking in experience 
of the artistic problem, but not indifferent, far 
from it. Rather would it seem theirs to believe 
that Catholicism and catholicity go hand in 
hand; that they may feel the inheritance of their 
church to be as wide in time and space as all 
of Christianity. 

If this be so, it has a weighty bearing upon the 
question of style to-day. For it means that thej 



ST. MATlHiiW S CHURCH, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Plan and longitudinal section 
The church is only partly built. 
The interior is to be of extreme 
richness of color, marbles and 
mosaic being extensively used 
The high altar will stand under 
the dome in a low enclosed choir. 



barrassed in his choice of 
pilot through this turbu- 
lence, reflection should con- 
vince him that the real 
meaning of it all is life — 
pulsing vitality, throbbing 
interest; all in short that 
is at the opposite pole 
from the hopeless dullness of self-satisfied inert stag- 
nation. 

In comparing the views of the clerical contributors, 
one interesting point forces itself upon our attention. 
The Episcopal clergy freely admit the claims upon us of 
various styles, and recognize their inherent charm, but 
this is by way of being, as it were, the expression of in- 
dividual taste; the consensus of opinion is in the direc- 
tion of an admission that the Anglican inheritance is 




church is not French nor English, Italian nor Spanish ; not 
Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic nor Renaissance ; bound 
neither to the time when the Pagan basilica was di- 
verted to the uses of the Christian church, nor to that 
of the glorious medi;cval efflorescence, nor to the days 
of the Great Separation; but that potentially all of these 
are hers, so that she make wise use of them according 
to site and climate, material resources and structural 
needs. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



95 



The Tarsney Act. 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

BY GLENN BROWN. 

THE history of Federal architecture is interesting, as 
an example of the more or less vague methods 
adopted by a democracy in the treatment of art. 

It is well to note that in our early history the Presi- 
dents were given direct control of Federal buildings, and 
Washington, Jefferson and Madison personally interested 
themselves in this work ; each endeavored to select the 
most skillful architect of his day, and insisted on well- 
established forms and proportions being applied to our 
buildings. The selection of Thomas U. Walter as archi- 
tect for the extension of the Capitol, in opposition to Con- 
gress, was the last instance of the personal action of a 
President, until President Roosevelt established the loca- 
tion of the Agricultural Building on the Mall in 1904. 

In 1855 Mr. Walter made plans for the extension of 
the Treasury Department. A. B. Young was appointed 
superintending architect of this building, acting under 
Captain Bowman, Corps of Engineers ; with this ap- 
pointment the office of the Supervising Architect of the 
Treasury Department originated. With such a conven- 
ient corps of official experts at their command, it became 
the custom of Congress to place custom houses, post 
offices and United States courthouses under this office. 

When this custom became an established practice there 
was a gradual depreciation in the character of Fed- 
eral architecture, the work becoming distinctly inferior 
in artistic qualities to private work designed by the best 
qualified architects. 

It proved unfortunate that appointments to this office, 
with three notable exceptions, were made a matter of 
political expediency, and politics, not merit, governed in 
the appointment of the larger number of office assistants 
as well as in that of the chief. 

The American Institute of Architects, with a keen ap- 
preciation of this rapid depreciation in the character of 
our national architecture, after several years' considera- 
tion of the subject in 1875, formulated a Bill to regulate 
and improve the Federal practice. During the same year 
William A. Potter, Supervising Architect, who fully 
appreciated the necessity of a reorganization of the office, 
introduced a modification of the Institute Bill. This Bill 
the Institute approved and zealously supported. Modifi- 
cations of this measure and entirely new ones were in- 
troduced from 1875 to 1892 ; several of these measures 
being advocated before Congress by the Institute. Dur- 
ing the presidency of Edward H. Kendall, the direct- 
ors of the Institute introduced a Bill which was modified 
and known as " Tarsney Bill." The committees of both 
the House and Senate accorded the directors and repre- 
sentative architects from various sections of the country 
a hearing, after which they reported the measure as mod- 
ified favorably, and it became a law February 20, 1893. 

THE TARSNEY ACT. 

(U. S. Statutes at Large, Vol. 27.) 

" Chap. 146. — An act authorizing the Secretary of the 

Treasury to obtain plans and specifications for public 

buildings to be erected under the supervision of the 



Treasury Department, and providing for local super- 
vision of the construction of the same. 

"AY it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 
c/ the United States of America in Congress assembled, 

That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and lie is hereby, 
authorized in his discretion to obtain plans, drawings, and 
specifications for the erection of public buildings for the 
United States authorized by Congress, to be erected under 
the supervision and direction of the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, by competition among architects under such condi- 
tions as he may prescribe, and to make payment for the 
service of the architect whose plan may be selected out of 
the appropriations for the respective buildings: Provided, 
that not less than five architects shall be invited by the 
said secretary to compete for the furnishing of such plans 
and specifications and the supervision of such construc- 
tion: and provided further, that the general supervision of 
the work shall continue in the office of the Supervising 
Architect of the Treasury Department, the Supervising 
Architect to be the representative of the government in 
all matters connected with the erection and completion of 
such buildings, the receipt of proposals, the award of 
contracts therefor, and the disbursement of moneys there- 
under, and perform all the duties that now pertain to his 
office, except the preparation of the drawings and specifi- 
cations for such buildings and the local supervision of the 
construction thereof, the said drawings and specifications, 
however, to be subject at all times to modification and 
change relating to plan or arrangement of building and 
selection of material therefor as may be directed by the 
Secretary of the Treasury. 

"Approved February 20, 1893." 
Within a month after the passage of the act John (1. 
Carlisle became Secretary of the Treasury. A delega- 
tion from the Institute urged him to select architects 
for future Federal buildings under the new law. 
The secretary declined to follow this advice on the 
ground that the act conflicted with laws already in 
operation, stating that there was no clause in the law- 
repealing other laws in conflict therewith. 

Lawyers of established reputation gave favorable 
opinions on the working qualities of the law, but as the 
act was not obligatory, and its operation was in the dis- 
cretion of the secretary, Mr. Carlisle refused to act under 
its provisions. 

This refusal of the secretary caused the noted Burn- 
ham-Carlisle correspondence. D. H. Burnham at this 
time, 1894, being president of the Institute, conducted 
the campaign for good architecture with great force and 
determination. The matter was taken up by the techni- 
cal and daily press in all sections of the United States. 
Although this discussion had no effect upon Mr. Carlisle. 
it called the attention of the intelligent and thinking 
people of the country to the degraded character of our 
Federal architecture and the unbusinesslike methods of 
conducting the work at this period. 

The facts brought out during the discussion proved 
conclusively the inferior character of design, the excess 
ive cost of office work and building construction, and 
the unreasonable time required for the erection of gov- 
ernment buildings. 

The Dockery Commission, experts appointed to inves- 
tigate the business methods of conducting various 



9 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



departments of the government and to suggest changes 
that would economize, simplify and better the conduct 
of government business, made a report on the Super- 
vising Architect's office May 25, 1894. In this report 
they quote the only laws under which the Supervising 
Architect's office is now operated — the Sundry Civil 
Act, March 3, 1875, and the Tarsney Act, February 20, 
1893. This commission recommended competition 
under the later act, as well as the reorganization of the 
Supervising Architect's office into a public building 
bureau to represent the government, and advised that 
there would be a saving in expense to the government 
by giving out the work to private practitioners at the 
regular rate of five per cent. 

The publicity given the matter by the press and the 
investigations by those in authority prepared the way for 
putting the act in force under the new secretary, Lyman 
J. Gage, as one of his early official acts. Under his direc- 
tion and with the advice and assistance of the officers of 
the Institute, a programme was drawn August 20, 1897, 
for the Norfolk, Ya., Courthouse and Post Office. The 
drawings were opened October 12, 1897, and the jury 
awarded the work to Wyatt & Nolting of Baltimore. 
The Ellis Island Immigrant Station was awarded to Bor- 
ing & Tilton, December 7, 1897; and the Post Office and 
Custom House, Camden, N. J., to Rankin &- Kellogg, 
March 1, 1898. These were followed by the awards to 
Cass Gilbert of the New York Custom House, Septem- 
ber, 1899. and of the Baltimore Custom House to Horn- 
blower & Marshall, June 14, 1900. From 1900 to 
the present time, the following awards for Federal 
buildings have been made: Allentown, George Bispham 
Page; Atlantic City, Davis & Davis; Battle Creek, A. 
Kahn; Cleveland, A. W. Brunner; Green Bay, German 
&Lignell; Hammond, J. T. Hutton; Huntington, Par- 
ker & Thomas; Indianapolis, Rankin & Kellogg: Kan- 
kakee, Pond & Pond ; Marblehead, Peters & Rice; Nashua, 
F. M. Wakefield: Providence, Clarke & Howe; San Fran- 
cisco, Eames & Young; Superior, Barber & Barber; 
Wheeling, Marsh & Peter; Vincennes, Vonnegut & 
Bohn ; Zanesville, George F. Hammond. Although the 
final selection has rested with the Secretary of the 
Treasury, he has in every instance given the work in 
accordance with the selection made by the expert jury. 

METHOD OF SELECTING COMPETITORS. 

A carefully selected list is prepared giving the names 
of architects who have proved by their executed work, 
their capacity in design, construction, and executive 
ability, for the conduct of large work. This list is sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of the Treasury and from it he 
selects a limited number of competitors. 

In this selection, qualifications being considered equal, 
consideration is given to the convenience of the residence 
of the architect to the building to be erected. 

First, acting upon a ruling of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, it was the custom to select half the competitors 
for their known skill and ability and half for political 
expediency. The competitions have shown that the com- 
petitors selected for their known skill have submitted 
distinctly superior plans and designs, and no competitor 
who has been selected for political reasons has presented 
a scheme of sufficient merit to win. When this fact had 



been clearly demonstrated by experience the Secretary 
of the Treasury changed his ruling and now all compet- 
itors are selected from a list of architects, any one of 
whom, as shown by his executed work, is qualified to 
undertake building for the Federal government. In 
making the selection of competitors, due consideration is 
given to the magnitude and character of the building to 
be constructed. 

METHOD OF CONDUCTING COMPETITIONS. 

The regulations for the conduct of competitions under 
the Tarsney Act were issued by Secretary of the Treas- 
ury Lyman J. Gage, July 3, 1897. 

The broad principles of the regulations were : 
i. The selection of at least five architects of good 
professional standing as competitors. 

2. Jury of two experts and the Supervising Architect 
of the Treasury to report on the merit of the plans. 

3. The award to the successful competitor of the 
preparation of plans and the supervision of the building. 

4. A fee of five per cent on the cost of the work up to 
$500,000, three and one-half per cent on next $500,000, 
and two and one-half per cent on an excess of $1,000,000. 

5. No unsuccessful competitor has a claim against 
the government. 

6. Reserved the right to reject all designs in case 
none were considered suitable. 

7. Detailed estimates of cost to be submitted. 

8. Competitors, by violation of conditions or an 
attempt to influence the jury, forfeited all privileges. 

9. No member of the jury to have direct or indirect 
interest in any one of the designs submitted. 

10. Submission of drawings and description without 
any distinguishing mark. 

11. Competitor's name in plain sealed envelope. 

1 2. Jury to place out of competition any set of draw 
ings which violated any of the conditions. 

13. The selection of one of the designs by the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, and its approval by the Postmas- 
ter-General and the Secretary of the Interior, to be final 
and conclusive. 

1 4. The secretary reserves the right to remove the 
architect or revoke his commission if found incompetent, 
or an improper person, allowing equitable compensation 
for work already done. 

15. The architect to make full working drawings, 
modifying any of his competition plans to meet further 
requirements. 

16. Further clause in reference to modification and 
revision of plans. 

17. The commission or fee of architect to be com- 
puted on the actual cost of construction, not including 
furniture, gas and electric light fixtures and electric light 
plants. 

18. The commission to be in full for architect's ser- 
vices, including traveling expenses. 

19. The architect shall be paid one-fifth when pre- 
liminary drawings are completed ; three-tenths when 
working drawings are completed, and a percentage 
monthly on the basis of the work performed. 

20. Until the actual cost of the building is deter- 
mined the fee is based on the proposed cost, and finally 
upon the actual cost of the building when completed. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



97 



21. The department to provide a superintendent of 
construction satisfactory to the architect. 

22. The architect to provide one set of tracings of all 
drawings for the use of the government, the department 
to make mechanical reproductions. 

23. Return of drawings to unsuccessful competitors, 
and no use of part of their plans will be made without 
the consent of the author. 

24. Payments will be made on the construction, upon 
vouchers certified by the architect and countersigned by 
the department. 

25. The Supervising Architect will receive proposals 
and determine the manner in which the various branches 
of the work are to be let. 

26. All contracts, except for exigency expenses, shall 
be advertised, and awarded by the Supervising Architect 
to the lowest responsible bidder. 

27. The Supervising Architect is instructed to make 
the necessary provisions to carry out these regulations. 

28. The regulations are subject to change or modifi- 
cation at the pleasure of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

The regulations have been modified from time to 
time. An important modification was made in the case 
of the New York Custom House, May 11, 1899, when the 
fee for professional service, instead of the sliding scale 
for constructions of over $500,000 (clause 4), was fixed 
at five per cent on the total cost of the work. The Ellis 
Island building was the only structure that has been 
awarded under the sliding scale. In the rules for the 
Baltimore Custom House, the number of experts on the 
jury was increased from two to four (clause 2). Clause 
21 has been changed, abolishing the office of superintend- 
ent and detailing an inspector for the work. February 
24, 1903, a new set of regulations was issued embodying 
the above-mentioned changes, at the same time re- 
wording and rearranging several of the clauses and add- 
ing a requirement that no employee of the Treasury 
Department shall enter any competition held under these 
regulations. 

In addition to the general regulations, a specific pro- 
gramme has been drawn for each building. This pro- 
gramme gave the contemplated cost of the proposed build- 
ing, the uses for which it was intended, and the number 
of rooms and floor area required for each. The number 
and character of the drawings required were also given in 
the programmes as well as the date for, and methods 
of, their delivery. In addition to the drawings an esti- 
mate of cost has been required, in each case giving the 
cubical contents of the building, the exterior surface 
of all stonework, and the amount of all contracts neces- 
sary to complete the building, exclusive of mural paint- 
ings, electric plant, gas and electric fixtures, and the 
architect's fee. 

METHOD OK MAKING AWARDS. 

The drawings and descriptions are received at the 
Treasury Department on a specified day without names 
or marks of identification. 

The jury, composed of four architects of established 
reputation, together with the Supervising Architect meet 
at the Treasury, when the packages containing the draw- 
ings are opened and each sheet of drawings, the descrip- 



tion, and the sealed blank envelope containing the 
name of the competitor of each set, is given the same 
number. The numbered and sealed envelopes contain- 
ing the names of the competitors arc laid aside unopened. 
The drawings are then compared, studied and criticised 
by the members of the jury, the drawings showing the 
least merit being gradually eliminated. The final selec- 
tion is made by a vote of the jury, and in ninety per cent 
of the cases the opinion of the jury has been unanimous. 
The juries have been conscientious in the performance of 
their duty, taking from one to three days in making the 
selection according to the magnitude of the building and 
the merit of the designs submitted. 

The jury after making their decisions report to the 
Secretary of the Treasury, who in each instance has con- 
firmed their award. After the award has been approved 
by the Secretary of the Treasury the envelope numbered 
to correspond with the successful design is opened by 
him and the name of the successful competitor is an- 
nounced. 

After the publication of the designs it has been a 
peculiarly unanimous feeling in the profession that the 
most meritorious scheme has in each case been selected, 
and this feeling extends to the competitors except in a 
limited number of cases. 

The only case of friction developed was the decision 
on the New York Custom House," which was one of the 
early competitions. The jury had presented to them two 
schemes of nearly equal merit, and they determined to 
open the envelopes of each set and invite the competitors 
who submitted the drawings in these two sets to appear 
before the committee and give an explanation of their 
schemes. This was done, and while it is doubtful 
whether the judgment of the jury was influenced by 
the explanations, it created a spirit of antagonism, a 
desire of other competitors to explain their schemes, and 
was followed by a determined effort to throw aside the 
award of the jury. This was unfortunate, and disaster 
was averted only by the determined stand of Secretary 
Gage in upholding the award of the jury. 

The jury felt that an error of judgment had been 
committed in opening the two envelopes and allowing 
the competitors to appear before them. After this ex- 
perience the Secretary of the Treasury has required the 
decision and award to be made before the sealed envelope 
containing the name of the competitor is opened. 

There is a general feeling that the character of design 
will clearly indicate to the jury the name of the compet- 
itor. I have heard from a large number of the jurors, 
and have acted on four juries myself, and in few if any 
cases did the character of the design indicate the archi- 
tect, and the jury were in the dark as to the successful 
competitor until the envelope had been opened by the 
Secretary of the Treasury and the name disclosed. 

There has been only one instance where the jury felt 
that a competitor had placed indicating marks on his 
drawings. This set of drawings was promptly laid aside 
and their merits were not considered. 

The country is to be congratulated upon the fact that 
in the twenty-two competitions, the profession feel that 
awards in every case have been unbiased and that the 
best scheme submitted in the competition has been 
selected. 



9 8 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



It is commonly supposed that an effective drawing 
or a brilliantly designed elevation would be the winning 
factor in a competition of this character; strange to say 
this has had little influence with the juries, and a large 
percentage of the awards have been made on the merits 
of the plan for the building. The arrangement and 
grouping of the rooms for conveniences of business, 
symmetry, and monumental effects have been the con- 
trolling factors in making the awards. 

After the award has been made, a contract in accord- 
ance with the regulations and programme has in each case 
been made between the architect and the Secretary of 
the Treasury acting for the United States. 

)I> RESULTS OF THE TARSNEY ACT. 

The various Federal structures erected under the 
United States government from i860 to 1896 are dis- 
tinctly inferior as artistic productions to buildings of the 
same character designed by private architects. This 
must have been due to the selection of the Supervising 
Architect and his assistant, usually for political reasons. 
Messrs. Potter, Hill and Aiken may be mentioned as 
men of such ability as to have produced good results 
under the hampering conditions which surrounded them. 
Under the direction of Secretary Gage, in 1897, the Su- 
pervising Architect and his assistants were placed under 
the Civil Service rules, and the architect and his assist- 
ants have since that date secured their positions by 
merit under Civil .Service examinations. James Knox 
Taylor was the first to secure the office in this way, 
and in the past eight years the character of designs 
made in the office has been of a high grade. The large 
amount of important private work in the past year 
has induced many of the designers and draughtsmen, 
who have shown their ability, to leave the office of 
the Supervising Architect and enter into private offices 
or independent practice. What effect this will have 
upon the character of work in the office is yet to be 
shown. 

The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Shaw, in a com- 
munication to Congress, says: " I have to state that the 
experience of the department with the seven buildings 
completed and under construction has been on the whole 
favorable as to merits of designs and quality of constuc- 
tive work." 

Under the Tarsney Act it must be conceded that the 
work is immeasurably superior to any building done by 
the government from i860 to 1896, and it, together with 
the merit system which now rules in the office, has been 
a material factor in uplifting the character of work done 
by the corps in the Supervising Architect's office during 
the past six years. 

The successful competitions under this law have in- 
duced other departments of the government and muni- 
cipal authorities to select architects under regulations 
similar to the provisions of the act. Among such compe- 
titions may be mentioned the Municipal Building, the 
Agricultural Building and the Municipal Hospital in 
Washington. 

It has also been the cause of many municipal au- 
thorities conducting competitions on a higher plane. 
with reasonable restrictions and under proper safe- 
guards. 



Burnt Clay Construction at San 
Francisco. 

BY CHARLES H. ALDEN, )K. 

ONLY a personal investigation of the ruined city 
of San Francisco enables one to realize the extent 
of the destruction to buildings and property in the 
catastrophe of April 18, 1906. To the observer, the 
actual destruction will undoubtedly be found far in excess 
of any ideas gained from outside information. No 
other conflagration gives us a basis for comparison in 
extent of devastated area. Here practically an entire city 
was destroyed; the buildings remaining unaffected on 
the outskirts are so comparatively few in number and 
unimportant in character that they hardly affect our 
impression of the total disaster. Entering from the bay, 
the natural gateway of the city, and walking through the 
business thoroughfares, the ruined and desolated areas 
extend as far as the eye can reach. Here there is no 
" fire line " to mark the limit of destruction. The few 
buildings in the devastated area which have escaped 
stand isolated with only their shells intact, gutted by the 
flames, but bearing witness to the strength and resistance 
of modern building construction. 

The burnt clay products are found to have been exten- 
sively used in various ways, very generally in connection 
with wood and other combustible construction. A first 
impression leads one to form the idea that these prod- 
ucts have failed in their fire-resisting qualities. A 
further study of the ruins and consideration of the 
causes of the disaster modify the opinion to a belief that 
the material itself was not at fault, but that the wholesale 
destruction and various other kinds of damage were due 
to the unusual character of the destructive agencies and 
the very incomplete and misguided manner in which our 
knowledge of the art of fireproof construction has been 
practised. We know how to build strongly with fire- 
resisting materials and in a practically fireproof manner, 
but the necessity of limiting cost and rushing the work to 
completion prevents our taking advantage of sound meth- 
ods and building safely, as we ought to be compelled to 
do by the city ordinances. San Francisco seems to have 
been particularly lax in this regard. Combustible build- 
ings have been built in the thickly settled portions of 
the city, and many of them are of recent origin. 

The causes of the destructionof the city were three ; — 
earthquake, fire and dynamite. The damage caused by 
each separately is at present impossible to determine. 
The earthquake was felt suddenly and continued inter 
mittently with varying intensity for a considerable period. 
It was followed closely by the fire, and during and after 
the fire large quantities of dynamite were used on many 
of the buildings without apparent method. That the 
earthquake alone could have disastrous effect is evi- 
dent from its action on the surface of the ground and 
from buildings known to have escaped the fire and dyna- 
mite. The effects of the shock, however, were found to 
be very elusive, one portion of a building being seriously 
affected while another portion entirely escaped injury. 
The character and actual effect of these shocks do 
not seem to be clearly understood; we can only say 
that firm ground and solid foundations were better able 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



99 



to resist, than the more plastic soil and filled-in land, which 
was seriously affected. The new Post Office building was 
in a locality violently shaken, the ground in front of it 
being raised and depressed, causing undulations varying 
from four to five feet from the horizontal. The building 
itself was but slightly damaged, some cracks appearing in 
the outside stonework and slight damage was done to the 
interior partitions, which are of terra cotta. The universal 
extent of the quake is shown in the wholesale destruc- 
tion of chimneys in the surrounding districts. 

The effects of fire on the brick and terra cotta struc- 
tures are not easily separated from the destruction by 
dynamite. The fire-resisting qualities of modern fireproof 
construction have been tested in other conflagrations. 
That at San Francisco teaches nothing radically new as 
to the effect on the material, but its imperfect use is re- 
sponsible in most cases for the disastrous consequences. 
Intense heat caused some chipping and discoloration to 

1 Here there is no ' fire line ' to mark the limit of destruction." 



occupancy within one month from the time of the 
disaster. 

Near the City Hall and Post Office is an eight-story 
brick building with terra cotta walls and floors in 
good condition. It is now being used for banking pur- 
poses. The columns are fi reproofed by four-inch terra 
cotta blocks which were not properly anchored or wired in 
place and in some cases they have fallen off. Pipes are 
carried next to the columns inside the fireproofing. The 
terra cotta partitions are bonded to the column casings, 
and where partitions have failed the casings are torn from 
the columns. This method of column protection is 
noticed in other buildings, notably in the Crocker, 
a large granite and terra cotta structure in the heart 
of the burnt district. The floors here are of terra 
cotta tile of side construction and are well preserved; 
any structural damage that has been done is believed to 
have been the result of dynamite. The safe deposit 

A line of steel skeleton, burnt-clav-clothed structures. 




" Fairmont Hotel (exterior walls of terra cotta), though gutted, still 
crowns Nob Hill, its outer walls practically uninjured, its floors of 
concrete ruined " 

architectural terra cotta, but of all materials standing it 
is by far the best preserved. 

The exact destruction by dynamite explosion cannot 
be determined. Portions of buildings which were stated 
on good authority to have been intact after the fire are 
now reduced to ruins through the action of the explosive 
inside their own walls or in neighboring buildings. 
Dynamite certainly had a disastrous effect on all forms 
of building construction in San Francisco. The effect 
on walls was similar to that caused by the quake as it 
produced cracks and scaling. 

Most of the buildings in the burnt area had bear- 
ing walls of brick with floors of timber construction. 
The falling of the brick walls was caused largely by the 
poor quality of the cementing material. In most cases 
the bricks were separated from each other merely by the 
shock of falling, showing little adhesion of the mortar. 

The Call Building is conspicuous among those that 
survived the ordeal. It was one of the best built in the 
city, being of terra cotta fireproof construction. It was 
structurally intact before the use of dynamite on sur- 
rounding buildings, and will be repaired, and ready for 




" The few buildings that have escaped destruction bear witness to 
the strength and resistance of modern building construction.'' 



vaults in the basement are uninjured and are in present 
use. The end construction method of laying the floor 
tile found in another building shows damage to a greater 
extent, but a comparison of the two methods is useless 
in this instance, for the two buildings were undoubtedly 
subjected to entirely different conditions. Another 
method of terra cotta flooring is found in the Empo- 
rium, a large store building also in the heart of the 
burnt district. These floors are thin segmental arches 
with terra cotta covering enclosing the beam. The work- 
manship appears to have been totally inadequate, for the 
six upper floors have entirely disappeared, leaving por- 
tions only of the two lower ones in place. The column 
protection is also of the type mentioned before, and much 
of it has been shaken off. 

Two interesting terra cotta fronts remain standing in 
this portion of the city. They belong to a building of 
otherwise combustible construction built around a low 
frame building occupying the corner. This corner 
building has been entirely destroyed, and of the other 
building the fronts alone remain standing, chipped and 
blackened to a slight extent, but bearing witness to the 



IOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



incombustible quality of architectural terra cotta. Other 
isolated fronts appear in other portions of the city and 
are, in the main, fairly well preserved. One exception 
only was noted where the terra cotta was of a peculiar 
reddish color and did not seem able to withstand the ac- 
tion of the heat. In cases where stone was used,| — granite 
being used to a considerable extent in the lower portions 
of the buildings, — the work is badly spalled. 

Apart from the business center of the city, but still 
in the devastated area, the St. Francis Hotel shows in- 
teresting effects of the fire. It is thirteen stories high, 
built around a court, and faces a park. The two lower 
stories are of stone, the upper stories of brick, sur- 
mounted by a galvanized cornice. The stone is badly 
spalled and the cornice has disappeared, but the brick is 
left in good condition. The court is faced with brick, 
with no apparent tie to the backing, and has peeled 



confused, examples are clear of structural methods and 
details which should be avoided, and if other methods had 
been employed it is safe to say that the buildings would 
have a very different aspect, in spite of the serious de- 
structive agencies to which they were subjected. The 
protection of columns by metal lath and plaster is in- 
adequate, as shown in the Fairmont Hotel and many 
other instances. Terra cotta blocks built loosely around 
the columns and not secured in place may have resisted 
the fire in some instances, but a different condition would 
have been found if the columns had been actually built 
in solid, as is often required in other cities. This was 
done in some instances in San Francisco and the work 
was found to be intact. 

The conclusion arrived at after the Baltimore fire, that 
metal ties for face brick were ineffectual, does not seem 
to have held in this instance, for here corrugated metal 




THE CALL BUILDING. 
Built of burnt clay. 

badly. Inside, the structure is nearly intact, although 
subjected to a fearful heat. 

Another hotel, the Fairmont, is six stories high, promi- 
nently situated on the slope of the hill to the northwest, a 
conspicuous landmark as one looks across the devastated 
area. This building was not completed at the time of the 
earthquake and fire. The lower story above the founda- 
tion is of granite and the portion above entirely of terra 
cotta. The outside of the building is in good condition, 
except for the spalling of the stone, and discoloration of 
the terra cotta, which can be easily removed. The in- 
side tells a very different story. The column protec- 
tion is of expanded metal and plaster. This method of 
protection is also applied to the beams in the floors. As 
a fireproof protection it proved of little value, for the 
columns have seriously failed, buckling into a great 
variety of shapes. 

Although the causes which led to the ruin of the city 
are of a complex nature and present conditions somewhat 




THE CITY HALL. 
Built of stone. 

ties appear to have held the face brick securely. Prob- 
ably conditions were entirely different, and it is difficult 
to form general conclusions in this case as in many 
others. 

That better methods of building should be required 
is the obvious lesson to be dawn from the San Francisco 
ruins, and the people appear to be inclined to profit by it. 
How much they will profit will be shown in the new city 
which seems destined to be built in the near future. 

The man with the panacea for all building evils is on 
the spot, working overtime. Will San Francisco become 
the experimental ground for every quack idea, or will her 
people give to the world a new city, created from those 
materials and by those methods which give beauty and 
permanence? 

The one lesson for all parties who are identified with 
the building interests of this country is, that sane and 
sound construction is the only real safeguard against 
calamities of this sort. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



101 



The position that San Francisco has occupied on 
the Pacific Coast is not to be gainsaid because of the 
catastrophe which has overtaken her, and brains and 
money will not be lacking- to put her again in a com- 
manding position. It is the belief also that the civic 
possibilities will not be so wholly ignored in this instance 
as they have been in the cities which have suffered so 
severely in the past. Furthermore, I believe this fire 
will open a way for an architectural opportunity such as 
the country has not witnessed before. 

In San Francisco the opportunities will await the 
architect rather than the engineer. We do not need 
an engineer to tell us how to tie the architecture and 
the construction into one. We do need architects to 
properly treat the bones of our buildings, and the oppor- 
tunity of rebuilding the city is distinctly one of architec- 
ture. We know by the best of evidence that the struc- 
tures which were built upon honor and upon recognized 
sound principles suffered comparatively little damage 
from either earthquake or fire ; and if, in the rebuilding, 
her people will only take the time to start right, will 
not allow themselves to be rushed into ill-advised rebuild- 
ing as was the case at Baltimore, will recognize the 
obligation of working out pretty carefully a general 
scheme before indiscriminate building permits are issued, 
the new city will have opportunities such as no other 
except Washington has ever enjoyed. And if San Fran- 
cisco is to command the confidence of the investor, is to 
receive the money backing which is so necessary to all 
large building operations, it is absolutely essential that 
the first step taken shall be the deliberate study of the 
general problem. 

It is hardly conceivable that San Francisco can quite 
dare to neglect the splendid opportunities of a field swept 
almost clean for new ideas. Many of the buildings, of 
course, are still standing. The location of some of the 
prominent structures is not likely to be changed, but 
whoever is intrusted with the task of mapping the city 
of the future ought to have a very free hand, and the 
new San Francisco need suffer very little from past in- 
heritances if only the forethought is taken in time. 

While the old city was developing the natural topo- 
graphical lines were entirely ignored ; the business quarter 
thrust itself out into the bay ; streets were carried straight 
over almost impossible hills; and the most expensive 
portion was the poorest in natural advantages. The city 
was poorly planned and worse built. In the rebuilding 
the filled-in flats cannot be ignored and will again become 
centers of business, but in the reconstruction the fact 
should be borne in mind that these filled lands proved to 
be the most unstable sites for building operations, the 
earthquake doing far more damage there than on the 
main land. Consequently one of the first rules to be laid 
down should be that heavy buildings must be carried 
clear through the filling and down to a solid natural bot- 
tom. Any one who is familiar with conditions in Chi- 
cago will remember how for generations the city was 
built upon a quaking bed of mud until General Sooy 
Smith had the courage of his convictions and carried 
foundations down to the rock. This is what ought to be 
done in San Francisco. 

Beyond this, however, if the buildings of the future 
are to be safe against a recurrence of just such disasters 



the restrictions of height must be absolute and far more 
than they are at present. It is one of the inconsistencies 
of our business life that in these days of rapid transit 
and the telephone the tall building should have obtained 
such a stronghold, and in the rebuilding of San Francisco 
the aggregate advantage to the city as a whole will very 
likely be measured pretty fairly in an inverse ratio to the 
limit of height of buildings. The tall building construc- 
tion enormously develops a small locality, while restric- 
tion of height forces building to spread over a larger 
area and benefits a greater number of owners. Quite 
aside from the aesthetic effect there is surely every good 
business reason for an extreme minimizing of the heights 
of buildings which are intended to resist such cataclysms 
as this. 

It should not be assumed that the steel frame con- 
struction implies tall buildings. That type was adopted 
in the first instance as an economical constructive meas- 
ure to reduce the amount of floor space given up to 
walls in the lower story. For a number of years the sys- 
tem has been developing towards a rigidity of all its 
members, and the necessity for an elastic construction 
has not always been considered. The earthquake shows 
how essential it is that buildings of this character in that 
geological neighborhood should be able to give without 
breaking, should have a certain degree of flexibility. In 
very few instances was the steel frame very materially 
damaged; but in many cases the envelope, whether of 
one material or another, was shaken loose or fell out as a 
result of distortion, so that the result to the building was 
nearly as bad as if the steel frame had been dislocated. 
We must in future pay more attention to the tying of the 
envelope on to the frame. We cannot depend upon a 
rigid material. Anything approaching a monolithic con- 
struction, even though reinforced in the most thorough 
manner with steel, would be inadequate to properly resist 
earthquake. The ideal material would be one in which 
each piece is so designed or so tied that the whole 
would possess both strength and flexibility. 

It is evident that in many of the damaged steel frame 
buildings too much reliance was placed upon the frame 
and not sufficient care was given to the masonry. Poor 
mortar, poor bonds, and a structurally weak material 
could never successfully clothe even the best steel frame. 
The envelope must be applied with the utmost care, and 
in all these buildings it is economy to use Portland 
cement mortar. This has been conclusively proved by 
the example of the Palace Hotel, which appears to have 
been built upon honor, of good bricks, laid in excellent 
mortar, and which stood the shock far better than some 
of the steel frame buildings. 



CONCRETE VS. HOLLOW TILE. 

A WRITER in the San Francisco Chronicle of May iS 
says: "Engineers and others whose hastily pro- 
nounced opinions have flown into print are, many of them, 
representatives of, or interested in, concrete construction. 
Few people understand what concrete is or that in its use 
there lies greater opportunity for the use of inferior mate- 
rials than in any other construction, and it is universally 
admitted that poor concrete is absolutely worthless. Hon- 



102 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



esty has not been the general policy of concrete construct- 
ors, and, unfortunately for San Francisco, the sand banks 
are too near at hand. 

" The papers have been full of the statements as to 
concrete being the only material for properly protecting 
the steel in buildings, which are unfounded in fact. A 
hasty glance at the first floor of the St. Francis, which 
evidently is all that was given by the engineer for a con- 
crete construction company, reveals the fact that concrete 
afforded protection to the steel columns of this floor, as 
intended. However, all the other floors of the St. Francis 
had the steel columns incased in hollow tile, and they are 
all standing and in perfect condition, except in two in- 
stances where the space was insufficient to incase with 
hollow tile of proper thickness. 

•' Any unbiased engineer who will examine the follow- 
ing buildings, the Chronicle, St. Francis, Mills, Crocker, 
Mutual Life, Union Trust, Claus Spreckels and James L. 
Flood, will agree in the opinion that in all of these build- 
ings hollow tile fireproofing did its work of protecting the 
steel perfectly. The Fairmont is the most noteworthy 
example of the insecurity of concrete for protection to 
steel. Here the question arises, was the concrete fire- 
proofing of the best quality and workmanship? Granted 
that it was not, what building ordinances can enforce 
honest work? 

" A city of the dull grayness of concrete would defy all 
laws of beauty. Why, then, should we strive for a beau- 
tiful city? Concrete does not lend itself architecturally 
to anything that appeals to the eye. Let us pause a mo- 
ment before we transform our city into such hideousness 
as has been suggested by concrete engineers and others 
interested in its introduction." 



. THE FIRE AND QUAKE TEST OF STEEL 
FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

MR. OSBORNE HOWES, chairman of the Boston 
Board of Underwriters, who is now in San Francisco, 
has this to say in a letter to the Boston Herald; 

" The fire has again tested the fireproof buildings of 
steel frame construction and again they have come 
through the ordeal in a reasonably satisfactory manner. 
If all of the business section of San Francisco had been 
made up of structures like the Call Building or the Fair- 
mont Hotel, which were of the protected steel-frame 
order of construction, the damage caused by the earth- 
quake would have been insignificant, and there would not 
have been any fire worth speaking of. This is an admoni- 
tion for the future which it would be well for Americans 
living in other cities besides San Francisco to take to 
heart. For the moment the leading citizens of this far 
western city are strongly of the opinion that the new San 
Francisco which is to spring from the ashes of the old 
metropolis must be of fireproof construction, but when 
one considers the increased cost of this class of building, 
the inevitable delay that will attend the efforts to obtain 
from the East or from Europe the needed structural steel, 
and the urgent desire that naturally will be felt to reestab- 
lish the thousands of business houses that have been 
broken up by the fire, it may be doubted whether these 
good intentions will lead to the general enforcement of 
these wise precautions. 



"It seems to me, as I have already said, that the 
earthquake demonstrated that it was only the poorly con- 
structed buildings that were seriously injured, and, indeed, 
the same statement holds true of the fire test. If the San 
Franciscans can be persuaded, in spite of the temptations 
I have referred to above, to put up only best of modern 
buildings for their factories and warehouses, there should 
be little apprehension felt elsewhere for the security of 
capital invested in their city. 

" A walk through the streets of San Francisco furnishes 
convincing proof that the manner in which experiences 
such as those of the 18th and 19th inst. are to be averted 
in the future is by having the city rebuilt by the general 
use of the protected steel frame form of construction. 
Buildings of this type are said to have suffered practi- 
cally no loss from the shock of the earthquake. It is im- 
possible at this writing to make in most instances a care- 
ful examination of these interiors, but looked at from an 
exterior point of view they appear to be as structurally 
sound as they were before the fire, the damage being con- 
fined to window's and window casings and other wooden 
fittings, and to the crumbling of some of the finer stone 
carving and finishing. The great buildings of this type, 
such as those occupied by the Emporium department 
store, the St. Francis Hotel, the Fairmont Hotel and 
the Call newspaper, look to the outside observer as 
though they might be entirely repaired for an outgo not 
greater than twenty or thirty per cent of their value. 
This restriction in extent of loss was evidently due to 
the proper protection of their steel beams and columns, 
for in scores of instances in buildings of ordinary con- 
struction where unprotected steel beams and columns 
were used, these can be seen buckled and twisted into all 
forms of distortion by the direct action of the intense 
heat." 



COMMENTS BY THE CALIFORNIA STATE 
BOARD OF ARCHITECTS. 

THOROUGH inspections and investigation have 
been made through the burnt district, and it has 
been found that safety is not a question of style of archi- 
tecture, but quality of workmanship. 

" Cornices and arches need not be excluded from the 
new city. Where theyare properly anchoredand built they 
withstood the shock and fire both. It is the opinion of 
the Board that the city need not be without its picturesque 
cornices and decorations. The Call and Kohl buildings 
are proof enough that good work on decorations will 
insure them against destruction. 

" The pile foundation has been found to be the most 
substantial. In the earth's vibrations it rests as does a 
chip in the water. And the building rests securely upon 
it. Forty-five feet is advised as a safe depth for either 
pile or concrete foundations. 

"The height makes no difference in the matter of safety. 
Any building supported by what is known as the cage 
steel frame will withstand any ordinary shake. It is 
necessary that San Francisco have its high buildings. 
With proper workmanship they can be built in such a 
way that they will be absolutely safe. 

" Bay windows are not considered safe. And, though 
it is strongly urged that decorations be permitted, few 
projections should be allowed. 



THE BRTCKBUILDER 



103 



Some Interesting Old Churches at 
Panama. 

IN the city of Panama and vicinity may be found many 
interesting examples of architecture by Spanish and 
French architects of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. 

The oldest, and the one which attracts most attention, 
is the "Old Tower." This tower is all that remains of one 
of the principal churches of the old town, — the walls of 
the building proper being nearly demolished. It stands 
sentinel-like, overlooking the bay and the site of the old 
town of Panama, which was destroyed by the Buccaneer 
Morgan in 167 1. It is said that in this tower the people 
made their last stand against him. It is about five miles 
down the coast from the present city, and is so overgrown 
with a dense tropical jungle as to be almost inaccessible. 

In the city proper, founded about 1672, the best 
examples of architecture are found in the Catholic 





THE CATHEDRAL AT PANAMA. 



A GLIMPSE OF THE CATHEDRAL TOWER OVER THE 
HOUSE TOPS. 



churches of Santo Domingo, the 
Cathedral, Santa-Ana and Mer- 
cedes. 

Of Santo Domingo, which was 
entirely of brick, there is little re- 
maining but the famous arch, which 
has a clear span of thirty-seven 
feet, with a rise of seven feet nine 
inches. It is said that the first two 
attempts to build this arch failed, but 
the third time it stood, and is to-day 
a monument of the builders' skill. 

The cathedral is the largest and 
most pretentious building in the city. 
The side walls are of stone and 
brick, plastered on the exterior, while 
the front is faced with a brownstone 
closely resembling unglazed terra 
cotta. The facade has numerous 
niches which contain carved wooden 
figures which seem to be in a good 
state of preservation. The tops of 
the two towers have a unique form of 
decoration. Large clamshells are 
embedded in the plaster in geomet- 
rical designs, forming a pleasing 
brightness in the sunlight. 

The parish churches of Santa-Ana 
and Mercedes rank next in size and 
architecture. They are built of brick 
and stone, plastered on the exterior. 
With the cathedral, they were prob- 
ably built soon after the old city was 
destroyed. Mercedes presents a 
pleasing composition with its little 
chapel at the near corner and a vault 
on the opposite side. 

These examples show that the 
architecture in Central America in 
this period was decorative and con- 
structively strong, as the good state 
of preservation of the buildings show. 



104 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





THE OLD TOWER OF PANAMA. 



RUINS OF SANTO DOMINGO CHURCH, PANAMA. 





MERCEDES CHURCH, PANAMA. 



SANTA-ANA CHURCH, PANAMA. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



105 



Another Thought in Ecclesiastical 
Architecture. 

THE problem of ecclesiastical architecture is not for 
the profession alone. It concerns us also, who are 
intimately associated with the interior life and responsi- 
bilities of the church. So, while the debate between 
twelfth century Gothic and sixteenth century Renaissance 
goes on, we, the laity, hold our own opinions. Traditional 
associations count for nothing unless the creed remain 
the same. The architect will solve his problem only as 
he keeps abreast of the developing thought of his gener- 
ation. Every change in the theory of worship demands 
a corresponding change in the practice of architecture. 
Why should not the architect be an eclectic, able to 
think and work in established lines, ready also to cast 
aside traditional theories and develop a style consist- 
ent with modern interpretation ? To the true worker 
there is no school. He recognizes the truth in all 
schools. 

That ecclesiastical architecture and public worship are 
closely related is self-evident. We see the relation more 
readily in the story of the past. The Gothic cathedral of 
the thirteenth century represents the sociology and the- 
ology of that period. Lofty vaulting, splendor of stained 
glass, elaboration of ornament, massiveness of structure, 
clouds of incense kindled in the ignorant and supersti- 
tious worshiper a feeling of mystery and awe. The 
long nave served as an ambulatory for gorgeous proces- 
sionals. The priests, a privileged and detached class, 
performed the service in an unknown tongue. Such a 
service was a natural product of the thought of the age. 
It was not then known that the earth revolves around the 
sun nor that the blood circulates in the body. The art of 
printing had not been discovered. The feudal system 
held the mass of the people in abject vassalage, and both 
people and lords were subject to a supreme and despotic 
church. The cathedrals of the Old World are a priceless 
heritage as the expression of imaginative art. Massive 
walls, faultless proportions, thoroughness of workman- 
ship, delicacy of conception appeal to the aesthetic sense. 
The impression made is often mistaken for true rever- 
ence, because we confuse the emotional with the rational 
character of religion. 

So ingrained are the old theories of reverence that 
architects apparently find it difficult to think in or ex- 
press other principles of worship. What the architect 
fails to discern is forced upon him by the subtle influence 
of our age. Physical science, democratic ideals and even 
industrial development ruthlessly destroy our Christian 
symbolism. The church spire, pointing heavenward, 
once represented the principle of aspiration. The symbol- 
ism ceased when modern study swept away the theory of 
a heaven located in the firmament. The principle of ar- 
chitecture which impels the worshiper to fall on his 
knees is a survival of mediaivial theology. The rational 
interpretation is based on universal benevolence and 
filial relations between God and man. Intelligent wor- 
ship does not ask that a church should inspire either awe 
or mystery. No sacredness attaches to the edifice ; it is 
simply a suitable place where the congregation meets for 
nstruction and inspiration. Necessity is the foundation 



of art, and no creation is beautiful which fails in the 
true and useful. 

In a teaching church the first test must be its acous- 
tic properties. It frequently occurs that costly and mag- 
nificent churches are, by this practical demand, monstrous 
failures. The two great obstacles to effective speaking are 
height and space. The old rule should apply here, - the 
speaker's power diminishes according to the square of the 
distance. The demand is for shorter naves and lower 
walls, with no obstructing pillars. 

The consecration of costly and magnificent buildings 
to the service of One who taught that the possession of 
great wealth makes entrance to His kingdom difficult is 
surely incongruous. Even the Mohammedans declare 
our elaborate systems of worship unchristian. They do 
not think that Jesus, who prayed in the wilderness and 
on the hillside, in the huts of the peasants, in the humble 
abodes of the fishermen, furnished any warrant for the 
gorgeousness of modern Christian worship, with all the 
accessories which beguile the mind, mystify the intellect, 
and thus divert the human heart from the worship of the 
great God toward a symbol and type. 

The simplicity of our church building should be a 
rebuke to the materialism of this generation. Is it 
Christian to put millions of dollars in buildings which are 
used one day in seven, while nearly a third of the human 
family are living at the poverty line? Or, if every family 
were well housed and abundantly fed, every child edu- 
cated, every social inequality rectified and money poured 
freely into the church treasury, would we be justified in 
the erection of costly edifices while retaining the name 
" Christian " ? Must not the church building forever pro- 
test against the passion for vulgar display? 

Simplicity in ecclesiastical architecture does not elim- 
inate beauty ; it rather leads to it, for simplicity is a neces- 
sary element of the beautiful. Faultless proportion, fit- 
ness of material, thoroughness of workmanship are the 
only mediums by which he must express fine artistic 
feebng and produce that which is really noble and true. 
The decline of the churchgoing habit is attracting 
general attention. Are we to have abandoned pews as we 
have abandoned farms? This apathy does not indicate a 
decline in religious interest. A deep and widespread 
spiritual awakening is manifested in the development of 
applied Christianity. Improvement in social and indus- 
trial conditions, public health associations, peace confer- 
ences, arbitration treaties, international fraternity are 
some of the forms in which vitalized Christian thought 
is coming to expression. Both minister and architect 
must work in sympathy with these larger progressive 
ideals. The practical and rational must be their aim, 
rather than the emotional. 

The dream of a national architecture which will be a 
true and lasting expression of American aims, ideals and 
life, as the cathedrals of the thirteenth century were types 
of their generation, can never be realized. In those days 
all minds were united in a common religious faith. In 
these days every one, even the unlettered, thinks for 
himself. The builders of the cathedrals were of one race 
and one climate. Americans are made up of every race, 
and our territory includes all climates. Our national 
style of architecture can be expressed only in diversity. 

II. G. Ecob. 



io6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



COMPETITION FOR COTTAGE DESIGNS FOR 
CASH PRIZES AGGREGATING $4,000. 

GARDEN CITY, L. I., a beautiful suburban town on 
the Hempstead plains, nineteen miles from New 
York and about midway between the ocean and Long 
Island Sound, is so well known as hardly to need descrip- 
tion. The town was founded and its development begun 
by the late A. T. Stewart. It is laid out with wide ave- 
nues, large parked areas and a wealth of foliage and shrub- 
bery. It contains the fine cathedral church of the diocese 
of Long Island, St. Paul's School for Boys and St. Mary's 
School for Girls, the popular Garden City Hotel and the 
links of the Garden City Golf Club. 

The extensive improvements in transportation facili- 
ties undertaken by the Pennsylvania Railroad have awak- 
ened a new interest in the Long Island suburban towns 
as residential centers, and in response to this demand 
the Garden City Company is about to undertake further 
development of its extensive holdings, and to this end 
has instituted an architectural competition in the hope 
that the younger members, at least, of the architectural 
profession may be interested to develop a type of subur- 
ban house design of moderate cost which shall combine 
beauty of design with economy of construction and main- 
tenance. It has appointed a committee, consisting of 
Mr. Allen Evarts, president of the Garden City Company ; 
Mr. William R. Mead, architect, of the firm of McKim, 
Mead & White; and Mr. Dean Alvord, real estate expert, 
who will conduct the competition and make the award. 
All designs are to be in the hands of the committee by 
August 1, 1906. The programme of the competition may 
be obtained on application to the Garden City Company, 
60 Wall Street, New York. 

The property in question consists of two tracts, each 
112 feet by 1,200 feet, lying on either side of a street 52 
feet wide. Two schemes of development are under con- 
sideration, one calling for the building of single detached 
houses to cost $7,000 each, and the other for double houses 
of $12,500 cost For each scheme a first prize of $1,000 
and a second prize of $500 is offered, and, in addition, ten 
prizes of $100 each will be awarded to the next ten de- 
signs, whether of the single or double houses. The authors 
of the first and second prize designs are required to fur- 
nish complete working drawings, details and specifications 
of their designs, and in case the company shall decide to 
carry out any of the designs to which the $100 prizes are 
awarded, it agrees to employ the authors of such designs 
to furnish working drawings and specifications upon the 
additional payment of a sum which, together with the 
$100 prize award, shall equal three per cent of the cost of 
the building. The drawings required are a block plan, a 
block elevation, plans, elevations and section of one unit 
and an additional sheet to contain a perspective sketch, 
details or any other matter which the designer may wish 
to present, and rendered at his option. 



THE CONCRETE FAD. 

THE use of methods of construction employing con- 
crete as a base has expanded beyond all reason dur- 
ing the past few years. We say this advisedly while 
recognizing all of the excellent qualities which reinforced 




DETAIL BY STANDARD TERRA COTTA WORKS. 
J. I. Campbell, Architect. 

concrete possesses. But it is about time for the public to 
be disabused of the idea that the universal panacea of all 
constructive woes is to rush into reinforced concrete. 
This is an easy, slipshod way of getting over difficulties; 
but we are learning that it leads to other troubles quite 
as annoying as those from wich concrete would deliver 
us. Any material which is fashioned so wholly by un- 
skilled labor offers pitfalls for the unthinking and inex- 




REREDOS, ST. PAUL S CHURCH, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. 

Executed in faience by Rookwood Pottery Co. 

perienced constructor. It is the fashion to suggest 
reinforced concrete, and it seems so simple, so straightfor- 
ward and so all satisfying that we very easily forget how 
signally it can fail, and how it, of all materials, requires 
the closest care and offers us the least assurance against 
imperfect workmanship as the work progresses. It is 
the one building material in use to-day which is actually 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



107 




"the pines" tile decoration for a fireplace. 
Grueby Faience Co., Makers. Addison B. Le Boutellier, Architect. 



put into the building before it is finished, and of whose 
conduct under stress we can have no exact knowledge 
until months after it may be too late to change it. Let 
us use concrete for the great variety of purposes for 
which it is fitted, but let us also use it understanding^ 
and intelligently. 



Francisco begins to emerge from its ashes, the specula- 
tive builder, even when backed up with untold millions 
of eastern money, will not be given a free field, but will 
be placed where he belongs — under the direction, the 
superintendence of a competent architect. 



FINANCING 

BUILDING 

OPERATIONS. 



T 



HE financing 
building con- 




tractor is a product 
of the last decade. 
His hand is already 
appearing in San 
Francisco, where 

several schemes have been suggested for financing on 
a huge scale the extensive building operations which are 
expected to follow the readjustment of the city's losses. 
A catastrophe of this sort is a splendid opportunity for 
the builder who offers 
to float the loan, 
and, if necessary, 
even lease the build- 
ing, provided only 
he is given the con- 
tract. But there are 
pitfallsinthis scheme 
which must be appar- 
ent to property own- 
ers. It is a pretty 
safe general rule that 
neither the architect 
nor the contractor 
can serve two mas- 
ters with success, 
and if the builder is 

furnishing the money for a contract the temptation to use 
the power which he thereby acquires is more than most 
builders can withstand. It is to be hoped that as San 



DETAIL by conkling-armstrong TERRA COTTA CO. 
Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 




HOUSE AT GREENWICH, CONN. 

H C. Pelton, Architect. Roofed with " Old Mission " tile made by 

Ludowici-Celadon Co. 



THE 

COLLINS 

MEMORIAL. 

THE friends of 
the Honorable 
P. A. Collins, who 
died while holding 
the office of Mayor 
of Boston, have unit- 
ed to form a fund 
out of which a suit- 
able memorial is to be erected in the city whose affairs 
he directed. 

The committee of influential citizens having charge of 
this fund, after considerable deliberation, very wisely 

called in the advice 
of the Boston Socie- 
ty of Architects to 
aid it in the selection 
of a sculptor and of 
a site. By thus in- 
trusting work of this 
sort to the society a 
precedent has been 
established which 
might well be fol- 
lowed in other cities, 
and if the Society of 
Architects is able to 
discharge its task in 
such a way as to se- 
cure the best artistic 
results for the city, it will make it pretty hard for a 
choice to be made in other similar cases in any other way. 
There is no body of professional men so well qualified 




lUfefe^H 






SYMBOLS EMPLOYED IN DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF ST. THOMAS CHURCH, MITT1NEAGUE, MASS. 
Excelsior Terra Cotta Co., Makers. John William Donohue, Architect. 



io8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




COLONIAL TRUST BUILDING, HEADING, PA. 

Seymour & Paul Davis, Architects. 
Faced with Roman " Ironclay " fire-flashed brick. 

to decide questions of this sort as the architects, and it 
is one of the duties which the profession owes the public 
to give its services in cases of this sort, and to give them 
in such manner as shall bring credit both to the city and 
to the profession. 

THE BOSTON BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

DURING the last thirty-four years there have been 
but three Commissioners of Building in the city of 
Boston. 




DETAIL BV SOUTH AMBOY TERRA COTTA CO. 

The building laws of the city have on the whole been 
wisely and equitably administered, and the permanence 
in office which has been so marked a feature of the build- 
ing department has been somewhat unusual in the annals 
of American cities. Disputes between the Building De- 
partment and architects and contractors are by the stat- 
utes adjusted through a board of appeals. One member 
of this board is appointed by the Master Builders' Asso- 
ciation, another is appointed by the Boston Society of 
Architects, and a third is appointed at large by the Mayor. 
The appointees of the Master Builders and the Architects 



have been renominated for each successive term ever 
since 1892. Mr. Arthur G. Everett has just received the 
rcnomination for the ensuing three years. Rotation in 
office has many advantages, but the city of Boston has 
evidently known when it was well off and has chosen to 
retain its tried advisers year after vear. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. 

THE University of Michigan has at last come into 
line with a number of institutions of higher educa- 
tion in this country by establishing a department of archi- 
tecture. The organization of this department has been 
intrusted to Mr. Emil Lorch, who has made for himself 
an excellent record at Harvard, at the University of 
Pennsylvania and in his native city of Detroit. 

There can be hardly any more discouraging task set 
to an enthusiastic, educated architect than to establish 
out of hand a department for teaching to raw beginners 
the details of his profession. This new department, 
however, will have the advantage of the excellent organ- 
ization which in a few years has made such a success of 
the architectural department of Harvard University 




HELLMAN BUILDING, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

A. F. Rosenheim, Architect. 

Face and Enameled Brick made by Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



109 




The following figures show the percentage of gains in build- 
ing permits granted in leading cities during April, as compared 
with the corresponding month of last year : Indianapolis, 10 ; 
Kansas City, 43 ; Memphis, 24 ; Mobile, 56 ; Nashville, 24 ; 
New Haven, 193 ; New Orleans, 85 ; Omaha, 18; Philadelphia, 
22 ; St. Louis, 49 ; Seattle, 62 ; Syracuse, 58 ; Toledo, 26 ; Terre 
Haute, 80; Tacoma, 42 ; Washington, 21; Wilkesbarre, 304; 
Atlanta, 95; Buffalo, 114; Chicago, 66; Dallas, 165; Detroit, 
42 ; Duluth, 162 ; Harrisburg, 57. In New York there is a 
falling off of 5 per cent, although Manhattan shows a gain 
of 5 per cent. This is decidedly favorable when the enormous 
building operations of 1905 are taken into account. The per- 
centage of loss in other leading cities is as follows : Baltimore, 
79 ; Chattanooga, 56 ; Columbus, 35 ; Denver, 13 ; Louisville, 
36; Minneapolis, 43 ; South Bend, 66; Worcester, 12. The 
loss in Baltimore is accounted for by the fact that a permit 
calling for an investment of $1,500,000 was issued to the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company in April, 1905, and Grand 
Rapids shows unfavorably on account of a $150,000 permit 
issued in April, 1905. 



ENTRANCE SHOWING TERRA COTTA TREATMENT. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



under Professor Warren, and will 
also be able to draw its lessons and 
experiences from the other schools 
which are multiplying so fast 
throughout the country. The near- 
est architectural school to Ann Arbor 
of national renown is at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, distant several 
hundred miles. Detroit is close at 
hand, and Mr. Lorch will undoubt- 
edly be ably seconded by the archi- 
tects of that city, and with the 
prestige of the University of 
Michigan to help it the new de- 
partment ought to achieve a speedy 
success. 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY 

George B. 

BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR APRIL. 

OFFICIAL reports from fifty leading cities of the 
country, received, tabulated and compared with 
previous records by The American Contractor, show no 
decline of the remarkable prosperity that has prevailed in 
the construction field for some time past. This statement 
must be taken as applying to the aggregate of cities, since 
a falling off is noted in some of them. As a rule, how- 
ever, the larger cities show decided gains. Not that only, 
but these gains are widely distributed throughout the 
country and amply demonstrate that the building move- 
ment now in progress is founded upon the most compre- 
hensive and stable national prosperity. This is one of 
the most encouraging features of the situation and clearly 
indicates a continuance of the present remarkable building 
movement. 



THE SORT OF LAND UPON WHICH THE BUSINESS 
SECTION OF SAN FRANCISCO WAS BUILT. 



MOST of the destruc- 
tion done by earth- 
quake in San Francisco 
was practically inevitable 
in view of the site upon 




PERTH AMBOY TERRA COTTA CO. 
Post & Sons, Architects. 

which the greater part of 
the business section of the 
city was constructed and the 
character of its composition. 
This was no less than a deep 
marsh originally covered with 
peat or open water. The site 
of Market Street was a long 
ridge of sand many feet above 
the surrounding levels and 
running from the hills near 
the Pacific toward Oakland 
Bay. The original water front 
of San Francisco was a fifth of 
a mile west of its present loca- 
tion, and that distance up Mar- 




DETAIL BY WINKLE TERRA 
COTTA CO. 

Eames & Young, Architects. 



no 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ket Street, measur- 
ing from the Oakland 
ferry terminal. To 
the south in the Mis- 
sion district there 
was open water and 
a fine anchorage in 
what was then called 
Verba Buena Cove. 
Stretching outward 
from Oakland Bay 
and with their far- 
thest limits close to 
the present site of the 
new City Hall were 
many long swamps, 
which were in reality 
subterranean lakes, 
whose surface bora a 
strong formation of 
peat. Upon this men 
or animals and even 
loaded carts might 




INTERIOR, THE RIALTO BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

D. H. Burnham & Co , Architects. 

Whole finish in enamel terra cotta made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co 

move with safety if evenly and with- 
out shock. On the other hand, men 
and animals that incautiously leaped 
from one place to another shot 
through the surface peat and often 
disappeared forever as if in a quick- 
sand. 

Into these bogs for sixteen years 
from 1852, at two separate intervals, 
sand was dumped which had been 
torn from the hillsides by steam 
shovels that took out a cubic yard, 
a ton and a half, at each scoop. 
This heavy sand bore down the peat 
so that open water remained after 
vast volumes of sand had been placed 
upon the peat. When the swamps 
and mud flats were finally filled so 
that their surface was firm they were 
even then, and have ever since been, 
only more or less jelly-like masses. 
Through this infirm material all the 
pipes of the water and sewer system 
of San Francisco in its business dis- 
tricts and in most of the region 
south of Market Street were laid. 
When the earthquake came the filled- 
in ground shook like the jelly it is. 
The only firm and rigid material in its 

millions of cubic yards of surface jirea and depth were the 
iron pipes. Naturally they broke, as they would not bend, 
and San Francisco's water system was therefore instantly 
disabled. In 1846 forty acres around Portsmouth Square 
were the only available site for a city at San Francisco. 




DETAIL BY SCHICKEL & DITMAKS, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



The New York of- 
fices of the National 
Firep roofing Com- 
pany have been re- 
moved to the Flatiron 
Building, Madison 
Square. This move 
is made to secure in- 
creased facilities and 
in order to be near 
the center of building 
activity. 

The following 

named architectural 
firms desire manu- 
facturers' samples 
and catalogues: 
Charles Paff & Co., 
1 1 53 O'Farrell Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. ; 
Armitage & Rowell, 
1427 Post Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. ; 
Schnaittacher & Boese, 1706 Fillmore 
Street, San Francisco, Cal. ; Meyers 
& Ward, 1156 Webster Street, Oak- 
land, Cal. ; I). J. Patterson, 305 
San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, Cal.; 
Charles E. White, Jr., Oak Park, 111. ; 
X. C. Curtis, University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

The new armory at Syracuse, 
X. Y., will be built of a dark flash Nor- 
man brick, made by the Ohio Mining 
and Manufacturing Company. 

The Conkling-Armstrong Terra 
Cotta Company report the following 
new contracts: Maryland Institute, 
Baltimore, Md., Pell & Corbett, archi- 
tects, sand-blasted glaze to match 
marble; library at Huntingdon, Pa., 
E. L. Tilton, architect, limestone 
finish; store building, Lancaster, 
Pa,, C. E. Urban, architect, dull 
white enamel; Georgetown Univer- 
sity, Rosslyn, Va., Ewing & Chap- 
pel, architects, limestone finish; 
Pennsylvania Building, Baltimore, 
Parker & Thomas, architects. 



IN GENERAL. 
The architectural terra cotta used in Memorial Hall 
and Mess Hall, Johnson City, illustrated in The Brick- 
builder for April, was furnished by the Excelsior Terra 
Cotta Company. 



TO MANUFACTURERS, BUILDING MATERIAL MER- 
CHANTS and others, wishing active, reliable representative in 
the San Francisco market, with large acquaintance among architects 
and property owners, Steel Frames, Cement, Fireproof Materials, 
Architectural Publications, Rolling Steel Doors, Iron Windows, 
Hard Wood Finish, Waterproof Materials, Building Trade Special- 
ties. References. In reply please state clean-cut proposition and best 
terms. Address, A. E. ACKLOM, 2129 Eagle Avenue, Alameda, Cal. 

WANTED — Several competent architectural draughtsmen for po- 
sitions in Chicago and middle West. Write, giving experience and 
references, G. Broes Van Don & Co., 218 La Salle Street, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 57. 




rilONT (SOUTH) ELEVATION 



JC Al_E- 




WEST ELEVATION 

3CALE. 



DESIGN FOR A FIREPROOF HOUSE. 
Benjamin Proctor, Jr., Architect. 



THE BR I C K BU ILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 5. PLATE 58. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 59. 



jna 



t=t=r=^^=t=t=t=$^=i=^=^^ 




FRONT ELEVATION, BACHELOR APARTMENT AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. PLATE 29. 




T HE R 

VOL. 13. NO. 4. 




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PLATES 27 and 28. 




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THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 60. 




BACHELOR APARTMENT AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 5. PLATE 61. 





HOUSE AND STABLE FOR MISS ELIZABETH BLACK, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Alexander C. Eschweiler, architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 62. 





HOUSE FOR DR. JOEL GOLDTHWAIT. MILTON, MASS. 

WlNSLOW & BlGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 63. 










^S:^&^5Q^ 




HOUSE FOR LOFTUS CUDDY, ESQ., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

J. Milton* Dyer, architect. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 64. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 15, NO. 5. 



PLATE 65. 




FIREPLACE IN LIVING ROOM. 



^^ 




HOUSE FOR D. O. WICKHAM, ESQ., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
J. Milton Dyer, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 66 _ 




DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRANCE. HOUSE FOR MISS ELIZABETH BLACK, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Alexander C. Eschweiler, architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 67. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 68. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. PLATE 



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PLANS HOUSE AND STABLE FOR MISS ELIZABETH BLACK, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Alexander C. Eschweiler, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 5. p LATE 70 . 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV 



JUNE 1906 



Number 6 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $5-oo per year 

Single numbers 5° cenIi 

To countries in the Postal Union S 6 -°° P« V- lr 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



pac.f 
1 



II and II 
II 



Brick Enameled . 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

H. D. BURNHAM & CO., JOHN A. FOX, GEORGE HUNT INGRAHAM, PARKER & THOMAS. 
THE CASA POLLINI, SIENA, ITALY, WILL S. ALDRICH, DEL. 

LETTERPRESS 

MAUSOLEUM OF THE SAINTS, AT ARDEBIL, PERSIA '.; Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS "'■ " 2 

BURNT CLAY CONSTRUCTION AT SAN FRANCISCO F. W. Fitzpatrick 113 

STUDY IN PARIS . .Gilbert Hindermyer ..7 

A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. Ill A ' h< " Randolph Rosi 119 

WEST END HOUSES, LONDON R. Randal Phillips 121 

A VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION. I Christian Morgenstierne rrf 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 




MAUSOLEUM OF THE SAINTS, AT ARDEBIL, PERSIA. 



THE BRICKBVIL0™ 



VOL 15 No. 6 



jagsra&ttei 



'DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTSOF 
|ARCHITECrVREINMATEWALSOF CLAY/ 



JUNE 1906 



Lessons of the San Francisco Fire. 

WITHIN a period of less than thirty-five years this 
country has been visited by at least five serious 
conflagrations. The Chicago fire was the immediate 
originating cause of our present fireproofing methods. 
These methods during the past thirty years have been 
steadily developed along lines which we believe lead to 
complete protection, and there is no doubt but that our 
modern fireproofing devices are amply sufficient to pro- 
tect against any merely local fire. There have been, 
however, only two cases in which the systems could be 
studied in their power to resist the effects of a general 
conflagration, namely, at Baltimore and, more lately, at 
San Francisco. In the latter case the situation was 
greatly complicated by the effects of the earthquake, in 
that the vast majority of the buildings in the devastated 
district being of inflammable construction were reduced 
to a condition which afforded unlimited opportunity for 
the ensuing fire to gain its full force unchecked. Further- 
more this was the only fire in our history during which 
there was practically no opportunity to successfully com- 
bat it by the use of water, and the flames were unchecked 
in their attacks upon the relatively few and isolated 
buildings of so-called fireproof construction. 

The fire has not brought out any really new facts in 
regard to fireproof construction. It has, however, empha- 
sized all of the lessons of the past and has made more 
imperative the civic necessity of fireproof structures 
as barriers to a conflagration. San Francisco was very 
lax in its laws and it has paid the penalty. Whether the 
city will profit by this bitter experience is a question 
which time alone will answer. The fire and the earth- 
quake were observed and studied on the spot by scores 
of competent trained observers. Engineering and archi- 
tectural papers have been filled with full accounts of 
what happened and what resulted, so that it is not diffi- 
cult to determine how the different buildings behaved 
under extreme stress. It is, however, only possible to 
arrive at just conclusions by taking the sum of the evi- 
dence presented and drawing general conclusions which 
can be corroborated by the testimony of different experts, 
for while theoretically any trained architect or engineer 
should be able rightly to measure the consequences and 
the lessons of the fire, the personal equation counts for 
so much that very few of the statements thus far pub- 
lished are entirely free from bias. Furthermore it is a 
little astonishing that trained observers should so often 



fail to note the leading facts in cases of this sort. For 
example, one of the engineering papers published a long 
study in detail of the effect of the fire on the different 
buildings, in which the writer in only a very few instances 
made the slightest mention of the materials actually em- 
ployed in the construction, aside from stating that the 
buildings were or were not of steel frame type. Again, 
the personal equation colors very largely one's appre- 
ciation of the amount of damage. In looking over the 
burned district of San Francisco the buildings which 
have stood at all, which have retained any semblance 
of structure, are such an exception that some have cred- 
ited them with far less damage than will probably be 
found to be the case when actual reconstruction takes 
place. 

The immediate interest of this journal lies in the 
manner in which the fireproofing systems have stood 
the test. Our position has for years been that a material 
which was made by the action of heat could easily be 
counted upon most successfully to stand the action of 
heat in a building, and that the burned clay products were 
the most efficient fireproofing mediums within our reach. 
At the same time we have most carefully studied all the 
reports of experts who have visited San Francisco, and 
have examined the ruins through our personal represent- 
atives in the endeavor to determine just what have been 
the relative merits of the two systems of fireproofing 
which are now most prominently before the market. 

IN this fire concrete has had its first severe test. 
Terra cotta was used in the Union Trust, the Crocker, 
both the Chronicle buildings, the Emporium and the 
Flood buildings, beside many others, while nearly all 
the leading concrete systems were to be found in numbers 
of the buildings which are still standing in more or less 
fragmentary condition. But in going over the published 
studies of the behavior of concrete and the terra cotta 
fireproofing there seems to be one fact that comes out 
again and again and which is brought out very strongly 
in the excellent review written by Mr. B. B. Holland for 
the Engineering Record. To quote directly: "It is 
very hard to get correct information regarding the de- 
struction of buildings, as every person seems to have a 
different story to tell as to what caused the damage, and 
as to how hot the fire was around any of the buildings. 
I find that in all cases where the fire was very severe and 
the concrete covering of columns had come off, the dam- 
age to the columns was far greater than where the columns 



I 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



had been covered with hollow tile and the tile had fallen 
off. It seems the tile stayed on the columns long enough 
to protect them from the fire, while in the case of the 
concrete protection the fire seems to have eaten right 
through and melted the columns in many cases. My ex- 
amination in all these cases has been as careful as pos- 
sible. I went over this ground five times and got all the 
information that I possibly could regarding each build- 
ing from different individuals." Again: "In the Em- 
porium Building, six stories with segmental tile arches, 
tile partitions and column coverings, the building is a 
wreck. It was subjected to a very hot fire and was dyna- 
mited three times, but where the columns stood the tile 
arches are still intact." Also, in the Crocker Building, 
fireproofed entirely with hollow tile, where the partitions 
are down the tile is not broken but is in good condition, 
though it is especially noted that the fire was very hot. 
On the other hand, in the Sellers Building, while the 
concrete of the floors seems in good condition, on careful 
examination it was found to be very loose and soft, 
though there was not much heat in the building. In the 
Postal Telegraph Building, fireproofed entirely of con- 
crete, the column coverings are all off and the columns 
and beams badly damaged. This can be contrasted with 
the Union Trust Building, fireproofed with terra cotta, 
where most of the damage was done by fire, the column 
covering being all off on the first story but the columns 
not injured. Compare also the Hamilton Building, of 
concrete floor arches and metal partitions, in which the 
column coverings are all gone and the concrete floors 
soft and easily broken. 

WE are not trying to draw any parallel nor to claim 
for terra cotta that it is perfect, either in its com- 
position or in its method of use, neither would we say that 
concrete can not be used to advantage in a building. We 
do not expect perfection in any system of fireproof con- 
struction, nor is it fair to claim that so far there has been 
evolved any system which is more than fire-resistive or 
to expect that a structure can be shaken by a severe 
earthquake and thoroughly gutted by a fire developing 
heat enough to melt glass and terra cotta and yet have 
much left of it. The point is whether or not our modern 
systems of fireproofing can and do in the last extremity 
save the structure of steel. The surface, whatever it 
may be, is bound to be ruined. We maintain that the 
records of the San Francisco fire show that terra cotta 
has accomplished all that is claimed for it, and that 
even under the most severe case we can now claim with 
perfect justice that the structure of a building can be 
efficiently protected against conflagration. On the other 
hand, it goes without saying that nothing can withstand 
such a combined catastrophe as overturned San Fran- 
cisco. 

We have said that San Francisco has paid the penalty 
of her lax laws. So far as we can ascertain there are only 
two buildings in the burned district which were protected 
by wire glass and shutters. In the new Telephone Build- 
ing the windows were provided with frames of metal and 
the two lower stories were glazed with wire glass. This 
building was exposed to a fire so excessive that the heat 
within the building was sufficient to melt the glass cells 



of the storage battery. Flames did not break out within 
the building, however, owing to the exclusion of air by 
the metal window screens, doors, etc. It is even stated 
that curtains hung at the windows were charred and fell 
to the floor without producing flames. The shutters 
were of the rolling type, coiling up into the metal window 
frames. Also in the California Electrical Company's 
works, which were of so-called slow burning mill con- 
struction, the window frames were entirely of metal, 
glazed with wire glass, and the building had in addition a 
sprinkler system supplied from a fifty thousand gallon 
tank on the roof. The earthquake affected the building 
but slightly, and the fire was sufficient to melt the wire 
glass in one or two of the windows. Fire broke out in 
several parts of the building, but was extinguished by the 
sprinklers, and the building was saved with very little 
damage. These two structures do not give us any addi- 
tional light on the action of either concrete or terra cotta 
in a fire, but they do emphasize the scanty extent to 
which San Francisco was equipped with what is recog- 
nized as thoroughly up-to-date fire protection. 

IN conclusion, our contention is that in San Francisco 
the terra cotta fireproofing, in every case where it was 
properly applied, offered a certain flexibility, by reason 
of its many joints, which minimized the disruptive effect 
of the earthquake, and that, so far as we know, in every 
case where terra cotta was properly used for protection 
against fire the damage to the steel frame was extremely 
slight. We have not been able to locate a single instance 
in which structural damage resulted from failure of the 
terra cotta protection when it was applied in a reason- 
ably thorough manner. On the other hand, this fire 
seems in our judgment to show that any monolithic floor 
construction will not stand a severe shock without splin- 
tering or shattering so as to be practically worthless, and 
that while terra cotta protection frequently falls off after 
a fire when cooling, leaving the steel bare, concrete 
under similar conditions will crack and fall off before the 
fire has reached its maximum, leaving the steel entirely 
exposed to the destructive effects of heat. Furthermore, 
we find that terra cotta passes through the fire without 
apparently losing its strength. The action of fire on con- 
crete is not fully known as yet, but the results of the ex- 
periments which have been conducted at VVatertown and 
the observed results at San Francisco are evidence that 
when subjected to excessive heat concrete undergoes a 
molecular change which may not be apparent at first, but 
which in time is sure to bring about the disintegration of 
the material. 

We admit freely that discussions of this sort are more 
or less academic, that in a building which suffers a loss of 
sixty or seventy per cent the question of the exact sys- 
tem of fireproofing is not of vital interest to the man who 
pays the bill, when neither system affords absolute pro- 
tection. But if the evidence of San Francisco is to be 
taken as a whole and the absolute degree of protection 
considered, the system which has stood the best is that 
which is built up in small pieces thoroughly tied together, 
possessing flexibility against shock combined with resist- 
ive powers to heat, and nothing but terra cotta would 
answer fully this description. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"3 



Burnt Clay Construction at 
San Francisco. 



EXTRACTS FROM REPORT OF F. W. FITZPATRICK, EXECUTIVE 
OFFICER OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF BUILDING 
COMMISSIONERS, ON INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED ON IN 
BEHALF OF THAT SOCIETY, THE UNITED STATES GOVERN- 
MENT, THE BRICKBUILDER AND OTHER TECHNICAL 
JOURNALS, ETC., ETC. 

AS Mr. Charles H. Alden well said in the last issue of 
The Bkickbuilder, "Only a personal investigation 
of the ruined city enables one to realize the extent of 
the destruction." Naturally the stricken people seek to 
minimize the actual damage by the earthquake, while 
the architects and builders are particularly anxious to 
impress one with the notion that dynamite did the great- 
est damage to the buildings that particularly interest the 
readers of this journal. 

In no city, excepting perhaps New Orleans, was there 
so much highly inflammable, poor construction. San 
Francisco was literally ninety per cent wood, and, for a 
city so used to earthquakes of varying degree and that 
could reasonably expect a very severe shock some time, 
its general construction was, to say the least, careless. 
In the tall buildings only was there the slightest precau- 
tion taken against shake, and that consisted only in very 
thoroughly bracing the steel frame. In all else, the 
stonework, the brickwork, the fireproofing, the work was 
done as if it were always to rest upon a level, immovable 
bed. More than that, even in her tall buildings San 
Francisco was built from fifteen per cent to fifty per cent 
poorer in construction than the work generally found in 
our eastern cities, while it would be reasonable to expect, 
on account of quake and exceedingly great fire hazard, 
that she would have built from fourteen per cent to thirty 
per cent better and stronger than anywhere else. 

Her local brick is not of poor quality, and the brick 
she bought elsewhere is of the best; her local terra cotta 
was sharp, well modeled, but too thin and not scientifically 
constructed to resist fire, lacking in sufficiency of web and 
in uniform thickness of assailable faces; her fireproofing 
tile floors were largely of side construction and of dense 
tile, forms and material not acceptable in the best practice 
East; her column coverings were light, and so were her 
partitions. The work in no case was up to the eastern 
standard, and certainly not what one should do in the 
face of the possibilities there. It was all that was de- 
manded of the builders ; it was the class that was accepted 
and generally better than exacted by the ridiculously lax 
building regulations. The people are paying the penalty 
for their sins. All this laxity, if not ignorance, has 
spelled a loss to the extent of fully $300,000,000! In 
the burned district the quake damage alone would have 
amounted to $10,000,000 at most. 

In the tall buildings, so-called "fireproof," the brick- 
work was merely shelved on the frame and carried story 
by story. No additional bonding or tying of the wall in 
itself nor tying to the frame was done, and the quake 
effects show, where any damage is apparent, that these 
walls gripped tightly at top and bottom but were bulged 
in the middle of the span, sometimes resulting in hori- 



zontal cracks at the bearing, but more frequently in cross 
fissures as in the New Chronicle Building. The terra 
cotta cornices were not overmuch tied in, and it is indeed 
a wonder that more sections of them were not shaken to 
the street. In few cases were the steel column protec- 
tions of tile well jointed and adequately tied to the 
columns. The result was that in many instances this 
protection failed, the column buckled and let down the 
loads from above, causing much damage. In some cases 
the facing brick were not adequately bonded to the back- 
ing, with the result that that facing peeled off in huge 
sections. In the cheaper buildings, noticed particularly 
outside of the fire section, the brickwork was very poorly 
executed and but little if any tying done between the 
wood framing and those brick walls. Naturally, with 
such conditions, plus the use of sand, water and (very 
little) lime mortar, roof trusses " kicked " against gables 
and piers, and even the newest buildings have about as 
much brick scattered about the streets as still remain in 
the walls. 

This is the unattractive side of the picture, and it 
has been most artistically touched up and exploited by 
those to whose interest it is to discredit burnt clay prod- 
ucts. They have done their work at much expense but 
pretty thoroughly, for the people generally, not appre- 
ciating the real inwardness of the thing and following the 
lead of these clever but unprincipled molders of public 
opinion, are loud in their denunciation of brick and 
clamor that wood only is quake-proof. 

The obverse of that picture is that wherever burnt 
clay products were used with the slightest skill by the 
architects and put in place as they should be, they have 
given a splendid account of themselves and stand out 
conspicuously superior to anything that has passed 
through the fire and yet preserved any resemblance to 
its former self. 

Preaching has had but little effect upon San Francisco 
builders (and alas! it seems to have but little upon most 
of the others), so possibly this terrific lesson may have a 
salutary effect upon them and graphically point the way 
to what they must do to secure a really fireproof and 
quake-proof construction. Heretofore they have imper- 
fectly placed a little fireproofing material around their 
steel frames, and deemed that a sufficient precaution and 
a sort of heavenly dispensation to go ahead and do every- 
thing else about that building as flimsily and as inflam- 
mably as possible, brazenly assuring owners and occu- 
pants that the structure was positively proof against its 
two worst enemies. They have seen that wherever fire 
touched stone, granite, marble or concrete, that material 
has gone completely to pieces or been spalled and cruelly 
defaced ; they have seen that where their face brick was 
properly bonded to the backing and the entire wall well 
tied to its frame, that wall is as good to-day as it ever 
was; that where common brickwork was well done, with 
good mortar and ample bonding, and even unstiffened 
by steel frame, as in the Palace Hotel and some of the 
big churches in the burned district, it has valiantly with- 
stood quake and fire and even dynamite ; that where 
terra cotta decoration was used with discretion, all the 
surface part of equal thickness, properly planned and 
with rounded internal angles, and all tied in safe and 
sound, it has remained so; that where the fireproofing 



ii 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SAN FRANCISCO GAS AND ELECTRIC BLDG. 

Stone badly spalled, interior completely gutted, but 

brickwork perfect. 




MILLS BUILDING. 

Stonework A A badly spalled, while the upper eight 

stories of brick and terra cotta are intact 

save at a few spots like B. 





MUTUAL SAVINGS BANK. 

Stonework A B D destroyed, terra cotta gables 

above intact. 



CALL BUILDING. 

Note effect of fire on stonework at A B, and that 

terra cotta dome C is undamaged. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



"5 




SHREVE BUILDING. 

Fire was hot enough to destroy adjoining buildings at 
A, but side and court walls are intact and unshaken. 




ST. FRANCIS HOTEL. 
Court walls, work poorly done and facing A B not 
bonded to backing. Quake and fire have 
revealed that heglect. 




Poorly set column protection, and with pipes inside of 
casting, in one of the so-called " tile fireproof " 
buildings. Note fire effect on column at A. 




Poorly applied column protection in a so-called "con- 
crete fireproofed" building. Note fire effect 
on column at A. 



n6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





ARONSON BUILDING. 

Stone spalled at C, terra cotta base "quaked" at E, 

but rest of terra cotta and brick perfect. 

See metal cornice. 



UNION TRUST BUILDING. 

Wherever fire touched it, as at A, there is an inefface- 
able mark : not so with the brick and 
terra cotta above. 




MUTUAL LIFE BUILDING. 

Note stone at A B and condition of brick immediately 

above. Intense fire in building C. (D D 

present offices and restaurants. ) 




WEST GATE APARTMENTS. 

Stonework A completely demoralized, also metal 

cornice D. Enameled brick, well laid, exposed 

to equal fire and unmarred. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



117 



tile was ample in dimension, properly bonded, laid with 
cement mortar and rigidly tied to the columns, or set in 
place (the partitions not built up on top of finished wood 
floors or of inferior concrete with wood floor strips) it 
amply protected the steel frame and is in itself intact; 
that where stairs and elevator shafts were enclosed, or a 
building cut up into small units of properly enclosed 
spaces, fire was confined to limited areas and did but 
little damage; that where internal decorations, doors, 
trim, etc., were of metal, as in the Kohl Building, all 
that decoration remains intact, and in itself prevented 
the spread of fire from room to room ; that where metal- 
lic furniture and cases were used in rooms enclosed with 
fireproofing tile and windows properly protected, all 
books and papers were intact; that where even a wooden 
frame building was enclosed with brick walls and the 
window openings protected (by wired glass in metal 
sash) against external attack, as in the California Electric 
Supply Building, even the wood framing and all the con- 
tents of the building were absolutely safe and untouched, 
though an exactly similar building, save that it had 
no protection to its windows, situated but a few blocks 
away, lost its " slow-burning frame " and all its contents 
in less than forty minutes' time. 

They have seen all this, I say ; they have before them 
various object lessons of the different parts and details 
that have done their several individual duties well. Now, 
then, in heaven's name ! have they not intelligence enough 
to assemble all those details into one structure and make 
it a really " fireproof " building? 



STUDYING THE EARTHQUAKE. 

IMPORTANT WORK OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

IMPORTANT to builders throughout the country is an 
investigation recently begun by the United States 
Geological Survey to find out the effect upon various 
kinds of structural material of earthquakes. Numerous 
inquiries have been received by Charles D. Walcott, 
director of the Survey, since the California earthquake 
as to the buildings which best stood the shock of that 
catastrophe and the reasons why some buildings survived 
and others fell in the wake of this convulsion of the 
earth. Interesting light on this phase of the earthquake 
was thrown by a letter recently received at the Survey 
from Charles G. Yale, who is the special geological sur- 
vey agent on the Pacific Coast. Mr. Yale was in San 
Francisco at the time of the earthquake, and therefore 
had excellent opportunities for studying its effect. His 
offices are located in the Appraisers building. This 
building, Mr. Yale says, in his letter to Director Walcott, 
was one of the few business structures in San Francisco 
which was not injured either by the earthquake or the 
fire. With the exception of the falling of a little plaster 
on several floors the building is wholly free from damage. 
" It is probably the only building of its kind in the city," 
said Mr. Yale, "which does not show a single crack in 
its brick walls. This may be due to the fact that the 
foundation of the building consists of a six-foot bed of 
solid cement placed upon thousands of piles, and that 
the bricks are put together with cement instead of 
mortar. The walls of this building are thicker below the 
sidewalk than they are above. Thus when the building 
is shaken by an earthquake it moves as a monolith. 



Study in Paris. 

BY GILBERT HINDERMYER. 

SO widespread is the fame of L'Ecole des Beaux Arts 
that the name itself has become almost synonymous 
with study in Paris. Presumably every architect and 
most laymen possess enough general knowledge of this 
great art school and sufficient understanding of its pur- 
pose, principles and achievements to make unnecessary 
detailed description of the institution which France 
proudly opens to the world. In choosing how he shall 
study, the prestige, reputation and influence of the 
school make it a factor which the student must reckon 
with first. 

But all who go to Paris for study do not intend to 
enter the school. While many regard L'Ecole des Beaux 
Arts as the Temple of Architecture and accept its teach- 
ings as the Bible of the architect, others again are not so 
sure. To be an apostle of the school, its methods and 
results, is to be called Frenchman; to say the education 
of the architect may be completed just as well and more 
quickly outside the school is to chance the reputation of 
seeking less than the best. Evading a point of view so 
radical as either may lend interest to comment upon 
both, since the spectator sees more of the game than the 
players, and observation from the outside adds poise to 
judgment. Naturally, then, the first decision for the stu- 
dent of architecture is whether or not he shall try to enter 
the school, and what he shall do as an alternative if 
he stay out. Regarding the former, inquiring minds will 
gather a kind of parallel column arrangement of ideas 
something like this: 

Perhaps a diplome from L'Ecole des Beaux Arts 
seems desirable as a guarantee of training which many 
do not hesitate to call the best. The cultured mind and 
varied information of the technical school graduate are 
theoretically taken for granted; the self-taught man is 
often required to prove both. But to the man of affairs 
who aims for results regardless of method and prefers 
practice to theory, the diplome may mean nothing. 
There will always be those who ask, " Is it commercially 
good?" The full course of the school is long, depending 
upon a certain aggregate of "values" practically im- 
possible to complete in less than three years, usually 
more. This, following upon a regular or special college 
course or some years of office training, means the expend- 
iture of much valuable time. However, one may give 
up the diplome, omit values in other branches and devote 
himself principally to architecture. Completing the full 
course will insure a training in theory as perfect as may 
be. If too much of theory and too little of the practical 
seem evident, still the honor, distinction and prestige of 
the diplome are the rewards; the practical application 
rests with the finished student. Should some studies in 
which values are required appear useless in office practice, 
it is to be remembered that the ideally trained architect 
recognizes few studies which are useless in his profes- 
sion. Perhaps the school principles of plan and design 
seem too obviously French in point of view rather than 
applicable to American conditions ; it is claimed that these 
ideas are taught as principles so broad and fundamental 
as to be of general application. 



n8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



If the student arrive in Paris less inclined to sober 
analysis, have the time, money and be not too old, he 
will probably try the entrance examinations, as the enthu- 
siasm born of discussion among the many candidates is 
contagious. Unless one's age be a year or two less than 
thirty the choice is spared him, as the French government 
decrees that none may remain a student of L'Ecole — 
much less enter — whom French standards judge thus 
conspicuously superannuated. 

The examinations are commonly believed to be diffi- 
cult, covering a wide range of questions in history, oral 
and written mathematics, geometry, a twelve-hour solu- 
tion of a problem in architecture and a study in free-hand 
rendering. The problem in architecture counts most. 
Preparatory ateliers conducted for this purpose are ever 
ready to teach the special points expected from the appli- 
cant in his sketch. While in no wise detracting from the 
glory of those who have passed the ordeal in triumph, 
nor lacking sympathy for those laid low, the average of 
opinion indicates that a college graduate with a propor- 
tionate knowledge of architecture should scarcely find 
these examinations filled with the terrors from which it 
is commonly supposed they are inseparable. Much of 
the difficulty naturally results from an insufficient knowl- 
edge of French. Only a little knowledge is often said to 
be enough; but it is well to remember, in general, that a 
fair proficiency in America seems a little knowledge in 
Paris. As always, a cool head, an even poise, steady 
nerves and the ability to enter in good condition after 
weeks of coaching and fearsome comment — coupled with 
the ability to produce what one knows at the right mo- 
ment, rather than any unusual or specialized erudition 
— seem the qualities which win. 

Should the weight of opinion thus far seem in favor 
of the school, there may be enough of importance to 
more than keep the balance true in considering the alter- 
natives for him who stays out. The student who decides 
to omit the school, either through necessity or merely 
from choice, will find other opportunities for study, much 
in line with the work of the school and free from 
most of its hindrances. Diplomes or graduates of the 
school may always be had to give programmes, guide 
and criticise individual work at regular times, and to act 
as " coach" generally, for fees which are not excessive. 
There are ateliers where one may work from the cast or 
from the figure, draped or nude, every day and every 
evening for a trifling sum paid upon each admission. 
There are clever men who teach water color, though this, 
perhaps, belongs more in the province of the painter, 
whose methods of study touch but never coincide with 
those of the architect. There are the school exhibitions of 
every required sketch, problem and project, valued by the 
judges and open to all for study and comparison. The 
competition for the " Grand Prix " — four years in the 
Villa Medici, at Rome — is the most important event of the 
student year. The various solutions and the drawings 
are much discussed in preparation, and the finished results 
exhibited in June. Lesser competitions are distributed 
through the year. Students of the school are all about 
one, ready and anxious to discuss questions, criticise 
each solution of every problem, and to impart the 
school's methods and point of view. Easily obtained 



are the programmes of old and current projects which 
one may solve for himself. There are always students 
more than willing to offer a twelve-hour sketch, to be 
worked up into the required drawings, by good men 
who care to do it for the monthly judging and 
exhibition. 

Also to be numbered among one's opportunities are 
the big ateliers, although more properly belonging to 
the organized work of the school, since they are the 
workshops in which school drawings are supposed to be 
made. One must picture each as a brotherhood of stu- 
dents, mutually helpful, working side by side upon simi- 
lar problems. Each atelier bears the name and is under 
the guidance of its "patron," — an architect whose in- 
dividuality, methods and point of view influence his 
pupils, as they profit by his criticisms. If one has " made 
the school " he cannot do otherwise than join an atelier. 
Those of Laloux, Redan and Pascal are probably the 
more prominent, though there are others perhaps equally 
good. Though not a student of the school, one may be- 
come a member of an atelier. He may work upon the 
school projects, though without opportunity of having 
them judged and hung. He will come in contact with 
the very cream of draughtsmanship, learn many tricks 
of rendering, doubtless have numerous opportunities 
to work on the problems of his "brothers" urged 
upon him, and, if he be clever himself, may even help 
to win honor and fame for a Grand Prix man. The 
work of advanced students, "L'Ecole" to the finger 
tips is to be studied in varied solutions of the same 
problem. His own project appears before him in many 
versions. 

A word of caution may not be amiss to him who con- 
templates spending his time of study in an atelier. If 
that time be short and the student not a pupil of the 
school, he should learn more than a little of what awaits 
him. The " Nouveau " does not rest upon a bed of roses: 
his term of service is proportioned to the length of his 
stay — and "service" means service. Initiation is no 
meaningless term, but represents the condensed ingenu- 
ity of years of study and demands that nerves and 
temper be at their best. Five minutes of criticism, 
given three times a week, are all the Nouveau may hope 
for from Monsieur Le Patron. Here the merry blague 
exists in a high state of development: not merely the 
by-product of active brains, but the work of special- 
ized invention. Knowledge of the atelier had best be 
sought from the outside until initiation makes the 
seeker for truth free to pass its doors. One will find a 
lot of fun in atelier work, and doubtless may learn a 
great deal. 

He who believes that an influence something more 
than name exists in an "atmosphere of art" will find 
that something in Paris, whether he seek it in the 
orthodox ranks of L'Ecole des Beaux Arts or as a 
free lance among the army of students in the (Juartier 
Latin. 

If one study even a little and but live there open eyed 
and open minded, with an -understanding appreciation 
for the beauty of art in design displayed broadcast 
through a beautiful city, he can scarcely come away un- 
rewarded by his stuy in Paris. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



119 



A Village Courthouse. 

ARTICLE III. 

BY ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS. 

NOT long since, being interested in the erection of a 
public library in a small New England town, I was 
asked by the committee who had the matter in hand to 
make sketches for a contemplated county courthouse, a 
site for which had been acquired facing the public square, 
the civic center of the town, which was the county seat. 
The village was of some historical interest and signifi- 
cance; the first company of soldiers in the Revolution 
having assembled and departed from its square, and it 
was, too, an altogether pleasing place, especially in the 
spring and early summer when I first saw it. 

The square, a plot of ground some six hundred feet 
by seven hundred feet, was surrounded by a line of ven- 
erable elm trees no doubt a hundred years old or more, 
and was parked out in grass plots and gravel cross walks. 
In the center was a flat basin of water with an invisible 
central outlet, which on certain occasions sent a column 
of water into the air, splashing back into the pool. At 
one side was the proverbial granite horse trough with its 
well-worn granite buffers and hitching posts, and across 
the street the village inn, a wooden building of the Colo- 
nial times with a big piazza, where farmers smoked and 
talked crops after their midday meal. On the side of 
the square opposite was the village main street, with its 
interurban trolley line and nondescript buildings of busi- 
ness, stores, offices, a bank, etc., and, as they faced north 
and were in shadow, their glaring lack of architectural 
design was not offensive from a little distance. The 
public library was placed at one side and the courthouse 
was to face it, opposite. 

The building committee, why selected I don't know, 
as they seemed utterly unqualified for the work, was 
composed of two farmers from outlying districts and a 
retired plumber. The plumber no doubt was thought to 
possess the necessary technical knowledge to guide them 
in their undertaking. 

I found, however, on attending their regular monthly 
meeting to discuss requirements, that I had very much 
mistaken the situation. The county collector was present, 
an energetic man with a head like the late Matthew Quay 
or Cecil Rhodes, who at once arrested attention, and it 
was plain to see that the committee of farmers were 
under complete domination and entirely directed by this 
man. As a matter of fact he was the committee himself, 
and as it transpired was certainly well equipped for the 
position. He had experience in the erection of public 
buildings and had given the matter considerable study. 
He had visited the principal municipal buildings the 
world over, was just, honest, and had the interests of the 
county at heart. 

The farmer members had also given the matter study 
according to their lights, and arrived at some strong con- 
victions as to what a county courthouse should be. 
They had taken sundry trips of inspection of such build- 
ings at the county's expense and got together a collec- 
tion of prints, plans and photographs, most of them of 
buildings from the middle and southwestern states. 



Their chief conclusions were that the building should 
have a rotunda, dome and portico ; the arrangement of 
rooms, their sizes and other matters, seemed to them of 
secondary importance. They were of the opinion, too, 
that it should be built of rock face granite. They knew 
that the amount of the appropriation would not permit 
the dome which they had in mind being constructed of 
granite, but galvanized iron, painted and sanded, would 
answer so they argued, as from the ground the difference 
of material would not be noticeable. 

This was the opinion also of a warm personal friend 
whom they believed competent to pass judgment, — the 
owner of the near by granite quarry, who had, indeed, 
accompanied them upon some of their excursions of 
study. 

While there was no question as to the advisability and 
necessity of a rotunda or lobby, I questioned the appro- 
priateness of a dome, and suggested the omission of this 
feature of the design, getting the impressiveness which 
they desired rather by a fine entrance portico and pedi- 
ment, and suggested that a dome would be of little use 
within and that its cost might be better put to other 
uses. 

To my surprise the county collector agreed; he ques- 
tioned the fitness of a dome for such a building, and 
although he was forced to admit the domes on the 
county courthouses which they had collected, he called 
attention to other better precedents, among them, to my 
delight, the Palais-du-justice in Paris, which had im- 
pressed him as characterictic and appropriate to the 
purpose of such a building ; and further he argued that the 
funds would not permit of a dome properly constructed, 
and that the flag pole which was to be placed on its top 
might be more in evidence if put at the end of an exedra 
in front of the building at the ground level. The dome 
feature was therefore finally waived, provided a sufficient 
impressiveness could be got from the main entrance 
motif. 

The sizes and disposition of rooms, height and num- 
ber of stories, were soon settled. The principal court- 
room was to be placed at the rear of the building facing 
the main entrance, the grand jury room and anteroom at 
the right; rooms for the district attorney, prisoners, wit- 
nesses, etc., at the left, on the main floor, with separate 
entrances at the rear for the use of the judge, counsel, 
and warden ; and the probate court, private office, regis- 
try of deeds, private offices for registrar and clerks, on 
the second floor. Public stairways were to be placed at 
either side of the building toward the front; the main 
courtroom was to extend through two stories, with a bal- 
cony at the level of the second story; the basement 
was to be given over to rooms for storage, vaults 
for records, space for heating and ventilating apparatus, 
and janitor's quarters. 

These suggestions formed the basis of a set of sketch 
plans and a perspective which were finally satisfactory, 
although I had an inkling that the committee still 
hankered for the dome feature ; and we got our granite 
quarry friend to make an estimate of its cost. 

Of course it was expected the estimate would be ten- 
tative, but we were by no means prepared for one that was 
more than twice the appropriation. It certainly was 
not justified by the sketches. The contractor seemed to 



i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



If the student arrive in Paris less inclined to sober 
analysis, have the time, money and be not too old, he 
will probably try the entrance examinations, as the enthu- 
siasm born of discussion among the many candidates is 
contagious. Unless one's age be a year or two less than 
thirty the choice is spared him, as the French government 
decrees that none may remain a student of L'Ecole - 
much less enter — whom French standards judge thus 
conspicuously superannuated. 

The examinations are commonly believed to be diffi- 
cult, covering a wide range of questions in history, oral 
and written mathematics, geometry, a twelve-hour solu- 
tion of a problem in architecture and a study in free-hand 
rendering. The problem in architecture counts most. 
Preparatory ateliers conducted for this purpose are ever 
ready to teach the special points expected from the appli- 
cant in his sketch. While in no wise detracting from the 
glory of those who have passed the ordeal in triumph, 
nor lacking sympathy for those laid low, the average of 
opinion indicates that a college graduate with a propor- 
tionate knowledge of architecture should scarcely find 
these examinations filled with the terrors from which it 
is commonly supposed they are inseparable. Much of 
the difficulty naturally results from an insufficient knowl- 
edge of French. Only a little knowledge is often said t" 
be enough; but it is well to remember, in general, that a 
fair proficiency in America seems a little knowledge in 
Paris. As always, a cool head, an even poise, steady 
nerves and the ability to enter in good condition after 
weeks of coaching and fearsome comment —coupled with 
the ability to produce what one knows at the right mo- 
ment, rather than any unusual or specialized erudition 
— seem the qualities which win. 

.Should the weight of opinion thus far seem in favor 
of the school, there may be enough of importance to 
more than keep the balance true in considering the alter- 
natives for him who stays out. The student who decides 
to omit the school, either through necessity or merely 
from choice, will find other opportunities for study, much 
in line with the work of the school and free from 
most of its hindrances. Diplomes or graduates of the 
school may always be had to give programmes, guide 
and criticise individual work at regular times, and to act 
as " coach" generally, for fees which are not excessive. 
There are ateliers where one may work from the cast or 
from the figure, draped or nude, every day and every 
evening for a trifling sum paid upon each admission. 
There are clever men who teach water color, though this, 
perhaps, belongs more in the province of the painter, 
whose methods of study touch but never coincide with 
those of the architect. There are the school exhibitions of 
every required sketch, problem and project, valued by the 
judges and open to all for study and comparison. The 
competition for the " Grand Prix " — four years in the 
Villa Medici, at Rome — is the most important event of the 
student year. The various solutions and the drawings 
are much discussed in preparation, and the finished results 
exhibited in June. Lesser competitions are distributed 
through the year. Students of the school are all about 
one, ready and anxious to discuss questions, criticise 
each solution of every problem, and to impart the 
school's methods and point of view. Easily obtained 



are the programmes of old and current projects rich 
one may solve for himself. There are always sti »nts 
more than willing to offer a twelve-hour sketch, . be 
worked up into the required drawings, by good nen 
who care to do it for the monthly judging and 
exhibition. 

Also to be numbered among one's opportunity are 
the big ateliers, although more properly belong 
the organized work of the school, since they ar the 
workshops in which school drawings are supposed > be 
made. One must picture each as a brotherhood i 
dents, mutually helpful, working side by side upon imi- 
lar problems. Each atelier bears the name and is ider 
the guidance of its "patron," — an architect wh< in- 
dividuality, methods and point of view influent his 
pupils, as they profit by his criticisms. If one has 'iade 
the school " he cannot do otherwise than join an a lier. 
Those of Laloux, Redan and Pascal are probah 
more prominent, though there are others perhaps e< ally 
good. Though not a student of the school, one m; be- 
come a member of an atelier. lie may work up< the 
school projects, though without opportunity of 1 'ing 
them judged and hung. He will come in contac vith 
the very cream of draughtsmanship, learn many icks 
of rendering, doubtless have numerous opporti ities 
to work on the problems of his " brothers " -ged 
upon him, and, if he be clever himself, may everhelp 
to win honor and fame for a Grand Prix man. The 
work of advanced students, " L'Ecole" to the iger 
tips is to be studied in varied solutions of the ame 
problem. His own project appears before him in lany 
versions. 

A word of caution may not be amiss to him wh con- 
templates spending li is time of study in an atelu If 
that time be short and the student not a pupil the 
school, he should learn more than a little of what 
him. The " Nouveau " does not rest upon a bed of 
his term of service is proportioned to the length his 
stay -and "service" means service. Initiation-; no 
meaningless term, but represents the condensed ii enu- 
ity of years of study and demands that nerve and 
temper be at their best. Five minutes of cril ism, 
given three times a week, are all the Nouveau ma 
for from Monsieur Le Patron. Here the merry 
exists in a high state of development: not mere the 
by-product of active brains, but the work of s cial- 
ized invention. Knowledge of the atelier had b t be 
sought from the outside until initiation maki the 
seeker for truth free to pass its doors. One will id a 
lot of fun in atelier work, and doubtless may 1< 
great deal. 

He who believes that an influence something nore 
than name exists in an " atmosphere of art " wi find 
that something in Paris, whether he seek it the 
orthodox ranks of L'Ecole des Beaux Arts o as a 
free lance among the army of students in the Qi rtier 
Latin. 

If one study even a little and but live there ope eyed 
and open minded, with an 'understanding appre ition 
for the beauty of art in design displayed brc least 
through a beautiful city, he can scarcely come aw un- 
rewarded by his stuy in Paris. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



119 



A Village Courthouse. 

ARTICLE III. 

BY ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS. 

N(P long since, being interested in the erection of a 
[blic library in a small New England town, I was 
asked >y the committee who had the matter in hand to 
make ketches for a contemplated county courthouse, a 
site f< which had been acquired facing the public square, 
the ciic center of the town, which was the county seat. 
Thevlage was of some historical interest and signifi- 
cance the first company of soldiers in the Revolution 
havinjassembled and departed from its square, and it 
was, to, an altogether pleasing place, especially in the 
sprint nd early summer when I first saw it. 

Tl square, a plot of ground some six hundred feet 
by se\ 1 hundred feet, was surrounded by a line of ven- 
erable Im trees no doubt a hundred years old or more, 
and w parked out in grass plots and gravel cross walks. 
In the enter was a Hat basin of water with an invisible 
centrabutlet, which on certain occasions sent a column 
of wat into the air, splashing back into the pool. At 
one si< was the proverbial granite horse trough with its 
well-wrn granite buffers and hitching posts, and across 
the sti -t the village inn, a wooden building of the Colo- 
nial tii ss witli a big piazza, where farmers smoked and 
talked rops after their midday meal. On the side of 
the squre opposite was the village main street, with its 
intcnn m trolley line and nondescript buildings of busi- 
ness, s res, offices, a bank, etc., and, as they faced north 
and wt - in shadow, their glaring lack of architectural 
design vas not offensive from a little distance. The 
public irary was placed at one side and the courthouse 
was to ice it, opposite. 

TIk milding committee, why selected I don't know, 
as the) seemed utterly unqualified for the work, was 
compos 1 of two farmers from outlying districts and a 
retired lumber. The plumber no doubt was thought to 
possesahe necessary technical knowledge to guide them 
in theiandertaking. 

I fo id. however, on attending their regular monthly 
meetim o discuss requirements, that I had very much 
mistake the situation. The county collector was present, 
an ener tie man with a head like the late Matthew Quay 
or CeciKhodes, who at once arrested attention, and it 
was pi 1 to see that the committee of farmers were 
under cmpletc domination and entirely directed by this 
man. £ a matter of fact he was the committee himself, 
and as i transpired was certainly well equipped for the 
position He had experience in the erection of public 
buildinj and had given the matter considerable study. 
He had visited the principal municipal buildings the 
world o^ r, was just, honest, and had the interests of the 
county 1 heart. 

The irmer members had also given the matter study 
accordin to their lights, and arrived at some strong con- 
victions s to what a count}- courthouse should be. 
They ha taken sundry trips of inspection of such build- 
ings at t ■ county's expense and got together a collec- 
tion of pnts, plans and photographs, most of them of 
building:;"rom the middle and southwestern states. 



Their chief conclusions were that the building should 
have a rotunda, dome and portico ; the arrangement of 
rooms, their sizes and other matters, seemed to them of 
secondary importance. They were of the opinion, too, 
that it should be built of rock face granite. They knew 
that the amount of the appropriation would not permit 
the dome which they had in mind being constructed of 
granite, but galvanized iron, painted and sanded, would 
answer so they argued, as from the ground the difference 
of material would not be noticeable. 

This was the opinion also of a warm personal friend 
whom they believed competent to pass judgment, — the 
owner of the near by granite quarry, who had, indeed, 
accompanied them upon some of their excursions of 
study. 

While there was no question as to the advisability and 
necessity of a rotunda or lobby, I questioned the appro- 
priateness of a dome, and suggested the omission of this 
feature of the design, getting the impressiveness which 
they desired rather by a fine entrance portico and pedi- 
ment, and suggested that a dome would be of little use 
within and that its cost might be better put to other 
uses. 

To my surprise the county collector agreed; he ques- 
tioned the fitness of a dome for such a building, and 
although he was forced to admit the domes on the 
county courthouses which they had collected, he called 
attention to other better precedents, among them, to my 
delight, the Palais-du-justice in Paris, which had im- 
pressed him as characterictic and appropriate to the 
purpose of such a building ; and further he argued that the 
funds would not permit of a dome properly constructed, 
and that the flag pole which was to be placed on its top 
might be more in evidence if put at the end of an exedra 
in front of the building at the ground level. The dome 
feature was therefore finally waived, provided a sufficient 
impressiveness could be got from the main entrance 
motif. 

The sizes and disposition of rooms, height and num- 
ber of stories, were soon settled. The principal court- 
room was to be placed at the rear of the building facing 
the main entrance, the grand jury room and anteroom at 
the right; rooms for the district attorney, prisoners, wit- 
nesses, etc., at the left, on the main floor, with separate 
entrances at the rear for the use of the judge, counsel, 
and warden ; and the probate court, private office, regis- 
try of deeds, private offices for registrar and clerks, on 
the second floor. Public stairways were to be placed at 
either side of the building toward the front; the main 
courtroom was to extend through two stories, with a bal- 
cony at the level of the second story; the basement 
was to be given over to rooms for storage, vaults 
for records, space for heating and ventilating apparatus, 
and janitor's quarters. 

These suggestions formed the basis of a set of sketch 
plans and a perspective which were finally satisfactory, 
although I had an inkling that the committee still 
hankered for the dome feature ; and we got our granite 
quarry friend to make an estimate of its cost. 

Of course it was expected the estimate would be ten- 
tative, but we were by no means prepared for one that was 
more than twice the appropriation. It certainly was 
not justified by the sketches. The contractor seemed to 



120 



THE BRICKBUILDER 






\ 





f'/Sf. \ 



• 



I 









. i • 



■•''-. 






• 




'! t 



3 ALBEJETTJI-Ieoai -^tClT- 




A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. 
Albert Randolph Ross, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



12 I 



think that the work was to be his at any cost, and doubt- 
less intended to retire from business on its profits. 

Alternatives were suggested, to be sure, which tended 
to somewhat reduce the estimate, — omitting the front 
columns; reducing the thickness of the ashlar; making 
the back of the building of brick (which would not be 
considered). 

More estimates were got from other contractors, which 
only proved, however, that the building could not be 
erected in granite, not even in rock face granite, within 
the appropriation, and a way out of the difficulty was, as 
usual, left to the architect to find. 

On considering other material, limestone naturally 
suggested itself, but was rejected on account of excessive 
cost of freight, and terra cotta or terra cotta and brick 
was, I am glad to say, finally considered. 

I have always had a strong partiality for this beauti- 
ful material ; its beauty is hardly rivaled by marble, and 
its texture, color, susceptibility of ornament, and fire- 
proof qualities lend themselves especially to a building 
situated as this one, in a small town surrounded by 
ample foilage and lawn. 

After some further discussion of possible material, — 
reinforced concrete, etc., — it was decided to adopt a light 
colored pressed brick and terra cotta. I then suggested 
omitting the columns of the portico, believing the beauty 
of a free-standing column being in the perfection of its 
vertical tapering curve, or entices, which is impracticable 
in terra cotta on account of warping consequent to burn- 
ing, unless it is broken in some way, by rustication for 
instance, which did not seem appropriate. A motif of 
an arch, pediment and flanking piers and vestibule was 
substituted, with the endeavor to still obtain the same 
desired expression of the dignity of the courts contained 
in the building as was given by the portico, and a design 
which would permit of an appropriate and fitting use of 
the material. 

Hence these little sketches, on which satisfactory 
estimates were got, of a county courthouse facing the 
civic center of a small town ; to be built of brick and 
terra cotta with fireproof floors and roof, a granite base 
and steps, and, in design, based upon an adaptation of 
Roman classic, which seems to be an accepted style for 
American municipal buildings. 



" "T^vISHONEST mortar — a corrupt conglomeration of 
l^J sea sand and lime," is the explanation given by a 
Japanese architect for nearly all of the earthquake dam- 
age in San Francisco. Dr. Nakamura was sent over by 
his government to investigate the recent disaster, but 
from his quoted comments on what he has seen it is evi- 
dent that he thinks he has learned nothing except the 
things not to do in an earthquake country. At home, he 
says, there is no lack of confidence in brick buildings, 
though Japan has many earthquakes more severe than 
the one which caused, or started, the destruction of San 
Francisco, but the secret of safety is the use of good 
mortar. It is undoubtedly true that American builders 
use a vast amount of mortar ranging from indifferent to 
bad. This is perfectly well known to everybody with 
any knowledge at all on the subject who watches the con- 
struction of our houses and observes the quality of the 
sand and the small proportion of lime that is mixed with it. 



West End Houses, London. 

BY R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

THE briefest inquiry into the planning of the older 
town houses, and the provisions made in them for the 
needs of the occupants, will at once reveal how the anti- 
quated idea of having a great show for the guests at the 
expense of the host still held sway, and it will also be 
noticed what meager accommodation was provided for the 
numerous servants on whom the work of the house de- 
volved. It is curious to note, moreover, how our grand- 
fathers seem to have been oblivious of the fact that 
proper service between kitchen and dining room is im- 
possible when the two are widely separated by corridors 
and stairs. 

Another important detail is the hall; this, in fact, 
may be regarded as the ruling factor in the planning, 
because in town houses where receptions are frequent 
ample hall space must be provided in one form or another. 
Oftentimes the hall is made into an open room with fire- 
place, — quite a different thing to a mere passageway, — 
and undoubtedly this is the best arrangement that can be 
followed, provided there is sufficient space to allow it to 
be done. Space, however, is generally the great scarcity 
in these town houses, for sites are very costly in the 
West End, and the architect needs all his ingenuity to 
contrive to get the largest possible rooms on what is 
really a narrow frontage, at the same time providing a 
commodious hall and a dignified staircase leading out of 
it. The general requirements of these London houses 
are as follows: On the ground floor (or the first floor, as 
it is called in America), dining room, morning room and 
possibly a library or billiard room, with lavatory; on the 
first floor, drawing room or rooms, as may be required, 
or a single drawing room with boudoir leading out of it, 
and guests' bedroom with bathroom ; on the second floor, 
the bedrooms of the heads of the family, comprising one 
large bedroom, bathroom and one or two smaller bed- 
rooms ; on the third floor other bedrooms for the family 
(special provision having to be made if there are chil- 
dren) ; and finally, on the fourth floor, the servants' bed- 
rooms, box room, etc. ; the kitchen offices being arranged 
in the basement. 

Turning now to the exterior, it would be futile to 
describe even a tithe of the many treatments to be seen. 
The accompanying illustrations, however, serve to show 
what modern architects have done and are doing in the 
West End. Going back a few years we come across many 
delightful examples of brickwork by Norman Shaw; his 
houses in Queen's Gate, for example, or the one in 
Cadogan Square, Chelsea. In Mr. Shaw's houses we may 
trace many moods and manners, but they afe always dis- 
tinct and refined, full or vigor and free from convention- 
ality. As a corner treatment, No. 180 (Jueen's Gate is 
particularly good. Ernest George, too, is another great 
builder of brick houses, albeit his work smacks of the 
Continental sketchbook ; but no one will dispute the 
cleverness with which he introduces Flemish motives 
into a London building, as, for example, in the houses in 
Harrington Gardens. Mr. Flockhart's work is somewhat 
uneven ; still, as representative of another class of West 
End house, No. 2 Palace Court, Bayswater, is well 



122 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





LORD WINDSOR S HOUSE, 54 MOUNT STREET. 
Fairfax B. Wade, Architect. 



NO. 180 gUEEN S STREET. 
Norman Shaw, Architect. 





THE YELLOW HOUSE, BAYSWATER HILL. 

Built of Yellow Terra Cotta. 

Ernest George, Architect. 



HOUSES IN HARRINGTON GARDENS. 
Ernest George & Heto, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



123 





NOS. 18 AND 19 COLLINGHAM GARDENS, EARL'S COURT. 
Ernest George & Peto, Architects. 



NOS. IO AND 12 PALACE COURT, BAYSWATER. 
J. M. Maclaren, Architect. 




HOUSES IN HARRINGTON GARDENS. 
Ernest George & Peto, Architects. 



I2 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSES IN HANS ROAD, CHELSEA. 
HOUSES AT LEFT. c. P. A. Yoysey, Architect 
HOUSE AT RIGHT. Mr. Macmurdo, Architect. 



LORD RIBBLESDALE'S HOUSE, GREEN STREET. 

Sidney R. J. Smith, Architect. 





THE DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH S NEW HOUSE, CURZON STREET. 
Romaine-Walker & Besant, Architects. 



HOUSE AT CORNER HARLEY ST. AND QUEEN ANNE ST. 
Professor Beresford Pite, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



I2 5 






" •*-'-*<■ -■ * - - — -*«W** 



NO. 30 CHARLES STREET. 



NO. 3 BERKELEY STREET. 

H. Huntly-Gordon, Architect. 





NO. 16 CHARLES STREET. 



OLD SWAN HOUSE, CHELSEA, S. W. 



126 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




NO. 82 MORTIMER STREET. 

Prof. Beresford Pite, Architect. 



included in the present col- 
lection. 

A very notable West End 
house, as a piece of archi- 
tecture, is the block in 
Palace Court by the late Mr. 
Maclaren, — an architect who 
died when only half his work 
was done. 

Chelsea has been a threat 
place of rebuilding within 
recent years. There are 
many fine new houses facing 
the Embankment, and a 
great scheme was carried 
out close by for a veritable 
colony of mansions. As a 
whole they are not remark- 
able for any excellence of 
architectural quality, never- 
theless there is a spacious 
air about them. 

In one of the roads on 
the estate, Hans Road, is to 
be found an unusual exam- 
ple, namely, of two houses 
by Mr. Voysey, who has here 
made an excursion in town 
design on the same lines as 
his country work ; there were 

to have been four of these houses, but two only were 
built; next door is a house by Mr. Macmurdo, a capable 
architect, who has designed a goodly number of West 
End houses. 

In the streets leading off Park Lane numerous houses 
for the nobility have been erected, prominent among 
them being Lord Windsor's in Mount Street, and Lord 
Ribblesdale's in Green vStreet. Both are well designed, 
but the former is quite the better of the two. Another 
important new mansion is that in Curzon Street for the 
Duke of Marlborough. This is clearly French in much 
of its detail ; but however common it may be to find good, 
modern, classic work in American cities, it certainly is 
not so in English ones, and we must therefore be grate- 
ful to Mr. Romaine Walker for this sturdy block. One 
or two doorways in Charles Street, close by, are worthy 
of notice, Nos. 16 and 30, here shown. 

Finally, going somewhat nearer in, we find a number 
of excellent new houses in Harley Street and its neigh- 
borhood, though these are so many " slips " between dull 
houses of an older time; more particularly in this district 
there are the two houses by Prof. Beresford Pite, one at 
the corner of Harley Street and Queen Anne Street, and 
the other in Mortimer Street. Professor Pite is always 
unusual. Sometimes his novelties or importations are 
not altogether happy — -witness the front to Christ Church, 
Brixton — but in these two town houses he has displayed 
his skill to good effect, embracing sculpture and low-re- 
lief carving in his designs. They are full of new detail 
and fresh treatments, and in thus briefly alluding to them 
as the work of one of the most capable of English archi- 
tects these few notes on West End houses may fittingly 
be brought to a close, 



The Village Railway Station. I. 

BY CHRISTIAN MORGENST1ERNE. 

IN most suburban towns or villages the station has, 
and makes for itself, the most important position of 
any of the public buildings. Aside from its value as 
civic beauty, a small park has been found to greatly in- 
crease the intrinsic value of railroad properties and often 
develops into a civic center of a small town. 

In the accompanying sketch the station is placed 
close to a public square surrounded by a large park, 
which is intended to be the pride of this little community. 
The public buildings previously published in The 
Brickbuilder we will suppose are already placed facing 
this square and park. The passengers arriving at the 
station in carriages, etc., are driven to the covered loggia 
on the town side away from the trains and foot passen- 
gers), and on entering directly face the ticket office, 
which is, as it should be, in a most prominent location. To 
the left is the women's room and to the right the men's. 
This system of dividing the station into two parts has 
this advantage, viz., that the men's room will be used by 
the smokers, and being a large room of importance it will 
of necessity be kept clean and provided with ample 
ventilation. As will be seen, a small private rest room 
is arranged for the women, with toilet room adjacent. 
This room should be decorated in such a manner as to 
make it restful and attractive, and should be supplied 
with one or two couches and comfortable chairs. 

It is always advisable to project the ticket office 
towards the tracks in some sort of a bay window, so as 
to give the operator a view of all trains and as much of 
the platform as is possible. 

The cutting of the station into two parts, as is done 
here, gives up the large airy general waiting room 
advocated by many of the roads. Arranged with the 
ticket office at one end and the drinking fountain at the 
other, it is much more desirable for larger towns and 
cities, and under special conditions necessitating larger 
women's and men's rooms, and will therefore take pro- 
portionately more ground than the plan here submitted. 
As a further objection the large waiting room usually 
allows for only a small smoking room, which is always 
objectionable. 

The platform, covered with flat or very slightly 
pitched roof, has this great advantage, that it can be re- 
ceived on a broad transom bar, allowing the upper part 
of all openings to admit direct light into the waiting 
rooms. It has been found that platforms should hardly 
ever be less than sixteen feet wide and wider if possible. 
A train order room is only introduced where same is 
needed, being usually at division points, but does not 
often occur in ordinary suburban or village stations. The 
baggage and express rooms are placed as may be desired, 
more often combined in one rather than as here shown, 
and always of sizes determined by the amount of traffic 
and local conditions, there being no rule for their area. 

The design of this station calls for a deep red paving 
brick (or its equal) with terra cotta trimmings and a soft 
green tile roof. In the interior all the rooms are to have 
tile floors except the ticket office. The baggage and 



THE BRICKBU1LDER 



127 




o 2'o ' i'o <K vo>r 



Q) 


JQ\ 

| 


O 


©) 




A VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION. 

Christian Morgenstierne, Architect. 



express rooms will 
have brick or concrete 
floors. The walls of 
waiting rooms and 
entry will be of semi- 
glazed terra cotta from 
floor up to the spring 
line of the arched open- 
ings, and above this 
line of plaster. The 
ceiling will be a plaster 
vault with delicately 
molded ribs. 

A drinking fountain 
will be built into wall, 
to be made of white tile 
tied to the walls with 
colored tile faience run- 
ning around the entire 
room as a border. 

For a larger city sta- 
tion, or one used ex- 
clusively for the manu- 
facturing districts, tile 
finish is the most dura- 
ble, being, when properly 
and executed, dust and dirt proof 






abled 
each 



to 
day 



Tiles may have both 
pattern and color, 
which if restrained will 
add'a life and charm to 
our village railway sta- 
tion in sharp contrast 
to the dinginess of the 
great majority of those 
now extant. 

Hardy shrubs and 
decorative trees shall be 
planted in the parkway 
I near the station; bright 
I coarse sand shall cover 
/ the walks, for it is our 
desire that this gate- 
„p«v way to our homes shall 
be made simply attract- 
ive without being 
gaudy, bespeaking the 
traits of the towns- 
people, who, although 
not far removed from 
the hustle of a great 
civic center, are yet en- 
lead for at least a portion of 
the simple life. 



128 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

THEATER FIRES. 

IN most of our theaters a curtain of woven asbestos 
run in metal grooves is accepted as sufficient protec- 
tion against the spread of fire. As a matter of proba- 
bility no theater curtain of any sort could be depended 
upon for an extreme sudden emergency. Some of the 
experiments in this direction which have recently been 
conducted in Vienna are quite illuminating in their re- 
sults. Of course the temporary theater in which the 
experiments were made of necessity could not re- 
produce all the conditions of an actual building, but 
they were nevertheless sufficiently close to practice to 
offer some fertile suggestions. 

In the first experiment a fire was lighted on the stage, 




DETAIL OK THE NEW CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH, BOSTON. 

Charles Brigham, Architect. 

Roofs of Domes built of Architectural Terra Cotta made by Atlantic 

Terra Cotta Co. 

the ordinary curtain dropped, the ventilators in the audi- 
torium opened and those on the stage closed. In less 
than two minutes the curtain gave way, the entire theater 
was enveloped in flames and conditions created which 
would have been fatal to life. In a subsequent experi- 
ment the conditions were identical, except that an iron 
curtain was lowered. The reports do not concise the 
condition of the curtain after a few moments, but they do 
say that its protective powers proved quite illusory and 
the flames burst forth in the auditorium with greater vio- 
lence, if possible, than before. It is practically impos- 
sible to construct an absolutely reliable fire curtain and 
to have it properly used as a guard in a sudden emer- 
gency. If actors were all willing to sacrifice themselves 




HOUSE AT COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

1". I.. Packard, Architect. 
Roofed with old Shingle Tile made by l.udowici - Celadon Co. 

for the sake of the audience, keeping the stage ventilators 
open and closing the fireproof curtain upon the appear- 
ance of the fire on the stage, the audience could undoubt- 
edly be taken care of, but it would be expecting too 
much to suppose that any company of stage hands would 
so consent to shut themselves into a fiery furnace. We 
would not argue from this that fire curtains are of no 
value, but rather that they are of slight efficiency unless 
supplemented by a full equipment of sprinklers, auto- 
matic alarms and fire hose under the control of a trained 
fire department. 

STRENGTH A FEATURE OF BUILDING LAWS. 

THE San Francisco Chronicle reports the progress 
which is being made toward the elaboration of anew 
building law for the city of San Francisco. Of course it 
is hardly fair to judge of so technical a thing as the build- 
ing law by any report which would come through the 
medium of the newspaper reporter, but the Chronicle's 
summary indicates, at least in a measure, how lax the 
laws in San Francisco must have been previous to the 
fire. The clauses in the proposed law which most interest 
the newspaper seem to be those relating to strength of 
material, but any educated architect or engineer reading 
these would see that they are simply a presentation of 
the requirements which have been enforced for years in 
most of our large cities. After all, what San Francisco 




DETAIL BY JOHN E. KIRBV, ARCHITECT. 
South Ambov Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



129 




most needs 
is not mere 
strength for 
quiescent loads 
in buildings, but 
more rigid en- 
forcement o f 
laws relating to 
fireproofing and 
especially to lat- 
eral bracing. 



DETAIL BY GEORGE B. POST & SONS, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Penh Amboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



HOTEL 
ALEXANDER, 

SAN 

FRANCISCO. 

^"pHE Hotel 



J. Alexander 
in San Francis- 
co is a structure eleven stories high, with a frontage of 
only thirty-five feet, the narrow width corresponding with 
the direction in which it appears the greatest movement 
took place during the earthquake. One of the fronts is con- 
structed of gray sandstone blocks. The other walls con- 
sist throughout of red brick, and the noticeable feature is 
that these walls are all carefully attached to the steel 
skeleton by anchor bolts carried through the wall with 



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DETAIL FOR AMERICAN TRUST AND SAVINGS BUILDING, 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 

(Spread of Wings, Eighteen Feet.) 
American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co., Makers. 

iron plates on the exterior face. This construction was 
barely completed at the time of the fire and apparently 
very little damage was done to it. Of course the finish 
was entirely destroyed by the fire, and the stone was 
slightly chipped in places about the openings, but as a 
structure it appears to be perfectly intact to-day. This 
is an illustration of the point upon which we have so fre- 
quently insisted, namely, that our knowledge of construc- 
tion is to-day amply sufficient to permit us to erect build- 




DETAIL OF PUBLIC LIBRARY, UNION HILL, N. J. 

Albert R. Ross, Architect. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

ings of even more than usual height which shall be 
practically proof against destruction by fire or even by 
an earthquake similar to that which occurred in San Fran- 
cisco. The difficulty is that we so seldom actually apply 
this knowledge in our construction. The fatal haste 
which is a ruination of all good construction impels most 
owners and builders to neglect those precautions which, 
while perhaps in a way extraordinary and intended to 
provide only against extreme perils, are nevertheless 




DETAIL FOR NEW WAR COLLEGE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

McKim, Meade & White, Architects. 

Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co., .Makers 



>3° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




A PANEL IN FAIENCE TILES. 
Made by Hartford Faience Co. 

essential functions of a thoroughly well constructed 
modern building. The added cost of such thorough bond- 
ing and tying as was adopted in the Hotel Alexander is 
too inconsiderable to be thought of. The added security 
in the structure itself is, no doubt, fully appreciated now 
by the owners of this building. 



STUDY OF THE ORDERS. 

THIS book on the Orders consists of three of the reg- 
ular instruction papers of the American School of 
Correspondence in Chicago, with the accompanying plates 





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TROPHY IN PARAPET. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

which were prepared with the special purpose of giving 
the student a clear, concise description of the Orders and 
the system of proportions to which they were reduced by 
the Renaissance architects. The volume forms a very 
convenient reference book for any architectural draughts- 
man, and would prove of value to the architect in practice. 
Indeed, it would be a very excellent book to have in 
every draughting room. The illustrations are botli from 
photographs and from drawings, and show the standard 
examples which are recognized as classic by architects 
everywhere. Some of the text is necessarily more or less 
dogmatic, as when it states that " the designing of build- 
ings consists in a graphic representation of their intended 



shapes and sizes," and that "an architect uses 
mechanical drawing to express his ideas; " but 
on the whole there is really very little to object 
to in the volume. The drawings are clean and 
clear and the text is quite free from superfluity. 
It is the best school work upon the subject which 
we have seen. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR MAY. 

REPORTS from some fifty of the leading cities 
of the country, received by /'//< American 
Contractor, New York, tabulated and compared 
with those of the corresponding month of last 
year, show that the building operations of May, 
1906, fully justified the predictions made in their 
report. Two-thirds of the cities show an increase 




DETAIL BY ST. LOUIS TERRA COTTA CO. 

knot & Siemens, Architects. 

over the operations of 1905. In Greater New York the 
gain is small, only one per cent, but this is a remarkable 
showing when the enormous, record-breaking business of 
last year, with which the comparison is made, is taken 
into account. Chicago breaks all its records with 
$6,494,220, a gain of sixty per cent over May, 1905. The 
percentage of gain in other leading cities is as follows: 
Atlanta, 34; Bridgeport, 167; Buffalo, 60; Cleveland, 17; 
Duluth, no; Harrisburg, 112; Louisville, 50; Nashville, 
130; Newark, 26; New Orleans, 48; Omaha, 75; Phila- 
delphia, 11; Portland, 307: St. Louis, 14; St. Paul 49; 
Seattle, 30: Syracuse, 34; Toledo, 93; Tacoma, in; 
Wilkesbarre, 271. The following figures show the losses 
reported in leading cities: Cincinnati, 44: Denver, 26; 




RAILROAD STATION, PINE LAWN, N. Y. 

Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 

Roofing Tile made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile and Terra Cotta Co. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



131 




UNITED STATES POST OFFICE, CHAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS. 

James Knox Taylor, Architect. 

Entire Trim made by the Excelsior Terra Cotta Co. 




THE REPUBLIC BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 
Fireproofed throughout by National Fireproofing Co. 



Indianapolis, 35; 
Kansas City, 17; 
Milwaukee, 23; 
Minneapolis, 25; 
Mobile, 67 ; New 
Haven, 34. Some 
of the cities show- 
ing a loss have had 
a building boom 
for some years 
past and dimin- 
ished building was 
almost a matter 
of necessity. Tak- 
en altogether, the 
report is of a most 
satisfactory and 
encouraging char- 
acter and leaves 
no reason to doubt 
but what the build- 
ing operations of 
the season now 
fairly under way 
will break all rec- 
ords. This seems 
all the more re- 
markable when it 
is understood that 
both wages and 
building materials 
are now ruling 
very high. 




APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Moore & Landsiedel, Architects. 

Faced with Brick made by Kreischcr Hrick 

Manufacturing Co. 



132 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ENAMELED BRICKS AND CLEAN FOOD. 

THE " New York Model Plant," referred to in the re- 
port concerning the condition of the packing houses 
in Chicago, is the new abattoir located at 39th Street and 
nth Avenue, H organ & Slattery, architects. The report 
says: " The lower side walls are covered with white por- 
celain brick. When the slaughtering of each day is 
finished, water is turned on and in not more than fifteen 
minutes the room is so thoroughly cleansed that all per- 
ceptible odors and traces of the work are removed. . . . 
White porcelain lined bricks and curved tiles join floors 
and side-walls that no corners may retain dirt and refuse." 
The building of such a model plant was not the outcome 
of an rx/'csr, but rather a rational treatment of a commer- 
cial problem by men who knew right from wrong. 
" Lined throughout with enameled brick " would be a 
good headline for advertising any packing plant. The 
bricks and special shapes employed in this model abat- 
toir were furnished by the American Enameled Brick and 
Tile Company. 




DETAIL BY GEORGfi K1ESTER, ARCHITECT. 

Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta Co , Makers 

IN GENERAL. 

The new Carnegie Library at West Philadelphia, C. C. 
Zantzinger, architect, illustrated in The Brickbuilder 
for May, was built above the base course of a dull finish 
white enameled terra cotta, closely resembling marble. 
The material was furnished by the Conkling-Armstrong 
Terra Cotta Company. 

The new group of buildings being erected at Eddy- 
stone, Pa., for the Baldwin Locomotive Works, are of 
hollow tile fireproofing blocks. 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, whose offices 




were destroyed by earthquake 
and fire, have relocated at 
161 1 Franklin Street, San 
Francisco. 

The new Courthouse at 
Utica, N. Y., will be built of 
light gray Roman brick fur- 
nished by the Ohio Mining and 
Manufacturing Company. 

The South Amboy Terra 
Cotta Company will supply 
their terra cotta for the new 
Mercantile Building, corner 
Fifth Avenue and 15th Street, 
New York City ; also for the 
Roman Catholic Church 
at Wilkesbarre, Pa., Owen 
McGlynn, architect. Both 
glazed and colored terra cotta 
will be used in the church. 

The Ludowici-Celadon Com- 
pany, manufacturers of terra 
cotta roofing tiles, now have 
offices under direct manage- 
ment of their own experienced 
men in seven leading cities of 
the country: New York, 
Chicago, Cleveland, Philadel- 
phia, Pittsburg, New Orleans 
and Denver. They also have 
agents in nearly all the other 
large cities. 

The new group of buildings 
for the McDonald University. Montreal, will be roofed 
with a red Spanish interlocking tile, made by the 
Ludowici-Celadon Company. This is one of the largest 
roofing tile contracts ever let, requiring several thousand 
squares. The same company will furnish their Conosera 
tile for four of the new buildings composing the terminal 
of the Pennsylvania Railway Company at Washington. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY. LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL 
Department of Architecture Mid Landscape Architecture 
Offers four-year programmes of courses leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in ARCHITECTURE, and Bachelor of Science 
in LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE. 

For information and for announcements, address the Secretary, 
J. L. LOVE. 16 University Hall, 

Cambridge. Mass. 

AN ARCHITECT 
Owning a prosperous business in one of the most delightful, promis- 
ing and popular sections of the South, in a city of about sixty thou- 
sand people and the winter home of a numerous tourist population, 
desires a first-class man to run his business in his absence of a year 
or two abroad. Would sell the business outright or would form a 
partnership with the right man. Correspondence solicited. 

Address " CX:50, " care THE BRICKBUILDER. 

TO MANUFACTURERS, BUILDING MATERIAL MER- 
CHANTS and others, wishing active, reliable representative in 
the San Francisco market, with large acquaintance among architects 
and property owners, Steel Frames, Cement, Fireproof Materials, 
Architectural Publications, Rolling Steel Doors, Iron Windows, 
Hard Wood Finish, Waterproof Materials, Building Trade Special- 
ties. References. In reply please state clean-cut proposition and best 
terms. Address, A. E. ACKLOM, 2129 Eagle Avenue, Alameda, Cal. 

WANTED — Several competent architectural draughtsmen for po- 
sitions in Chicago and middle West. Write, giving experience and 
references, G. Broes Van Dort & Co., 218 La Salle Street, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, 



COLUMN. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta C( 
Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. PLATE 71. 




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VOL. 15. NO. 6. PLATE 74. 





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PLANS, DOMESTIC BUILDING. 





.Second. Floob. 



Admin isteation.Bui lding. 



.CACCIASE.PoecH. 



STATE COLONY FOR THE INSANE, GARDNER, MASS. 
John A. Fox, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 6. PLATE 75. 





DOMESTIC BUILDING. 



STATE COLONY FOR THE INSANE, GARDNER, MASS. 
John A. Fox, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. PLATE 76. 




ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 




RECEIVING WARD FOR WOMEN. 
RECEIVING WARO FOR MEN (SEE BLOCK, PLAN 3> IS THE SAME IN EXTERIOR DESIGN AND ALMOST INDENTICAL IN PLAN. 

STATE COLONY FOR THE INSANE, GARDNER, MASS. 
John A. Fox, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. PLATE 77. 



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HOUSE FOR HOWLAND S. RUSSELL, ESQ., MILTON, MASS. 
Parker & Thomas, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 15, NO. 6. 



PLATE 78. 




HOUSE AND STABLE FOR W. D. SAWYER, ESQ., MILWAUKEE, WIS 
Parker & Thomas, Architects. 
(buemm1ng & dick associated.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. PLATE 79> 





HOUSE FOR EMORY W. CLARK, ESQ., DETROIT, MICH 
George Hunt Ingraham, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. PLATE 80. 




LOOKING ACROSS THE SWIMMING POOL. 

MUNICIPAL FIELD HOUSE, OGDEN PARK, CHICAGO. 

D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. PLATE SI. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. pLATE 82 _ 




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VOL. 15, NO. 6. PLATE 83. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 





HOUSE FOR W. D. SAWYER, ESQ, MILWAUKEE, WIS 
Parker & Thomas, Architects, 
(buemming & dick associated.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 6. p LATE 84 , 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV 



AUGUST 1906 



Number 8 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $5-°° l H ' r >''" 

Single numbers ..............-.•••■•• 5° cents 

To countries in the Postal Union • S6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Teria Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAGE 

II 
II 

11 and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

RICHARD B. VAN DER BOIJEN, FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN, FRANK FREEMAN, HOWARD 
VAN D. SHAW, ROBERT C. SPENCER, Jr., ITALIAN CORNICES, WILL S. ALDRICH, DEL. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

MAUSOLEUMS AT SARI, PERSIA Frontispiece 

THE SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ARCHITECTS [ 55 

THE RELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND AMERICAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE THE INFL1 

ENCE OF MATERIALS Frank Chouteau Brown .58 

NEW USES FOR TERRA COTTA BUILDING BLOCKS '"1 

THE VILLAGE COTTAGE. I Charles C. Grant 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY '7* 



THE BRfCKBVILD™ 



VOL. 15 No. 8 



DEVO' 7ED • TO -THE • INTERESTS • OF| 
lARCHrTEOYREINMATERIALSOF CLAY/ 



AUGUST 1906 



srasssssssass 



The Seventh International Congress of Architects. 



THE Congress just closed in London was probably 
the largest gathering of architects ever held. 
There were nearly seventeen hundred in attendance, in- 
cluding seven hundred foreigners. Numbers, however, 
were not all ; it included men of ability and distinction, 
some of the foremost men of our profession from twenty- 
two different countries. The subjects presented too, 
were without exception of the broadest international 
importance and were discussed by men of world-wide 
reputation. The visits and excursions were made to 
places of the greatest architectural interest and beauty. 
The receptions held in our honor at the Royal Academy, 
the Lord Mayor's and elsewhere were most flattering, and 
last but not least the cordial and hearty good fellowship 
extended by our English hosts was such as to be long 
remembered. 

The only criticism which might be brought, if such 
it be, was that of embarrassment of riches. There was 
almost too much to do and too many subjects for discus- 
sion, so many in fact as to necessitate these being carried 
on in two different places simultaneously. 

Those who have not attended these great international 
gatherings question their real value, for no matter how 
interesting, instructive and really wise the discussions 
and conclusions may be, the Congress has no real execu- 
tive power, and cannot enforce its principles. Neverthe- 
less, that it has a real power and far-reaching influence 
for good is unquestionable, at least to those who are 
familiar with its workings. 

The Congress was officially opened Monday, July 
1 6, and closed with a farewell banquet the following 
Saturday, but the real opening, for us Americans at least, 
was the dinner given Saturday evening, July 14, by Mr. 
Owen Flemming, to the British members of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, and to which all the American 
members in attendance at the Congress were invited. 
This was a most charming and informal affair and gave 
an opportunity at the outset of meeting many of the 
distinguished men who were to be our hosts the follow- 
ing week. 

The inaugural meeting was held at three o'clock, 
Monday afternoon, in the Guild Hall, an interesting 
mediaeval structure corresponding to a town hall. His 
Grace the Duke of Argyll presided. There were also 
present H. R. H. the Princess Louise, the Lord Mayor 
of London, his sheriffs in the full regalia of their office, 



foreign diplomats, including the American Ambassador, 
Hon. Whitelaw Reid, Sir Alma Tadema, Sir W. R. 
Richmond, Sir Aston Webb and Professor Aitchison. 

The Congress was formally opened with an address by 
the president, Mr. John Belcher, who is also president 
of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In welcom- 
ing the members he referred to the interest taken in the 
Congress by His Majesty King Edward and the Prince 
of Wales and of the gracious presence of H. R. H. the 
Princess Louise, herself a sculptor of distinction. The 
address was very modest, full of thought, and the wel- 
come most cordial and sincere. Mr. W. J. Locke, the 
secretary, and upon whom devolved the great work of 
preparation and organization of the Congress, stated that 
over twenty-five thousand circulars had been distributed 
and that he believed that every practising architect the 
world over had received notice of the Congress; that 
many governments had appointed delegates as well as 
one hundred and one architectural societies. The offi- 
cial delegates from the United States were George B. 
Post, W. L. B. Jenney, Frank Miles Day, W. S. Eames, 
Glenn Brown, Francis R. Allen and George Oakley 
Totten, Jr. Replies to the president's address were made 
by a delegate from each country, Mr. George B. Post re- 
sponding for America. 

The inaugural speech was made by the Duke of Argyll, 
who also welcomed the members and gracefully referred 
to all the countries represented, especially America. 
These inaugural meetings of the Congress are always 
formal and impressive and presided over by some high 
dignitary of state. At the Brussels Congress, held in 1897, 
King Leopold attended in person. In the evening the 
members were tendered a reception by the Royal Acad- 
emy of Arts, at Burlington House. 

On Tuesday, at 10 a. m., the Congress convened for 
the discussion of papers at the rooms of the Institute and 
the Grafton Galleries. There had been selected an Eng- 
lish and foreign honorary president and secretary for each 
subject. America was given two honorary presidents, 
Messrs. Frank Miles Day and W. S. Eames, and one 
honorary secretary, Mr. George Oakley Totten, Jr. Mr. 
Reginald Blom field and Sig. Cannizarro presided at the 
Institute rooms. The first paper was on "The Chateaux 
of St. Germain," by M. Daumet, the restorer of Chantilly. 

The first subject presented was "The Execution of 
Important Government and Municipal Architectural 



156 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



Work by Salaried Officials." This resulted in a spirited 
discussion. Such men as Herr Otto Wagner, the entire 
Belgian Society, Mr. G. H. Fellowes Prynne, Professor 
Nagy (Hungary). M. Jules de Bercyik (Budapest), and 
others maintaining that the "official architect " was liable 
to be too swamped in red tape officialism to devote any 
serious thought to artistic considerations. That, further, 
he was under the surveillance of a higher official who 
was not likely to have any sympathy for or appreciation 
of art of any kind. They maintained that such offices 
should exist but be confined to purely practical, technical 
and economic considerations, but never artistic. Mr. F. 
E. P. Edwards of Bradford and Mr. W. E. Riley, archi- 
tect of the London County Council, argued for the official 
architect but against surveyors and others without the 
title and proper training. The general impression given 
by the discussion was that the work done by private ar- 
chitects was likely to be superior to that of the officials 
in all countries except France and possibly Germany. 
M. Poupinel argued that in France the very object of the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts was the training of men for such 
position, and that the official architects of France were 
those who had received the Grand Prix de Rome. 

The resolution of the meeting as finally adopted was: 

"That in the future in the interests of the adminis- 
trations and the public and in the higher interests of the 
art of architecture, public bodies, whether government, 
provincial or municipal, should entrust works of architec- 
ture only to qualified professional architects either by 
competition or otherwise." 

At the Grafton Galleries, Mr. Frank Miles Day pre- 
siding, the subject under discussion was "Steel and 
Reinforced Concrete." The icsthetic view of the matter 
was developed by Professor Cloquet, Belgium, and Mons. 
Augustin Rey and Ellis Marsland of France, while no 
very valuable paper on its practical application was pre- 
sented. Mr. George B. Post said that the architects of 
large practice in America used ferro-concrete with consid- 
erable trepidation, from the fact that there were no estab- 
lished constants which could be employed in computing 
the strains. 

Two excursions were arranged for the afternoon, one 
to Hampton Court and the other to Hatfield House. A 
special train was provided to take the members to visit 
the latter, the famous old home of the Marquis of Salis- 
bury, and about six hundred ladies and gentlemen availed 
themselves of the opportunity of seeing this historic house. 
The visitors were received by Col. Eustace Balfour, 
who gave a short history of the building. The house is 
too well known to need special description. It may be 
of interest, however, to note that this is one of the first 
mansions in England to possess a basement story, and 
shows in this, as well as in many other respects, the 
Italian influence. The interior is very rich, and there 
is a remarkable wealth of oak-paneled walls, elaborate 
marble chimney-pieces and ornate plaster ceiling in gilt 
and colored armorial decoration. Hatfield, too, is beau- 
tiful in its setting. The park contains all the charms to 
be found in the English garden, — formal in treatment 
directly about the house and wild and picturesque in the 
middle and far distance. At five o'clock tea was served 
in a quaint old inn, and the members of the Congress re- 
turned to town well content both with the excellent 



arrangements, the delightful cordiality they had received 
and the interesting and beautiful things they had seen. 

The meeting at the Institute rooms Wednesday morn- 
ing was presided over by Dr. H. Muthesius (Germany), 
and the subject discussed was "The Organization of Public 
International Competition." A very admirable and con- 
cise paper was presented by M. Gaudet of Paris, while 
one advocating almost the same principles was presented 
by the " Society Architectura et Amicitia " (Amsterdam). 
In both, preliminary and final competitions were advo- 
cated. In these papers it was also argued that the com- 
petition is for the production of merely a preparatory 
scheme and not the final design. The resolution adopted 
referred the matter to the Permanent Committee for con- 
sideration and report at the next Congress. 

The subject, "Ownership of Architects' Drawings," 
was discussed under the presidency of Mr. W. S. Eames. 
Mr. Heathcote Stratham presented a resolution asking 
the members of the Royal Institute to urge the pas- 
sage of a bill by Parliament to make the Institute's scale 
of charges a law. Dr. Muthesius said that the paper re- 
ferred only to England, but that the subject was an inter- 
national one. After further discussion by M. Harmand, 
Messrs. Middleton, Hudson, Kersey, Read, Berry and 
others, the following resolution was passed : 

"That this Congress is of opinion that the architect is 
employed for the production of a building, and that all 
drawings and papers prepared by him to that end are 
undoubtedly his property." 

In the afternoon visits were made to Buckingham 
Palace Gardens and Westminster Abbey and subse- 
quently to the works of Messrs. Holloway and Doulton. 

M. Dahlerup (Denmark) presided at the rooms of 
the Institute in the evening, when " The Responsibili- 
ties of a Government in the Conservation of National 
Monuments" was discussed. This is a subject which 
has received the consideration of previous congresses and 
naturally concerns Europe more than America. 

The resolution presented by Mr. .Alex. Graham was 
"That this International Congress of Architects recom- 
mend that the British Government be approached with a 
view to appointing a Royal Commission to control and to 
extend the operations of the Ancient Monuments Protec- 
tion Amendment Act of 1900 and to prepare an accurate 
catalogue of all ancient monuments in the British Islands, 
whether historic or prehistoric." One of the English 
magazines observed that "there was no better method 
than the appointment of such a body for decently inter- 
ring the subject. " Others who took part in the discussion 
were M. Besnard (Paris), Prof. Baldwin Brown, Mr. 
W. R. Lethaby and Com. Alfredi d'Andrade (Italy). 

The subject at the Grafton Galleries on Wednesday 
morning was, " How far Shoidd the Architect Receive 
the Theoretical and Practical Training of the Crafts- 
man? " The chairmen were Herr Otto Wagner (Austria) 
and Mr. R. S. Balfour (Eng.); secretaries, Mr. H. O. 
Talbolton (Scotland) and Gustave Wickman (Sweden). 

Papers were read by Mr. Reginald Blomfield, M. 
Van Gobbelschroy (Belgium), Herr Otto Wagner and 
M. Gaston Trelat. M. Robert Lesage (Paris) gave asum- 
mary on the work at the Ecole des Beaux Arts and other 
French governmental schools. Mr. C. Howard Walker 
said he thought that the general education, both theo- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



157 



retical and practical, should run side by side, and he ex- 
plained the methods of instruction in America. 

The resolution as proposed by Prof. V. Nagy (Buda- 
pest) and passed was: 

"This Congress, considering that the architect, the 
master of the works, having under his immediate di- 
rection workmen and artisans of the most varied bodies 
of the state and utilizing the services of the most varied 
industries, has no means of acquiring in each of these 
trades and in each of these industries the complete knowl- 
edge of a specialist, expresses a desire that opportunity 
should be given to architectural students to acquire in a 
general but exact manner the technical parts of the va- 
rious trades and industries of the building trade without 
claiming to practise their trades and industries. It also 
expresses the wish that between these schools interna- 
tional and continuous relations may be established." 

The evening discussions at the Grafton Galleries were 
conducted under the chairmanship of Sir William Emer- 
son and M. Ch. Buls (Belgium). The secretary was Mr. 
Perkins Pick (England). Papers illustrated by lantern 
slides were presented by M. Ch. Buls, M. Euge'ne Henard 
(who planned the new avenue Nicolas II), Dr. J. Stub- 
ben (Berlin) and Mr. Raymond Unwin. The most 
interesting paper of the evening was that of Mr. Frank 
Miles Day, who described the work of the park improve- 
ment schemes now under way in many of our American 
cities. On Thursday morning Mr. W. S. Eames presided 
at the meeting at the Institute Rooms where the subject 
of " Artistic Copyright " was discussed. Papers by Mons. 
Talvat, Trelat and Harmand were read. The resolutions 
presented byM. Harmand were adopted. They were: 

" i. That architectural designs comprise designs of fa- 
cades, exteriors and interiors together with plans, sec- 
tions and elevations, and they constitute the first mani- 
festation of the architect's ideas and the work of architec- 
ture. 

" 2. That the building is but the reproduction on the 
site of the architectural drawings. 

"And this Congress renews the resolution of former 
congresses that works of architecture be protected in all 
legislative enactments and in all international conventions 
equally with every other kind of artistic work." 

The next subject discussed was, "To what extent and 
in what sense should the architect have control over 
other artists and craftsmen in the completion of a 
national or public building?" The meeting was presided 
over by M. Boker (Russia) as chairman and Mr. Tot- 
ten as secretary. Papers were read by Sir William Rich- 
mond, K. C. B., M. Nenot (Paris), Herr L. B. Muller, 
M. Bonnier (Paris), Mr. Ellicott (Baltimore). The reso- 
lution proposed by Herr Wagner, viz., "The architect in 
the construction of a building is to be given absolute 
power over the co-operating craftsmen, but in a special 
manner over co-operating artists," was carried. 

Thursday morning the subject of "The Education of 
the Public in Architecture " was discussed under the 
joint presidency of Sir Aston Webb and Dr. Stiibben. 
Papers were read by Mr. John Belcher, Mr. Banister, 
Mr. F. Fletcher, M. Albert Mayeux and others. The 
papers presented were well worth careful consideration. 

In the afternoon visits were made by sections of the 
Congress to Windsor Castle, St. Paul's, the Temple, St. 



Bartholomew's, Smithfield, the Institute of Chartered 
Accountants, Kensington Palace, and a reception was 
tendered the members by our ambassador, Hon. White- 
law Reid, at Dorchester House. This is one of the 
finest houses in London and shows strongly the Italian 
influence. 

In the evening the members attended a reception 
given by the Royal Institute of British Architects in the 
Royal Botanic Gardens. The conservatories were illu- 
minated and the trees hung with myriads of tiny fairy 
lamps, producing rather a weird but beautiful and en- 
chanting effect. Music by the Royal Horse Guard Band, a 
Shakespearian play and other amusements made the time 
pass quickly and very enjoyably. An interesting little 
ceremony in the course of the evening was the presenta- 
tion by M. Daumet of the Medal of the Institute of France 
to the Royal Institute of British Architects. 

On Friday, all day, excursions by special trains were 
arranged for Cambridge and Oxford. To spend a day in 
either of these quaint old towns, full of history and some 
of the finest architecture of England, under ordinary 
circumstances is delightful, but in company with our 
agreeable hosts as guides and companions doubly so. 
Luncheon in both places was served in the beautiful old 
dining halls of the colleges. Carriages were provided 
where the distances were great ; in fact, everything for 
the comfort, pleasure and edification of the parties. 

At the evening session of the Congress a paper was 
read by Mr. Cecil Smith on " The Tomb of Agamemnon." 

On Saturday morning the papers were again resumed. 
The first subject discussed was "A Statutory Qualifica- 
tion for Architects." Much was said that would be of 
interest to those who believe in the licensing of archi- 
tects. The movement seems to be growing, for many 
countries have it under serious consideration. The analo- 
gous subject, " The Title and Diploma of Architect," was 
also discussed and is being pushed in all those Euro- 
pean countries where they take special pride in their archi- 
tectural schools, especially France. 

In the afternoon a visit was made to Greenwich Hos- 
pital by boat. While the buildings were of great interest, 
their original drawings by Wren, Stuart, John Webb and 
Yenn were even more so. 

In the evening the farewell banquet was held in the 
Victoria rooms of the Hotel Cecil. This was presided 
over by Mr. Belcher, the president. His Grace the Duke 
of Northumberland was the guest of honor. A number 
of foreign ministers were present, and about five hundred 
members of the Congress. The use of an official toast- 
master who made all the announcements was a source 
of much interest to Americans. After the toasts to His 
Majesty King Edward and the royal family had been 
drunk, Sir William Emerson proposed the " Foreign Dele- 
gates " and made some very interesting remarks. The 
delegates then replied, some in English, others in French 
or their native tongues. Their remarks were brief, 
formal and complimentary. It was a special compliment 
to America to have Mr. Cass Gilbert asked to reply to the 
toast, " The Royal Institute of British Architects," which 
he did most gracefully. Mr. Belcher then made the clos- 
ing remarks of the Seventh International Congress of 
Architects. 

GEORGE OAKLEY TOTTEN, Jr. 



i*8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Relation Between English and 
American Domestic Architecture. 

BY FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN. 

THE INFLUENCE OF MATERIALS. 

BEFORE attempting an analysis of the very essence of 
the movement, — its modernity, — it becomes essen- 




FIG. I. OLD STONE AND PLASTER ENGLISH HOUSE. 

tial to take up the influence 
exerted by materials — after 
historic style and precedent 
the most important single 
factor having to do with the 
general consideration of the 
subject — upon modern 
English and American archi- 
tecture; so that some com- 
mon comprehension of the 
true import of this local and 
variable element may be had. 
To establish at once an idea 
of the importance and value 
of this topic, it is but neces- 
sary to recall the difference 
between the English Geor- 
gian and American Colonial buildings, - differences par- 
tially due to changes in climate and surroundings, but 
mostly to a change in the material of which the buildings 
were constructed, which change caused an immediate and 
marked alteration in the character of the style itself. 

In the colonies the universal use of wood — the natural 
local product — for the smaller churches and the great 
majority of the houses immediately lightened their de- 
tails and parts to proportions more appropriate to the 
new material than were those derived from the massive 
English brick and stone originals. A column in stone, 
for instance, demands a certain diameter-thickness in 
order that it be quarried, worked and handled with any 
safety; while the difficulty of obtaining and milling large 
pieces of timber, and their tendency to check and crack 
under exposure to the weather, caused the Colonial build- 
ers to considerably reduce the diameter of their wooden 




columns, although compelled to retain substantially the 
same height. 

They next readapted all their moldings to this new 
standard of proportion, making them more delicate and 
refined than the English sections, of which they were 
otherwise direct copies. Indeed, it is most remarkable 
to observe how exactly and for what a long period of 
time the pure outlines of Classic English molding sec- 
tions were retained in this refined form in structures 
erected in this country. Undoubtedly the many " Build- 
ers' Handbooks" of the period — then so generally in 
use — with their ample illustrations of the Orders, and 
notable Italian and English Renaissance buildings, were 
largely responsible. 

Not only did the change in material effect a change in 
detail, but it was also directly responsible for changes in 
the plan and outline treatment of the very structure 
itself. 

( >nce the technical possibilities of the new material, 
wood, were thoroughly comprehended, it was immedi- 
ately recognized that its advantages of easy working and 
quick framing at joints and angles allowed of a greater 
diversity in plan and exterior outline than was possible 
in the stone or brick cottage with which all concerned 
had previously been more familiar. This discovery, once 
made, was immediately taken advantage of by even the 
earliest builders; and so the similarity of aspect between 
the cottage of this and all earlier times — which had 

been present for so many 
centuries — was soon lost ; 
while in the larger and more 
pretentious brick dwelling 
the English derivation and 
similarity yet remained un- 
mistakably apparent, and was 
therefore the more easily per- 
petuated. 

On the other hand, what 
are considered as some of the 
most modern treatments of 
materials are actually the 
strongest witnesses of the in- 
fluence exerted — often un- 
consciously — by historic 
association and precedent ; 
reappearing even after lying 



COTTAGE AT BOURNVILLE 




COTTAGE AT PORT SUNLIGHT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



J 59 




FIG. 4. HOUSE AT DETROIT. A. W Chittenden, Architect 




FIG. 5. "SANDHOUSE," WITLEY, SURREY. F. W. Troup, Architect. 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



latent for centuries. The charm and interest of the old 
Renaissance rough brickwork weie soon acknowledged, 
and one of the first evidences of a different acquired 
view-point was a recognition of the artistic value of the 
textures inherent in materials. 

Spurred by the interest furnished by a new point of 
view, new ways of varying the regularity of brick-sur- 
faced walls began to be invented, — and old ones redis- 
covered. Walls of brick were paneled with rows of 






FIG. 6. ENGLISH GABLE SHOWING BRICK PATTERN. 

headers; their planes broken by recessed or projecting 
blocks of flint or bits of stone, so as to obtain a chiaro- 
scuro of light and shadow; diaper patterns, picked out in 
various ways; variations of English and Flemish bonds; 
the introduction of bits of stone, of cement or of other 
materials, or of color were employed in the endeavor to 
further relieve their possible monotony of tone. Under 
this renewed impetus, often the same tricks and even 
the same designs as appeared in the earlier brick archi- 
tecture of Italy, England and France were unconsciously 
revived and reapplied. 

The restfulness and beauty of plain, unadorned sur- 
faces of different materials, unbroken save by their ma- 
terial-texture, began to be recognized. Existing older 
dwellings, where additions and alterations — made at many 
different times and periods — had all united to produce a 
final charm and picturesqueness of their own (Fig. i . 
suggested the combination of surfaces of different tex- 
tures and materials in new compositions of artistic irregu- 
larity and unbalance of motive, just as surfaces of differ- 
ent perpendicular planes formed by the projecting and 
recessed elements of the plan had before been used ; 
and as those composed of different horizontal lines (Figs. 
2 and ,5) were soon no more to be avoided. The inter- 
ruption of cornices and belts by bays, dormers or gables 
was no longer to be considered an architectural crime. 
Perhaps it was these same examples that first disclosed 
the possibility of combining different styles and periods 
into a single pleasing architectural — or, better. »»archi-4 
tectural — whole; and thus, perhaps, the architectural 
designer first became familiar and acquainted with un- 
counted thousands of models of beautiful and appeal- 
ingly human, because they were imperfect, compositions. 

( )f course there arise the same questions of ethics and 
of theory as to the use of materials that confront us 
when considering our American right to historic — yet 



not insularly native — styles of architecture ; but cer- 
tainly they are here less abstract and therefore are more 
easily and certainly to be answered. The most native or 
natural material should properly always be employed. If 
we manufacture, or inherit, or find the material near our 
hands, it rightly and undisputably belongs to us. This 
we have already recognized unconsciously by our use of 
wood ; even conforming a foreign, if inherited, architec- 
tural style to its technical requirements and nature. 

But the day of wood is nearly over; it is almost ex- 
hausted. It now costs as much as brick or cement or 
stone ; therefore it is commercially right for us to aban- 
don it and to turn to one of these other materials, the 
one most natural and native to the locality where we are to 
build, and then to employ it after the fashion that seems 




FIG. 7. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK, HOUSE, PORT SUNLIGHT. 

locally and technically most fitted to the material selected. 
Here indeed comes the problem, and one that we must 
meet squarely and solve successfully before we can attain 
a natural and native " style " of architecture. For this 
purpose we can do no better than to apply the hints and 
suggestions that are furnished so freely by contemporary 
English work; but we should first adapt them to our own 
purpose and requirements. The material must first be 
selected, and that one will always be most appropriate 
that is most naturally a product of the vicinity where the 
structure is itself to be located. 

Then the method of its employment becomes the 
most important consideration ; and here too the designer 
should be governed by the same ethical considerations, 
and so allow the work in the neighborhood to suggest 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



161 



the employment that is most natural. The use of a local 
material by the native, unconscious and uneducated work- 
men will often convey to an open and receptive mind the 




3w*< 



FIG. 8. COTTAGES AT ALLERFORD. 

germ of an appropriate idea 
capable of freer expansion 
and artistic expression. 

Frequently it may require 
a careful study of the nature 
of the material itself, as well 
as of similar products of 
other countries used at other 
periods; for, after all, a cer- 
tain portion of the style of 
these buildings, wheresoever 
they are located, must have 
been derived from the mate- 
rial employed; and that por- 
tion, no matter how exotic 
the example, is indubitably 
ours for what value of sug- 
gestion or adaptation it may 
inherently possess. The 
dwelling in Detroit shown in 
Figure 4, for instance, is as 
simple and logical an expo- 
sition of the use of material 
as it would be possible to 
find. The diaper treatment 
of brickwork illustrated in 
such other examples as Fig- 
ures 5, 6 and 7 is here utilized to accent the gable features, 
themselves evidently derived from English Gothic prece- 
dent and yet suggesting, by their flatness of slope, along 
with the general roof treatment, distinctive differences 
traceable to their adaptation to our locality and climate. 

As far as that material is itself concerned, we cer- 
tainly have a right — equal to that of the English practi- 
tioners — to the use of brick; so long as they are em- 
ployed in the forms and manner that are consistent 
developments of its latent technical possibilities. Un- 
doubtedly some of the most apt, interesting and suggest- 
ive English employments of brick were those of the 
Elizabethan period, so called. There then became defined 
a style especially adapted for large rambling country 
houses and almost as available for smaller and more mod- 
est structures of the same Gothic feeling. 




FIG. 9. OLD HOUSE, GERM ANTOWN, PA. 



Our right in America to erect structures in a style 
copied or derived from that of this, or any other, period 
in England is largely a question of ethics and nice dis- 
tinction as to each individual's point of view. How far 
the style adapted itself to the material or the material 
influenced the style is more a question of individual 
theory and feeling than a matter which can be absolutely 
and authoritatively stated for all those concerned. Cer- 
tain it is that in some ways and under some conditions of 
environment and surroundings, both style and material 
are too nicely adapted and correlated to each other to be 
easily disengaged. It would certainly be an extreme 
purist who would feel called upon to deny that, as the 
manufacture of brick is a distinctive and important indus- 
try of this country, any consistent and proper use of 
brickwork would be at all foreign to the major portions 
of the United vStates. 

Does not the question resolve itself almost wholly 
down to one of the extent to which the foreign manner 

of employing brickwork may 
or may not be exactly tran- 
scribed to our American sur- 
roundings; and does not the 
interest of the problem 
largely arise from the very 
difficulties presented by this 
question for the solution of 
the individual artistic con- 
science ? 

All will agree that the 
brick buildings belonging to 
the Elizabethan period are 
full of suggestions, both as 
to general form and exact 
details of treatment, that are 
as appropriate to the material 
to-day as at the time they 
were first evolved. But the 
period and life that produced 
these forms and details do 
not now exist, and our differ- 
ent surroundings of them- 
selves demand a different 
method of treatment. It is 
of course not possible for any 
two temperaments to agree 




FIG. IO. BRICK AND STONE HOUSE. 
D. K. and L. V. Boyd, Architects. 



l62 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 




FIG. II. SUBURBAN STORE AND DWELLING. 
Charles Barton Keen, Architect. 

as to the solution, or solutions, of such a question; the 
very basic differences of idea that arise but add variety 
and interest to the results arrived at so differently, and 
this but increases the number of possible motifs at the 
disposition of the designer, and therefore the flexibility 
and freedom with which he may utilize his material. In 
other words, the infusion of the modern spirit (which 
alone legalizes the transplanting of these motifs to our 
soil and their reutilization by us to-day or to-morrow) 
must endow these well-worn architectural forms with a 
new plasticity of handling and pliability of motive that 



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KIG. 12. 



STORE FRONT, SUBURBAN STORE AND DWELLING. 

Charles Barton Keen, Architect. 



may in adequate hands eventually result in something as 
individual, as personal and as original as the sculptures 
of Rodin. 

Another material, stone, we also possess in a great 
variety of colors and kinds, but the American architect 
— perhaps again from the lack of atmosphere and native 
historical models — seems unable to utilize and employ 
it in the same interesting technical ways as do his English 
contemporaries. This is perhaps natural, as in England, 
in certain counties — ■ to take as an instance Derbyshire — 
the entire countryside is built up with rustic cottages 
where the only material employed for the walls, and even 
sometimes for the roofs of the buildings, is the native 
stone. A typical village of this sort is Bakewell, with 
only a couple of thousand inhabitants, and the old stable 



of the famous " Haddon Hall " — illustrated in the July 
Brickbuilder — although more pretentious than many of 
the models that such a village could furnish, may be 
taken as a representative instance of this native use of 
stonework. Something of the naive simplicity and 
charm of such rustic natural stonework is illustrated by 
the small cottages at Allerford (Fig. 8), of a type that — 
with the exception of the modern tile roof that is so 
unfortunately contrasted with the thatched cottage across 
the lane — is repeated, in those counties where stone is a 
natural product, again and again throughout England. 
In this country it seems difficult for us to use rus- 




FIG. 13. OLD PLASTER AND TIMBER HOUSES, HANOVER, 
ENGLAND. 



tic stonework in any such simple, straightforward and 
characteristic manner. We have apparently limited our- 
selves to two methods of itsemployment, — random seam- 
face ashlar, or a natural field-stone wall surface. In one 
or two localities, notably in the vicinity of Philadelphia 
(where there exist many such models for the simple use 
of the material as the old building illustrated in Figure 9), 
stonework has been used after the fashion suggested by 
this "historic" example, and therefore it more nearly 
approaches some of the modern English work in tech- 
nique. Many modernly designed English houses illus- 
trate interesting uses of stonework ; and the similar, if 
more regular and perhaps therefore less interesting, use 
in the first story of the Pennsylvania house (Fig. 10) 




FIG. 14. PLASTER STABLE, NORTH SHORE OF 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 



should indicate with what success a thoroughly American 
and natural treatment, designed to obtain an effect from 
the quality and texture native to the material itself, is 
available in the solution of our native problems. 

Even plain broad surfaces of cement or plaster still 




FIG. 



COTTAGE 



FIG. 15. PLASTER COUNTRY HOUSE, MASSACHUSETTS 

seem somewhat exotic here in New Eng- 
land, although perhaps the real reason 
for this lies more in the psychological 
fact that so far our eyes and minds have 
not become sufficiently accustomed to 
this material to cause it to seem natural 
and usual to us ; yet this result is eventu- 
ally inevitable, and must soon follow 
from the movement for its use that is 
now so widely evidencing itself. After 
that primary period is once passed it 
will be easier for us to judge as to its 
adaptability and value to our native 
architectural style than it is at present : 
although its general use on buildings 
too distinctively Italian, Spanish or 
markedly English in type to appear con- 
vincingly native has so far largely pre- 
vented its just appreciation. The ma- 
terial itself is certainly quite as logically 
ours to use as brick or any other of the important prod- 
ucts which we now possess in common with other people; 
and once that its employment in such native buildings 
as the combination store and residence illustrated in Fig- 
ures 1 1 and 12 becomes general, we can begin to consider 
it from a less prejudiced standpoint. 

The historical treatment of plaster as well as that 
method most natural to the material, both with a small 
amount of exposed timber work and also with the simple 
plain surfaces that have been adopted as more typically 
modern, is indicated by the old plaster houses at Hanover 
(Fig. 13) that bear a close and direct relationship to 
modern English and American work of similar character. 

The American architect has but recently begun to use 
plaster after the English manner, but the movement has 
already gained so much momentum that it is evident 
that this style is destined to be immensely popular. Yet 
these houses are sometimes still too suggestively English 
to appear wholly at home in their new world environment ; 
while when used after the Italian style it is even more 
un-American, as for instance the group of stable build 




ings appearing over the high stone wall and latticework 
in the accompanying illustration (Fig. 14). The plaster 
cottage of mixed Spanish and Mexican derivation, and the 
plaster and timber dwelling that too perfectly reproduces 
an historical atmosphere, are so at variance with their 
surroundings that it distracts our attention from the 
material and prevents us from judging in such examples 
of its applicability to our American purposes and needs. 
In another illustration (Fig. 15) the foreign atmos- 
phere is not so strongly in evidence. At first glance 
the structure might indeed be a simple framed house, 
clapboarded or shingled after the ordinary American 
fashion. It needs a closer inspection to note the distinc- 
tively Italian character of the entrance and some of the 
minor details of the house, but its total effect is more 
natively American, and the plain textured surfaces of the 
plaster wall treatment lend it an added attractiveness not 
to be obtained by a more conventional wall covering. 

America does possess one building surfacing material 
that is distinctively native and as historically our own 
as our short insular architectural history allows. The 
shingle, as a manufactured article, is not 
used under conditions at all comparable 
with ours in any other country, even for 
a roof covering; while so far as employ- 
ing it upon the outside wall of a build- 
ing is concerned, its use in this way is 
even more typically American; although 
in England slate is employed occasion- 
ally to cover wall surfaces, or portions of 
wall surface, in much the same manner 
as we use the wooden shingle (Fig. 16). 
Despite its Italian roof line, its classic 
entrance motive and Renaissance pro- 
portioned detail, the summer dwelling 
(Fig. 17) is as distinctively American in 
character as the rugged landscape of 
which it forms a part. 

For roofing purposes we possess shin- 
gles, slate and tile; the two last named 
materials have been used in England 
on buildings both old and new, but 



NLIGHT. 




FIG. 17. SUBURBAN HOUSE, NORTH SHORE OF 
MASSACHUSETTS. 

after a fashion quite different from that commonly em- 
ployed in our country, where the chief endeavor seems 
to be to apply them as evenly and uniformly as is 
mathematically possible. 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



New Uses tor Terra Cotta Building 
Blocks. 

THE HOUSE. 

THE construction of a serviceable and artistic de- 
tached house of hollow terra cotta building blocks 
offers few technical problems that cannot be easily over- 
come; but as the details of the work are not as well under- 
stood as those pertaining to wood framing and brick con- 
struction, a description of some of the various types of 
blocks and their uses may prove of value. 

Modern terra cotta building blocks possess advan- 
tages of great importance over nearly all other building 
materials. They are absolutely fireproof, resisting tem- 
peratures upward of 2,500 degrees. They are lighter in 
weight than either bricks, stone or concrete, and are 



wall built with blocks eight inches thick would prove 
strong enough for any imaginable work in modern houses. 

Durability, warmth and dryness to an unusual degree 
are obtained from walls of these blocks. They are prac- 
tically indestructible and, being thoroughly vitrified, are 
perfect non-conductors of heat and cold and do not absorb 
moisture. Sound also is deadened by the air spaces in 
them. Walls constructed of 8-inch blocks thus possess 
all the desirable qualities demanded, — strength, durabil- 
ity, fireproof, sound-proof, warmth and dryness. 

The question of cost and economy of construction may 
appeal to some more strongly than the other qualities 
enumerated, but first cost, after all, is only a part of the 
problem. Outside of the question of first cost of mate- 
rial, points of economy in handling and labor must be 
considered. Owing to their lightness and convenient size 
they can be laid in a wall at less expense than stone. A 
single block can be placed in position in one-third the time 



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JAMB BLOCK 



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manufactured in convenient sizes for handling. A 4 x 8 x 
16 inch block weighs only 20 pounds, and the larger size, 
8 x 8 x 16, averages 34 pounds. A cubic foot of hollow 
terra cotta blocks thus averages in weight 40 pounds, while 
the lightest of cinder concrete weighs 90 pounds, and 
stone, granite and cement blocks suitable for building 
purposes much more. 

In dealing with any building material the factor of 
safety is one of the first that architects must consider. 
Hollow terra cotta blocks are made under severe fire and 
compression tests, and every one therefore possesses a 
uniform standard of strength. Tests made with blocks 
8x8x16 inches have developed an tdtimate strength of 
2,500 pounds per square inch in center web blocks and 
1,969 pounds per square inch on gross area and 6,000 
pounds per square inch on net area in corner blocks. 
Thus for all building purposes they surpass in strength any 
possible compression they could ever be subjected to. A 



required to set a stone of similar dimensions. There is 
likewise a considerable saving in lime, sand and cement, 
and, as plaster can be applied direct, lathing and furring 
are saved. The architect, to deal economically with this 
material, must have suitable variety and sizes to meet all 
emergencies. 

The manufacturing of building materials at the factory, 
so that the builder has little more to do than to assemble 
them on the building site, is a feature of modern construc- 
tional work that saves time and delay. The great steel 
structures are made according to specifications at the 
mills, and then merely assembled rapidly and securely by 
the builder. The architect in designing houses of hollow 
tile blocks merely specifies the size and kind of blocks for 
each detail, and the work of assembling by the builder is 
simple and rapid. Wall blocks, water tables, window 
sills, cornice blocks, band courses, quoins and various 
other shapes are ready for his use in various sizes. To 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



165 




give variety to the building, rock-faced, tool-faced, plain 
and imitation stone blocks are at his command as stock 
material. Ornamental terra cotta made from special 
drawings and designs is manufactured to suit the needs 
of any architect. Stairways, lintels and chimneys are 
assembled with equal ease by means of special shapes 
designed to meet the requirements of each case. 

The method of construction is simple. A few pre- 
cautions for the mason 
should be observed. 
The blocks should be 
laid in one part of best 
Portland cement to five 
of lime mortar. The 
sand should be clean, 
good and sharp and the 
lime freshly burned. 
The joints should not 
exceed one-quarter inch 
in thickness and the 
blocks should be bonded 
so that all vertical joints 
are over each other. 
Thick or heavy joints 
in the wall spoil the 
effect and nothing is 
gained by them. 

In the construction 
of a house the founda- 
tions and basement walls should be built of salt-glazed 
blocks in preference to others as they withstand moisture 
better. In the West blocks are manufactured so that the 
openings can be laid horizontal, but in the East the prac- 
tice is to have the openings vertical, and the blocks are 
made with this purpose in view. The greater strength 
insured in the wall by laying the blocks vertically is suf- 
ficient reason why this method will eventually prevail. 

The foundations are 
made of building blocks 
8 x 8 x 16 inches, laid up 
in Portland cement 
mortar on concrete foot- 
ings, with the length of 
the blocks forming the 
thickness of the walls. 
Rock-faced or tool- 
faced water-table blocks 
10 inches wide, includ- 
ing the 2-inch wash, 
with a quarter-inch 
drip, cap the top course 
of the foundation 
blocks. The wall 
blocks, 8 inches thick, 
8 inches high and 16 inches long, are laid on the water- 
table blocks, with quoins and corner blocks projecting. 
The walls are thus 8 inches thick and the foundations 16 
inches, which insures dry cellars and floors. 

Wooden floor joists are preferred in many cases to 
iron, owing to the difference in cost and difficulties expe- 
rienced in securing structural steel work for a small 
house. The floor joists are laid on the walls for the first 
floor and secured in position by special blocks with the 



WEIGHT BOX. 



■ SECTION of JAMB BLOCK . 




WITHOUT BAND COURSE 



inside edges cut half through to accommodate the ends 
of the joists. These special joist blocks are made in the 
standard sizes and fractional lengths. The floor joists of 
the upper story are laid on the walls with the ends meet- 
ing the band course blocks which project beyond the 
building. Inside blocks, 10 x 4 inches, are bonded to 
the inside of the band course blocks and meet the joists 
on either end. The joists thus fit snugly in position 

and are held there by 
the blocks, giving a 
space of 16 inches be- 
tween centers. 

Special jamb blocks, 
window sills and lintels 
are manufactured. The 
jamb blocks have one 
web cut out to accom- 
modate the jamb. The 
window sills are 16 
inches long, 8 inches 
high on the inside with 
slope down to 5 inches. 
Several shapes are made 
and their fitting is sim- 
ple. Special sizes for 
large windows are easily 
obtained on order. The 
window quoins are 
made plain, rock-faced 
or tooled, and the lintels of doors and windows are 
formed of special lintel blocks laid up in the ordinary 
flat arch system. 

The walls are carried to the cornice in the usual style 
of stone buildings. Ornamental cornice tiles are fitted 
to the top course, giving a projection of 5 inches. The 
cornice tiles are curved, fluted or rounded as desired. 
The lower part of the blocks fit snugly to the upper course 

of wall blocks, and this 
modest projection gives 
beauty and symmetry 
to the structure. The 
roof rafters are laid on 
the wall blocks in the 
same manner as the 
lower floor joists, or 
they may be used in 
connection with special 
cornice blocks with the 
inside web cut out to 
make room for the ends. 
The framing of the 
roof is made in the or- 
dinary way and shingled 
or tiled as desired. If 
wooden porches are used openings should be left in 
the walls for the porch beams. The latter rest directly 
on the walls. By using fractional sizes of blocks these 
openings can readily be made as desired. These blocks, 
however, are as easily cut and broken as bricks, and 
any desired change can be made without difficulty. In 
every respect they are as simply handled as bricks. 

The inside of the blocks are scored to receive the 
plaster, and no furring is necessary. The outside may 




WITH BAND COURSE 



METHOD or SUPPORTING FLOOR JOISTS . 



1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SIDE ELEVATION. 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 







SURFACES SHOWN DOTTED ARE ROUGH 
CAST EXCEPT WINDOW TRIMMINGS. 
MOULDINGS AND STEPS,W>IICH ARE TO 
BE SMOOTH • ALL BRICK SHOWN IS TO BE 
RED INCLUDING PT-OOR OF TERRACE- 
ROOFS OF TIN WITH STANDING SEAMS. 



FRONT ELEVATION. 



SCME OF PV.ANS 



5CM.C OP ELEVATIONS. 



DESIGN FOR A HOUSE TO BE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA BLOCKS, USING BRICK FOR QUOINS, — WAILS M)UGH-CAST. 

Charles H. Carr, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



167 




u 

u 
10 




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1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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•Rock face- Detubn- 



be plain, in matched colors or with glazed or tooled sur- 
faces. Where stucco work is desired outside, no matching 
of colors is necessary. 

Chimney blocks are made with air spaces surround- 
ing the flue, which in no way interfere with the 
draught. A fire starting in a chimney so built could 
not possibly injure woodwork or even paper which 
comes in contact with the outside. The total weight 
of such a chimney is about one-half that of one built of 
brick, thus requiring lighter foundations and footings. 
Ornamental chimney caps of terra cotta tiles may be had 
for finish. These chimney blocks are 14 x 14 inches, with 
a space of 8 x 8 inches for the flue. 

The cost of a simple yet artistic house of this descrip- 
tion, built with S-inch 
terracotta walls, [6-inch 
foundation courses, 
with wooden porches, 
floors and wood framing 
and sheathing for the 
roofs, would be about 
20 cents per cubic foot 
of total contents; or, if 
the interior finish and 
equipment are made 
less elaborate, the cost 
may be scaled down to 
18 or 19 cents. The 
usual price in figuring 
semi-porous terra cotta 
blocks in the wall, mak- 
ing no allowances for openings, is 26 cents per square 
foot of exterior surface when walls are 8 inches thick. 

If it is desired to rough-cast or stucco the exterior 
walls, the tiles lend themselves readily to this treatment. 
The blocks are made for immediate plastering, so that no 
preliminary work is demanded. The only requirement 
before applying the plaster is to water soak the tiles either 
by hand or with a hose. Two coats of plaster, at least 
seven-eighths of an inch thick, should be applied. The 
first coat must be well set before the second is applied, 
and it should be constantly tooled until set. A good com- 
position for this work consists of three parts clean, sharp 
sand, one part good Portland cement and two per cent of 
total weight of sand and cement to be hydrated lime. 
The rough-casting of the exterior in this manner should 
cost from 50 to 75 cents per square yard, according to the 
method of application and quality of material. 

A terra cotta hollow-tile house, veneered with pressed 
brick, gives a good finish and provides one of the most 
substantial houses ever devised. Small flat galvanized 
iron bonds come with the terra cotta blocks, when speci- 
fied, for brick veneering. The bricks are laid up in 
courses, breaking joints, with the bonds placed at every 
fourth course. These flat bonds are laid across the top 




COCKFACE'JAMB- 



•D002-AND- 



of the bricks and tiles, so that they become firmly em- 
bedded in the mortar. The 8-inch blocks will thus just 
accommodate each course of four bricks, so that the bonds 
will lie flat. The laying of the blocks and brick veneer 
m ust proceed simultaneously in each course, so that the ex- 
act levels can be obtained and the bonding made perfect. 
A pressed-brick veneer will thus make the walls 12 
inches thick and add greatly to their strength and dura- 
bility. The fireproof quality of the walls is further 
enhanced, and their durability will be beyond all compar- 
ison with other forms of construction. Courses of orna- 
mental bricks can be employed to give artistic effect. 
Stringcourse of projecting tiles can be omitted in such a 
structure and ornamental face bricks be employed instead. 

The variety of effects 
that one can secure is 
almost inexhaustible. 

With pressed bricks 
at $28 per thousand, a 
4-inch veneer will cost 
in the walls about 34 
cents per square foot 
of exterior surface. 

In estimating it 
should be clearly borne 
in mind that plaster can 
be directly applied to 
the hollow tile blocks, 
so that lathing and fur- 
ring are saved. In ap- 
plying stucco or rough- 
cast the same holds true, so that the work is simple and 
relatively inexpensive. The plaster adheres firmly to 
the walls, so that it will not chip, crack or peel off. 
The brick veneer is even more firm and durable, for 
the veneer is securely and permanently bonded to the 
tile blocks. The veneer could not be taken off without 
pulling down the walls. Futhermore the tile blocks 
weigh at least two-thirds less than bricks and nearly 
three-fourths less than stone. In estimating the cost 
of labor this difference in weight is an important item. 
A bricklayer can build a wall of terra cotta blocks in 
much less time than required for stone or brick. 

In the ordinary wall block the inside web is three- 
quarters of an inch, and the outside web one and a half 
inches, leaving thereby a five-inch air space in the walls. 
In the half blocks the webs are of the same thickness, and 
in the jamb blocks the webs are all one and a half inches. 
In the four-inch blocks, 8x16 inches width and length, 
the outside webs are one inch, and the inside three-quar- 
ters of an inch, giving a two-inch air space between. The 
depression between the blocks on each end for receiving 
the mortar to make narrow joints is one-eighth of an inch 
deep. These points are clearly shown in the illustra- 
tions. 




:ndow-Lintels 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



169 



The Village Cottage. I. 

BY CHARLES C. GRANT. 

IN choosing a site for an ideal village of three thou- 
sand inhabitants, two factors have influenced your 
contributor: first, the capacity of the location to supply 
the best requirements for such a village; and, second, the 
need of a country-side for a model community. By a 
model community is meant one of independent citizens, — 
not dependent on some corporation, philanthropically in- 
clined, as is Port Sunlight in England, for example. 

When our people shall awake to a fuller realization of 
the real joys which come with the possession of a country- 
side acre on which to establish a home, then will they 
desert the many storied apartments and scatter over the 
face of God's good earth, there to live in closer touch 
with the better luxuries of life. The way is opening and 
in fact the exodus has begun. The connecting links 
between the country home and the city office have been 
found in the auto and the trolley. 

To place our village on some southerly slope, such as 
abound in the beautiful Mohawk Valley in Central New 
York, would undoubtedly satisfy all requirements of an 
ideal village; and while there is much that is good archi- 
tecturally in this valley, an exemplary village here placed 
would exert an incalculable influence. 

The main street with its stores, the town hall, the 
meeting-house, the railroad station, the library, the green, 
and last but not least the dwellings, all in perfect rela- 
tion, compose our " Spotless Town. " Father Time, when 
our work is accomplished, will be needed to perfect what 
we have done. 

The butcher has prospered, and the time has come to 
him, as it comes to many men, when he feels that a cot- 
tage of his own for himself and wife and " bairnies 
three" will realize his " castles in Spain." A plot of 
ground on one of the principal streets not far from the 
village green is the site our butcher has acquired for his 
future home. A cottage properly planned may easily 
meet the requirements of such a family of moderate 
means. Perhaps no phase in our building has so little 
study by competent designers. Commissions of this 
kind are not sought for by the successful architect, busy 
with big schemes rendering him more profitable income 
and adding to his reputation. So it seems that the 
solution is up to the young designer. Successful small 
houses are lower rungs in the architectural ladder of fame. 

The problem of the small house is by no means an 
easy one, restricted as it is in so many ways. Perhaps 
the problem set by The Brickkuilder has the minimum 
of restrictions, but then recollect that this is an ideal. 

The cottage as the heart of the scheme is to be placed 
centrally on the plot and well towards the front, with 
its small garden — its outdoor room — to the west. 
People are beginning to realize that formal gardens are 
not only for the man of wealth; that a small garden, 
one easily maintained, is a delight, and, in addition, 
we have a certain dignity impossible to obtain by other 
means. Retain by all means those beautiful old-fash- 
ioned flowers, but let us have order and symmetry and 
not an unplanned jumble. 

The small stable with its accommodations for a horse 



and cow and two carriages is placed aline with the house. 
The planting about this stable and about the garden, 
together with the house, forms a screen which will make 
private most of the property. A plea for privacy cannot 
be too strongly made. It is characteristically American 
to be otherwise. 

In the present instance, recreation and rest were much 
considered in the laying out of this private portion, and 
the result is a small simple garden, a tennis court running 
north and south, with its seats and shelter facing the east, 
the tiny grove and ample unbroken lawn flanked with 
small fruit trees. The truck patch and hennery seem 
desirable as yielding some return for the outlay on the 
property, although many will differ regarding the 
hennery. 

The house plans speak for themselves so well that they 
do not need a great deal of explanation. The main liv- 
ing room replaces the library, reception room and parlor 
of a more pretentious house. This particular plan seems 
to call for a through hall unobstructed by a staircase. 
The glass doors at the rear should give a visitor a good 
impression on entering. Glass doors also lead from the 
hall to the dining room and living room. The proper 
relation of dining room, pantry and kitchen is observed. 
That the dimensions of the house may be kept as small 
as possible, the laundry is placed in the basement. Area 
steps give access directly to the drying room. 

The treatment of the principal room is to be very 
simple, as a small cottage cannot stand a great deal of 
architectural woodwork. Poplar, probably the least ex- 
pensive of the woods now obtainable, is to be used for 
architraves, baseboard, picture mold, etc., all white 
enamel finish. Having the rooms treated alike will 
give a feeling of spaciousness. The many splendid 
papers and stuffs now in use will furnish the necessary 
variety in color schemes for the different rooms. Oiled 
yellow pine is the thing for the service portion. 

The bedroom floor needs little discussion. The bed- 
rooms naturally are placed to overlook the best parts of 
the property. The closets should please the most exact- 
ing of housewives. The attic space is to contain a ser- 
vant's room and a storage room. 

Hard-burned hand-made brick, a good red in color, 
laid with the well known Flemish bond, the headers a 
shade or two darker than the stretchers, and the joints a 
gray white, is planned as the material for outside walls, 
which are to be built with an air space as a protection 
against moisture. White marble is the material of win- 
dow sills and heads, also of base course and copings. 
The character of the house requires a white cornice. 
This and the white porches are of wood. In order that 
the kitchen wing may not count strongly in the design, 
but rather balance the west porch, this is to be of frame 
stuccoed on expanded metal; the show rafters to be 
carried around as on the porch. The main roof is to be 
covered with large flat tiles in varying shades of red. 

Such is a home designed for a family who would lead 
"the simple life," to whom beauty in their surround- 
ings is a necessity. Every man of an artistic tempera- 
ment, with an innate love of home, is continually build- 
ing and rebuilding his air castle, and it is inevitable that 
it should become a reality, perhaps a castle in fact, per- 
haps only a cottage . 



170 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




GROUND PLAN. A VILLAGE COTTAGE. 

Charles C. Grant, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



171 









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172 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 






A TRIBUTE TO THE LATE STANFORD WHITE. 

AT a meeting held July 24 by the Executive Commit- 
tees of the New York Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects, the Society of Beaux Arts Archi- 
tects and the Architectural League of New York, the 
following resolutions were passed: 

Resolved, That the Executive Committees of the 
New York Chapter of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, the Society of Beaux Arts Architects and the 
Architectural League of New York desire in the name 
of their respective societies to express their sense of the 
great loss which the Profession and the Art of Architec- 
ture have sustained in the death of .Stanford White. 

His (puck and generous appreciation of all that is 
beautiful, even beyond the field of his immediate profes- 
sion, was so genuine that the influence of his work will 
long continue to be a stimulus to the artistic development 
of this country. 

Only those of us who have been closely associated 
with him professionally can fully appreciate the love and 
enthusiasm with which he devoted himself to Art. 

His was a commanding personality and whatever he 
produced had the touch of genius. 



COMPETITION FOR A MEMORIAL MONUMENT. 
PROGRAM. 

THE Cape Cod Pilgrim Memorial Association offers 
five ( 5) prizes of $200 each, to be awarded by their 
Building Committee to competitors submitting to them 
designs for a monument to be erected at Provincetown, 
Mass., to commemorate the Landing of the Pilgrims and 
the Signing of the Compact. The Committee do not 
oblige themselves to use any of the designs thus sub- 
mitted, or employ any of these competitors. The monu- 
ment is to be of granite, not less than two hundred 
and fifty feet in height, built upon a hill of sand for- 
mation, about ninety feet above sea level. It is 
to have an inclined walk (no steps) of concrete, 
from bottom to top of interior. Each competitor 
may submit a brief description of his design, call- 
ing attention to any points of interest. No estimates 
are to be submitted, as the Committee will obtain figures 
upon such of the designs as commend themselves to their 
acceptance. The monument is to cost about $80,000. 
Only two drawings are to be submitted, a plan and an 
elevation, except that a second elevation may be sent in 
if necessary to ex- 
plain the design. No 
other drawings will 
be received. They 
are to be made upon 
paper measuring 18 
inches by 24 inches, 
with a single line for 
a border. No motto 
or device shall be put 
upon the drawings, 



but they shall be ac- 
companied by a sealed 
envelope containing 
the name of the com- 
petitor. These draw- 
ings and envelopes 
will be numbered as 
received, and they 
will be known to the 
Committee by these 
numbers. All draw- 
ings must be delivered 
to Willard T. Sears, 
70 Kilby Street, Bos- 
ton, Mass., consulting 
architect of the Build- 
ing Committee, on or 
before October 1, 1906. 
J. Henry Sears, Lo- 
renzo D. Baker, Win. 
B. Lawrence, Building 
Committee, the Cape 
Cod Pilgrim Memorial 
Association. 




STATUE IN RESIDENCE AT SPR1NG- 

FIKI.D, OHIO. 

Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect. 

\merican Terra Cotta and Ceramic Co., 

Makers. 



COMPETITION 
FOR PUBLIC 
DRINKING FOUN- 
TAINS TO BE 
ERECTED IN THE 
CITY OF NEW 
YORK. 

THE American 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 
of the city of New York has offered a prize of $500.00 
for the best design for a bronze drinking fountain. The 
competition is open to architects, sculptors, modelers and 
decorative designers. 

The award will be made by a jury consisting of the 
president of the American Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, the chairman of the Municipal Art 
Commission, the president of the Municipal Art Society 
of New York and an architect or sculptor to be selected 
by these three, and Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin. 

Drawings and models, with the accompanying enve- 
lopes, must be securely packed or wrapped and delivered 
at the shipping office of Columbia University (entrance 
from Broadway or Amsterdam Avenue at 119th Street) 
before 6 o'clock p. m., on Saturday, September 29, 1906. 

Any inquiries regarding this competition should be 
addressed to Colonel Alfred Wagstaff, president of the 
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Ani- 
mals, New York City. 





r 

■IE'. .:JJ^^ 



PANEL OVER MANTEL, NEW ROCHELLE YACHT CLUB. 
Standard Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



THE PENNSYL- 
VANIA ACADEMY 

OF THE FINE 
ARTS AND THE T 
SQUARE CLUB OF 

PHILADELPHIA 

PROPOSE to hold 
a joint Exhibi- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



l 73 



tion in the galleries of the Academy during the month 
of December next. 

The Exhibition will cover the field of architecture 
in its broadest sense, and will include all the allied arts, 
of which she is the mother. 

As in the twelve previous annual T Square Club ex- 
hibitions, the Department of Architectural Design will 
dominate. It will include not only the technical draw- 
ings of the most distinguished American and European 
architects produced during the last year, but will also 
include a large number of models and photographs of 
finished work. 

The Department of Mural Painting will be conducted 
with the co-operation of the National Society of Mural 



The Juries of Selection will admit only works of the 
first importance. Juries of Award, composed of the 
most distinguished workers in the several departments, 
will be appointed at the opening of the Exhibition, but 
not announced until after the awards are made. It has 
not been determined as yet what form these awards will 
take. Believing that the intrinsic value of an award 
bears little relation to its importance, the award may 
consist only of a public announcement and a personal 
notification. 

All inquiries in regard to this Exhibition may be 
addressed to either of the undersigned. 

T Square Club, C. L. Borie, Jr., Secretary, 251 South 
Fourth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. ; The Pennsylvania 




KIRE DEPARTMENT HOUSE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



C. R. (Irecu, Architect. 



Painters. This will include a large number of mural 
paintings by the foremost members of the profession, 
photographs of executed work too large to be hung in 
the galleries and a large collection of preliminary 
sketches and cartoons. The Department of Architectural. 
Sculpture will be conducted with the co-operation of the 
National Sculpture Society, and will include full size and 
sketch models of the most important work of the year. 
The Department of Landscape Architecture will be con- 
ducted with the co-operation of the American Society of 
Landscape Architects, including models, photographs 
and drawings. The Department of Arts and Crafts will 
be divided as follows > Art Metal Work, Terra Cotta, 
Architectural Woodwork, Stained and Leaded Glass, In- 
terior Decorations, Garden Decorations. 



Academy of the Fine Arts, John E. D. Trask, Secretary, 
corner Broad and Cherry Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR JULY. 

BUILDING operations in the large cities throughout 
the country have increased handsomely during the 
month of July, 1906, as compared with the same month 
of the past year, with a few exceptions, notably that of 
Greater New York, which has scored such tremendous 
results in the past few years that a breathing spell was to 
be expected almost at any time. According to official 
reports to the American Contractor, New York, and pre- 
sented herewith, the gain in the majority of building 
centers is most gratifying, and there are no indications 



174 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




CAPITAL BY CHARLES W. LEAVITT, 

ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



that the maximum 
has been reached. 
With a few excep- 
tions the cities 
which failed to 
discount their last 
year's record are 
of the minor class 
and were not ex- 
pected to exceed 
the totals of the 
prosperous month 
of July, 1905. The 
percentage of gain 
as compared with 
the same month of 




DETAIL BY H. J. HARDENBERGH, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



the past year are : Atlanta, 65; Baltimore, 50; Birming- 
ham, 156; Bridgeport, 92; Buffalo, 87; Chicago, 28; 
Denver, 21; Duluth, 61; Grand Rapids, 88; Jersey City, 
120; Little Rock, 100; Louisville, 129; Los Angeles, 37; 
Minneapolis, 81; Memphis, 
36; Mobile, 76; Newark, 38; 
New Orleans, 18; Philadel- 
phia, 45 ; Pittsburg, 16 ; Port- 
land, Ore., 166; Rochester, 
88; St. Louis, 41; St. Paul, 
1 1 ; San Antonio, 80 ; Scran- 
ton, 47 ; Seattle, 27 ; Spokane, 
32; Salt Lake City, 138; To- 
peka, 161; Tacoma, 74; 
Worcester, 77. The reaction 
in Greater New York amounts 
to 30 per cent, although the 
Borough of Brooklyn made 
a gain of 16 per cent during 
this time, and the aggregate 
gain of fifty-seven cities is 
31 percent. The losses are 
mostly confined to smaller 
cities. 




RESIDENCE AT MARION, MASS. 
ilidge & Carlson, Architects. 
Roofed with Open Shingle Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Co 



OF RATHER MORE THAN PASSING INTEREST. 

THERE are 11,500,000 buildings in the country, 
valued at $14,500,000,000. Of that uumber only 
4,000 are of fireproof construction, and that only in so 
far as the skeleton framework is concerned. All of them 
can be damaged from 30 to 90 per cent in a conflagra- 
tion ; the others can be totally wiped out of existence by 
fire, and the country seems hard at work at the job. 
1905 saw $500,000,000 of new buildings pur up. But 



$200,000, 000 
damage was 
done by fire, and 
that in a" nor- 
mal year." Plus 
that $200,000,- 
000, attempted 
fire prevention 
in the way of 
fire depart- 
ments, water, 
etc., cost us 
$300, 000, 000. 
The average 
business man 

seems imbued with the fool idea to gamble with the 
insurance companies and take the risk of letting his 
property burn and being reimbursed by them, rather 
than building indestructibly in the first place. We 
did get back 1-^5,000,000 in 1905 from the insurance 

people. But note that fire 
costs us $200,000,000 in de- 
struction, smoke: $300,000,- 
000 for fire fighting and, 
above and beyond that, 
$195,000,000 paid to the 
insurance companies in 
premiums during that same 
period of time! 

There is but one abso- 
lutely fireproof building in 
the [country, the Board of 
Underwriters' Laboratory in 
Chicago, that cannot be dam- 
aged over 2 per cent even in 
the fiercest conflagration. 
Yet it cost but 12 per cent 
more to build than the ordi- 
nary flimsy structure. This 
year we are building $725,- 
000,000 worth of buildings. 
But, including San Francisco, our lowest estimate of de- 
struction is $500,000,000 for the year. That one fire 
wiped out 2,381 acres of city, 20,000 buildings at least, 
and 80 per cent of the property value of the city before 
the fire, or, in money value, $315,000,000 went up into 
smoke, $1,000,000,000 was lost in business to the city and 
to the country and it will take $350,000,000 and twenty 
years' time (and $12,000,000 to clean up the debris) be- 
fore the city will be anywhere near itself again. For all 





DETAIL, FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, WORCESTER, MASS. 

• lillespie & Carrel, Architects. 

Brick, Terra Cotta and Tile Co., Makers. 



DETAIL BY JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, ARCHITECT. 
South Ambnv Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



175 




of that loss the 
people may get 
back $13 5,000,000 
from the insur- 
ance companies ! 
To build 
thoroughly fire- 
proof now means 
some additional 
expense because 
the conflagration 
risk is so great all 
about. If every 
one had built 
sanely there 
would be no oc- 
casion for this 
expense, simply 

incombustible buildings would be required. Vet even 
though the expense may be greater, the only way the 
permanency of a structure can be assured is 
to build it absolutely fireproof. Building 
requirements should be more exacting; in- 
surance rates upon fire-traps should be pro- 
hibitive ; taxation upon property should be 
graduated. As it is now, the more a man 
spends, the better he builds, the less protec- 
tion he needs from the municipality, the 
greater the tax he has to pay. It should be 
that if one so builds as to require the mini- 
mum of protection from the city his tax 
should be lowered, while the one who builds 
a fire-trap or maintains one, requiring the 
maximum of protection, should be made to 
pay a commensurate tax, the maximum. 
F. W. FITZPATRICK, 
Secretary International Society of Building 
Commissioners and Inspectors. 



is a colored plate 
showing their 
bricks and also a 
series of plates 
giving shapes of 
their molded 
bricks, with sizes, 
etc. This is an- 
other up-to-date 
catalogue in 
which every page 
has a distinct 
value. 



ASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHICAGO UNIVERSITY. 

Shepley, K titan & Coolidge, Architects. 

Ki reproofed throughout by the National Fireproofing Company 




FROM THE 
SCHOOLS. 

A collection 
of architectural 
sketches by the students of the Architectural Depart- 
ment at the University of Illinois has recently been 
issued in a very attractive portfolio form. 
The work of the architectural students at 
Washington University, St. Louis, makes 
another attractive portfolio. 



IN GENERAL. 
Frank P. Milburn and Michael Heister, 
architects, and George T. Kepler, engineer, 
have formed a copartnership for the practice 
of architecture under the firm name of Frank 
P. Milburn & Co. ; offices, Life Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Leon E. Stanhope, architect, has formed 
a special partnership with Holabird & Roche 
of Chicago, for the purpose of opening a 
branch office at 923 Monadnock Building, 
San Francisco. 



TWO NEW CATALOGUES. 

TWO interesting and valuable catalogues 
have come to our table; one issued by 
the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company of Chicago, 
which besides being beautifully 
illustrated from work which 
has been executed by this com- 
pany, has a series of plates 
showing clearly the methods of 
construction for the various 
features of a building. One 
page contains a. series of help- 
ful suggestions for estimating, 
and a statement of what is re- 
quired by the manufacturer 
from the architect. The work 
would perhaps better be de- 
scribed if it were called a Text- 
Book on Architectural Terra 
Cotta rather than a catalogue. 
The Ironclay Brick Com- 
pany of Columbus, Ohio, has 
issued a pocket sized catalogue, 
leather bound, in which there 



DETAIL BY CLINTON & 
RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra 
Cotta Co., Makers. 




DETAIL BY PERTH AMBOY TERRA COTTA CO. 
George B. Post &*Sons, Architects. 



Henry C. Hengels, architect, 704 Grand 
Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis., is desirous of re- 
ceiving manufacturers' samples and cata- 
logues. 

The terra cotta for the Elks Club House, Philadelphia, 
E. P. Simon and D. B. Bassett, 
associate architects, illustrated 
in our July number, was manu- 
factured by the Excelsior Terra 
Cotta Company of Rocky Hill, 
N.J. 

Carter, Black & Ayers have 
furnished, recently, the face 
and enameled bricks for the 
large sales stables and auction 
rooms of the Fiss, Doerr & 
Carroll Horse Company, New 
York City, Horgan & Slattery, 
architects. They are also fur- 
nishing, at the present time, 
the enameled and face brick 
being used in the Water 
Side Power Station of Edison 
Company, New York City. 
This is one of the large 



176 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



contracts of the year. As agents of the Northeastern 
Terra Cotta Company, they will supply architectural 
terra cotta for several new apartment houses now being 
erected in New York. 

The Atelier Jallade of the Society of Beaux Arts 
Architects announces that after September 1 it will 
reorganize under the name of "The Jallade-Prevot 
Atelier." Mr. Jallade associates in his atelier work. Pro- 
fessor M. Prevot, late of Cornell University, Department 
of Architecture. The object of this association is to give 
more personal attention and time to each pupil. It is 
proposed to have the pupils continue to do the regular 
Society Beaux Arts Architects' problems, and in addition 
give a series of lectures on the theory of architecture 
and practical construction. Admission to the Atelier 
will be through an examination and the number of 
pupils will be limited. 




DETAIL MADE BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 

Mr. Myron Hunt, writing of the San Francisco earth- 
quake in The House Beautiful, observes that while brick 
buildings suffered most, the greatest damage was no- 
ticeable where joists were not thoroughly anchored to 
the walls. Continuing, he says: "Much San Francisco 
brickwork was laid dry; that is to say, the bricks were 
not wet before laying. The earthquake and fire threw 
these walls down, and the bricks lie on the ground, practi- 
cally clean of mortar because of faulty laying. Well 
built brick walls, laid in cement, stood surprisingly well." 

A semi-philanthropic scheme for improvement of the 
East End of London has been put forth by Mr. Imre 
Kiralfy. It is proposed to widen thoroughfares and to 
create public gardens and other open breathing spaces. 
The improvements are directed especially at Spitalfields 
and Shadwell. At the former a huge emporium is to be 




built similar to 
large bazars in 
France and 
Belgium. At 
Shadwell it is 
proposed to 
erect two or 
three large 
buildings with 
glass-covered 
arcades giving 
access from 
one garden to 
another. These 
buildings be- 
ing consider- 




DETAII. BY LOUIS CURTISS, ARCHITECT. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



ably higher than the former rookeries, again in floor space 
is attained, and at the same time improved housing con- 
ditions are offered to tenants. Sloping ground is to be 
utilized by a series of terraces which will accommodate 
audiences divided in groups before a public band stand. 
A museum and library is also suggested, to be placed be- 
side the Thames and to have a veranda overlooking the 
river. In the basement would be public baths, a swim- 
ming pool and gymnasium. Mr. Kiralfy declares that 
investors will receive from four and a half to six percent 
interest for their money, while the neighborhoods will re- 
ceive gardens and street widening free of cost. 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAUGHTSMEN WANTED — Two 
first-class draughtsmen can secure permanent employment at a good 
salary by addressing H. E. Bonitz, Architect, Wilmington, N. C. 
Forward samples of work and state salary desired with application. 

PARTNERSHIP WANTED — A man of 31. married, having 
a university education in architecture and an experience of ten 
years in leading Chicago offices, is desirous of affiliation in business 
with an architect well established in some smaller city, preferably 
but not necessarily in the Central States. Passed with high stand- 
ing the Illinois State Board examination, and can furnish highest 
references from profession in Chicago as to character and ability. 
Well bred and capable of dealing with a refined clientage. Address 
W. A. W., 1618 Monadnock Block, Chicago. 

SCHOOL of ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA 

THE FOUR YEAR COURSE. Offers full professional training, with an option in 
. Architectural Engineering, leading to the degree of B. S. in Arch. 

THE GRADUATE YEAR. Affords opportunity for advanced work in design and 
other subjects, leading to the degree of M. S. in Arch. 

THE TWO YEAR SPECIAL COURSE. lor qualified draughtsmen, offers advanced 
technical training, yielding a certificate of proficiency. 

THE UNIVERSITY. Also grants advanced standing to college graduates, offers a 
combination of liberal and technical courses whereby the degrees of A B. and 
B. S. in \rrh. can be taken in six years, and conducts a Summer School in which 
architectural studies may be taken. 

FOR FULL INFORMATION address Dr. J. BE. Pinm.man, Dean. College Hall, 
sity of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Pa. 

A Book you want 

"THE MODERN HOME 'has 
40 pages in color 
120 pages of photos and sketches 

Illustrating medium sized houses and 
cottages of England 

Bound in strong linen boards 
Sent prepaid .... 



DETAIL BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONC; TERRA COTTA CO. 
C. E. Cassell & Son, Architects. 



THE 
MODERN HOME 

lUMhlwWMii'W" 1 * 



-~3Sa- 



83-50 

Edition limited, order before out of print 

M. A. VINSON 

Hooks on Architecture 
1 1 14 Citizens Building. CLEVELAND. O. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 8. PLATE 99. 



ORNICE 




CORNICE AROUND COURT 

S.A1N AfNABROGlO , AAII_AN 



CORNICE AROVND APSE 

SAN AfvABROGIO, AAILAN 



CORNICE ON R.AI\E OF PEDIMENT 
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A ODD CORNICE 



ITALIAN CORNICES. WILL S. ALDRICH, DEL. 






THE BR1CKBU1LUER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE IOC. 





PLANS. HOUSE FOR S. G. BAYNE, ESQ., WHITE PLAINS. N. Y 
Frank Freeman. Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDE R. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 101. 




GonsT Chamber 



t 



.Third.Flooe.. 




I 





PLANS. HOUSE FOR RALPH M SHAW, ESQ., CHICAGO 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 102. 




ENTRANCE FRONT. 




LAWN FRONT. HOUSE FOR ELMER E. CLAPP. ESQ.. DEDHAM. MASS. 
Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 103. 





SIGMA CHI CHAPTER HOUSE, MADISON, WIS. 
Robert C. Spencer, Jr., and Claude &. Starck, associate Architects. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 104. 




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the brickbuilder: 

VOL. 15. NO. 8. PLATE 105. 





HOUSE FOR S. G. BAYNE. ESQ., WHITE PLAINS, N. Y. 
Frank Freeman, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 106- 





HOUSE FOR S. G. BAYNE, ESQ., WHITE PLAINS N. Y. 
Frank Freeman, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 107. 




HOUSE FOR A. J MASON, ESQ., CHICAGO. 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 




HOUSE FOR THE. MISSES COLVIN, LAKE FOREST. ILL 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 108. 




THE BRICK ( BUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 109. 




HOUSE FOR A BOLZA, ESQ., CHICAGO 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 




HOUSE FOR C. H. STARKWEATHER, ESQ., CHICAGO. 

Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 110. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 111. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 8. PLATE 112. 




^2 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




BASEMENT PLAN 



PLANS, SIGMA CHI CHAPTER HOUSE, MADISON, WIS 
R. C. Spencer, Jr., and Claude & Starck, Associate Architects. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV SEPTEMBER 1906 Number 9 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada . ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .........•••••••••■••• 5° cents 

To countries in the Postal Union • $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following oi lei i 



Agencies — Clay Products ....... 

Architectural Faience .....•■•■ " 

" Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick HI 



PAGE PAGE 

II Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Clay Chemicals .......... IV 

Fireproofing .......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

DELANO & ALDRICH; WILLIAM J. FIZONE; LITTLE & O'CONNOR; H. VAN BUREN MAGON- 

IGLE; STONE, CARPENTER & WILLSON; HORACE TRUMBAUER; WYATT & NOLTING. 

ITALIAN BRICKWORK, WILL S. ALDRICH, DEL. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

MAUSOLEUM AT NACHTSCHEWAN. PERSIA Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS I77 

THE GROUP PLAN. II. THE ELEMENTAL TYPES OF COMPOSITION Alfred Morton Githem 179 

RECONSTRUCTION OF THE FLOORS IN THE EQUITABLE BUILDING, BALTIMORE, Ml'. 

( 'o> ydon T. Put dy 182 

SUGGESTIONS FOR ARCHITECTURAL TRAVEL IN SPAIN L. MorrU Leisenring 184 

THE RELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND AMERICAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. THE ESSENCE 

OF MODERNITY Frank Chouteau Brown 189 

EDITORIAL (OMMKNT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



THE BRICKBVILDERi 



VOL. 15 No. 9 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS OF! 
jARCHITECTVRE- IN- MATERIALS • OF- CLAYi 



SEPTEMBER IQ06 



& 



THE NET RESULTS. 

THE International Congress of Architects, which was 
fully reported in our last issue, was in nearly every 
respect a great success. In attendance, in enthusiasm and 
in variety of topics discussed, it was everything which 
could have been anticipated. It is only when one tries to 
measure the tangible resulting good to the profession 
that there is any question as to how far and in what 
measure congresses of this sort accomplish their avowed 
mission of furthering the cause of good architecture. 
Considered merely as excuses for kindred architectural 
spirits to meet and discuss topics of mutual interest, as 
opportunities for encouraging a fraternal feeling among 
architects, and as occasions for showing to the public at 
large that architecture is a well-organized, coherent pro- 
fession, these congresses are eminently successful. 

But one cannot seriously study the reports of such 
conventions and congresses without a feeling of regret 
that, where so much effort has been expended, so much 
thought has been given to the elaboration of themes well 
worth considering, and so much said that should have 
lasting effect, all this effort should really reach only a 
very few, and that the results of all these congresses 
should so often be stowed away in the files of the archi- 
tectural periodicals, seldom seen or consulted. That is 
the one respect in which architectural gatherings do not 
altogether realize their expectations. The discussions of 
fruitful topics usually are followed only by a limited num- 
ber who were present at the meeting, who, it is true, carry 
away vivid impressions which are of value in the daily 
life of the profession, but who are seldom to pass along 
such impressions to their less fortunate brethren who re- 
main behind over the drawing board. 

Even with the most careful reporting the real spirit 
and enthusiasm of a congress such as this cannot be ap- 
preciated by proxy. Furthermore, without in the least 
decrying the high order of talent represented by the del- 
egates, there are many who never take part who are num- 
bered among the very best architects, and-from whom we 
would expect the greatest amount of helpful criticism 
and advice. It is the active practitioner that we listen 
to most effectively, the man who not only thinks and says 
things, but does them, —the architect who is often so 
busy that he has no time to prepare papers, much less to 
read them in a far country. This, of course, is inevi- 
table, but it is none the less to be regretted. 



Also, notwithstanding the enthusiasm which is so 
easily aroused in a gathering such as took place at Lon- 
don, the very size of the body operates against that free 
expression of opinion which does the profession so much 
good. We cannot help walking on stilts a little when 
addressing a large body of thinking men, but it is pre- 
cisely because we do not profit most by stilted talks that 
one could wish the proceedings of such congresses could 
be more personal and less professional, if that expresses 
the case. 

In the desire to give each country a representation in 
the proceedings, it has seemed to us that the programmes 
must have been overloaded, and that if each day's pro- 
ceedings had been cut down one-half and only the very 
choicest, most crisp thoughts could have been condensed 
into short, direct address, the academic character of the 
proceedings would have been much less manifest, and a 
livelier benefit would have accrued to all the listeners. 
At the same time, it would also have been much more 
likely that the reports of such proceedings would carry 
with them the true kernel of thought which would be of 
benefit to those who would read only at a distance. We 
can never hope to influence many readers or people with 
long discourses and it is easy to imagine a congress even 
larger in numbers than that of London, but with the 
speech-making and paper-reading reduced and concen- 
trated to a few hours of really earnest and profitable dis- 
course. 

It will be noticed that Mr. Kelsey very gracefully in- 
vited the Congress to meet year after next in this country. 
We can then have a chance to see whether we can do 
things any better on this side of the water. 



EDUCATION OF THE PUBLIC IN 
ARCHITECTURE 

TO our mind the best thought was called out at the 
London International Congress of Architects by the 
discussion of the subject of the " Education of the Public 
in Architecture." In the discussion, it seemed to be 
accepted by some of the delegates as a matter of course 
that the public is not interested in architecture, and that, 
therefore, this interest has to be awakened, carefully cul- 
tured and encouraged up to a more or less general appre- 
ciation of the particular manifestations which the archi- 
tects have in mind. This may be true in England. To 



1 7 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



a certain extent it is true everywhere, but in a sense it 
is fundamentally untrue. Certainly there is no mani- 
festation of human effort which reaches the general people 
more thoroughly than architecture. Thei'e is no means 
by which money can be so effectively spread around 
among all classes of people as by building, and it is again 
and again shown in all of our large cities that the public 
is alive to architecture, wants to know about it and takes 
a deep interest in building operations. 

The public certainly is not interested in architectural 
exhibitions. We admit that fully, and even the constant 
efforts of all our architectural societies have not yet re- 
sulted in a single architectural exhibition which could in 
any sense be called popular. But we do claim that build- 
ing operations, especially when they lead to a large and 
imposing architectural effect, are studied with the utmost 
daily attention by all classes of people. The public in 
this country certainly wants public art. It welcomes it, 
and if it is indiscriminate in its approval, we question if 
this is not epiite as much the fault of the architects as of 
the public. 

The real necessity for education, in our minds, is not 
to teach the public what is good architecture, so much as 
to bring them to a closer appreciation of the function the 
architect plays in public work. To many people he is 
still a sort of upper craftsman; less businesslike than a 
mason; not as practical as a carpenter; but one who in- 
creases the cost of a building from some unknown reason, 
and keeps the builders all guessing. Any one who looks 
back over the progress of the profession in this country 
for the last quarter of a century, can readily appreciate 
how modern a thing the American architect is, and how 
little he is understood. The nation, the cities, the in- 
dividuals, have thrown opportunities at the profession 
with both hands. The profession has never been quite 
equal to it, but has made a brave fignt and is fighting 
still. 

When we say that the public appreciates architecture, 
we do not mean that the appreciation is a knowing or an 
intelligent one. It simply likes a large, handsome piece 
of building construction, and, generally speaking, the 
public that goes by on the street will take kindly to the 
really good architectural monuments. There is, however, 
beyond question, a great work to be done, and the sug- 
gestion that was made at the Congress by M. Aneiaux, 
to educate the public by means of the creation of museums 
of architecture, is one which deserves careful considera- 
tion, and which, if carried out very generally, would un- 
doubtedly do a great deal to bring about the desired re- 
sults It is safe to say that the collection of architectural 
casts in the Metropolitan Museum at New York is studied 
and admired more than any other one feature of that 
magnificent collection, and there ought to be similar col- 
lections in all of our large cities. Whether the time is 
yet ripe for them to be independent collections is a ques- 
tion. Even now nearly all of our museums have a more 
or less general collection of architectural casts, and if 
these could be enlarged so as to be more specific in their 
illustrations, — to include models of complete buildings of 
the best type, with examples of decorations of furnished 
interiors, and with, perhaps, in connection therewith, ex- 
hibitions of architectural drawings, — they would become 
powerful educational agents. 



THE CONDUCT OF INTERNATIONAL 
ARCHITECTURAL COMPETITIONS. 

THE recent fiasco of the competition for the Peace 
•Palace at The Hague was so strong in the minds of 
European architects that it necessarily suggested a very 
lively discussion at the London Congress of Architects. 
Our own remedy for the evils of an international com- 
petition would be not to have any. We see no reason 
to believe that any country would gain by importing 
directly outside talent for its assistance. It is not con- 
ceivable that an outsider would be as likely to give any 
national monument its local character as those properlv 
to the manner born. Quite aside from the question 
as to whether or not a competition for any building 
is desirable, it is beyond dispute that no International 
Competition has ever resulted in anything but failure. 

In the discussions on this subject at the Congress 
the anonymity of all competitions seemed to be accepted 
as a matter of course. At the last convention of the 
American Institute at Washington, a proposal was made 
that all competitive drawings should be signed by the 
full name of the author. We have no sympathy with the 
theory that would impose a blind chance upon the results 
of any competition, neglecting entirely the personality of 
the architects themselves, and striving to arrive at a de- 
cision based upon a fortuitous display of more or less ac- 
curate drawings. Personality is one of the strong fea- 
tures in architecture, and to disregard it entirely is to in- 
sure failure. This has been proven over and over again 
so conclusively by competitions here and elsewhere, that 
it is rather surprising no mention of this shortcoming 
should have appeared in this discussion at London. 



A MINISTRY OF THE FINE ARTS. 

IX the presidential address of welcome, given by Mr. 
John Belcher at the London Congress of Architects, 
the speaker called attention to one of the defects in the 
architectural conditions of Great Britain, which is in a 
measure a lack also in this country. England has no 
Ministry of Fine Arts nor any similar authority to watch 
over the interests of the public in respect to the art as 
distinguished from the science of building. In the 
United States that function is assumed by something 
which does not seem to have its exact counterpart abroad, 
represented by our municipal art societies, civic art com- 
missions, art leaguers and kindred associations. All of 
these are creations of comparatively recent years. In 
fact, it is doubtful if there was an art society of any sort 
in this country possessing any weight of influence prior 
to the Columbian Exhibition year. Public opinion is 
now represented very efficiently in most of our large 
cities by private association, which aims to formulate the 
best properties and wishes of the best practitioners in 
architecture and art. For nearly ten years these societies 
worked in the dark, with little results. But with the in- 
ception of the improvements in Washington a national 
change has begun, and we believe it is fair to say that 
the results which have been accomplished by otir various 
municipal art organizations have been more potent for 
good, and have actually accomplished more results than 
would have been possible with any Ministry of the Fine 
Arts. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



179 



The Group-Plan. II. 

THE ELEMENTAL TYPES OF COMPOSITION. 

BY ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 

WE have said that there seem to be barely six or 
eight elemental types of plan composition and 
that most groups are made up of one or more of them. 
Now we will take up these types seriatim. 

The Closed Court. — The simplest and historically 
the first is the closed court. Originally planned for de- 
fence against outsiders and yet that it might be open to 
the air within, it persisted as the type plan for seclusion 
and privacy. The houses of Greece and Rome and the 
mediaeval cloisters and colleges are examples. Through 
its monumental possibilities it became the type for the 
palaces and fora. 

Just now, especially in America, it is in disfavor. 
The court open on one side, to the south if possible, is 



approach. There are countless examples of all degrees 
of importance from the little Orphans' Home at Walling- 
ford at the end of its country lane, to the palaces of the 
Louvre or Versailles, terminating two of the greatest 
vistas of the world. 

This composition is sometimes chosen for another rea- 
son ; the open side may be an outlook merely, as in the 
Fine Arts Square of the California University, which 
overlooks a grove of pine trees, the most attractive nat- 
ural feature of the Berkeley hillside. Mr. Flagg has 
twice used the open court in the Annapolis Academy; 
the Campus and Amphitheater face the Severn River, 
and the Parade the Chesapeake. 

This group suggests a peculiarity of many American 
compositions; an entire indifference to the corners of a 
court, — important as the sides and far more difficult to 
compose. Many arrangements have been tried and a 
few successfully. The buildings may be frankly sep- 
arated as in the Berkeley "College Square," where 



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preferred, as giving more light and air, and the closed 
court seldom chosen except in cities where space is lim- 
ited. The entrances to it are usually either choked, 
as in fortified mediaeval buildings, or else not given their 
deserved importance. When well arranged^>f course no 
composition can be more dignified. Witness the great 
central court of M. Benard's University of California, 
the " college square," as it has been called, for it is the 
ideal tpye of a city square in arrangement; that is to say, 
no avenue finds its termination there, but the circulation 
passes through it in one side and out the opposite, con- 
necting it with the technical and scientific buildings 
above and the Fine Arts Square and city below. 

The Open Court. — A closed court is only partially 
effective as the termination of a great avenue, for the 
building in the forefront hides those behind: remove it 
and the three sides remaining are all effective. This is 
the open court, the second of the compositions and that 
most often used in modern planning. The entrance is 
no longer a difficulty, for the open side is naturally the 



masses of high trees form the upper corners of the court ; 
the corne'rs connected . by low arches, curved as in the 
'.' Palais d'Enfance," or rectangular as in Mr. Howard's 
University of California; the wings placed in line with 
the end pavilions of the central building, and so masking 
them as in M. Eustache's Ga^e ; the wings flanking the 
central building and so masked by it, as in M. Benard's 
Fine Arts Square, perhaps open to criticism because 
each symmetrical wing is partly covered by the Central 
Museum. M. Prost in his Imprimerie Nationale partially 
overcomes this last difficulty, for each wing is dissym- 
metrical, with one of its end pavilions especially designed 
to link it to the central building. 

Corners in Gothic courtyards are always strong. The 
entrance tower is sometimes there or even the great hall 
as in Cardinal Wolsey's quadrangle at Christ's College, 
Oxford. 

The French under the Bourbons preserved this tradi- 
tion and reinforced the corners with projecting pavilions. 
A recessed corner, so common under the Empire, was 



i8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




I 



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1 




PALAIS D ENFANCE. 




COLLEGE SQUARE, UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA. 

Benard. 




ORPHANAGE, WALLINGFORD, PA. 
Delano & Aldrich. 





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NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS. 
Ernest l'lagg. 



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FINE ARTS SQUARE, UNIVERSITY OF 

CALIFORNIA. 

Be'nard. 





GARE COURT OF HONOR. 



IMPRIMERIE NATIONALE COURT OF HONOR. 

Prost. 




CHATEAU DE ST. CLOUD. 



CHAMPS DE MARS, PARIS EXPOSI- 
TION OF I9OO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



181 




COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK. 
McKim, Mead & White. 



PROJECT FOR UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Howard &• Caldwell. 



182 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



then abhorred, and a court was planned in such manner 
that from the entrance it could be seen in its entirety. 
Notice this corner treatment in the courts of Old St. 
Cloud and the Hotels of Noailles and Matignon. 

The "Telescope." — This principle led to a curious 
development. Imagine a series* of open courts, the first 
intact, the others divided and the halves placed flanking 
the first, somewhat suggesting the outline of an open 
telescope. Examples are the Cour du Carrousel of the 
Louvre or the Place d'Armes of Versailles and the build- 
ings of the Paris Exposition on the Champ de Mars or be- 
fore the Invalides. 

The "T. " — The progression may continue and 
an open court be placed on each side the main axis to 
form a T, as in M. Bigot's Palace for a Conclave of 
Monarchs or Mr. Howard's project for the University 
of California. This forces a secondary axis otherwise 
quite unnecessary in any court, closed OX open, simple or 
compound. 

The Cross. — i Draw together the final courts and add 
two advancing rings. There results yet another type, 
the cross. 

The Avenue. — The avenue is nothing but a long, 
narrow open court — the Invalides axis of the Paris Ex- 
position for instance. Two avenues at right angles are 
nothing but the cross. Develop the crossing in the way 
the telescope was developed and the composition of the 
Place de la Concorde is evolved. 

The Open Avenue. — -All the foregoing have been 
symmetrical. There are at least two monumental com- 
positions that are not. Suppose one side of the avenue 
was toward a river or overlooked extensive country. It 
would be natural not to block this side with buildings ; 
there results the open avenue. 

The Unsvmmetrical Composition on Two Axes. — 
Start again with an open court square or nearly so ; re- 
move one side and replace it with a second open court, 
long and narrow. This is the unsymmetrical composition 
on two axes of the Pittsburg Technical Schools. 

The Pyramid. — So far each composition named has 
been grouped around a court or courts of varying shapes. 
The inner facades of the buildings were the more impor- 
tant and the first to be considered; the exteriors almost 
"arranged themselves." Suppose a building occupied 
the central space, naturally the largest or highest build- 
ing of the group ; or, rather, suppose this great building 
were placed in the center of a simple open court, so that 
from any outside point of view the silhouette of the group 
massed up toward the center more or less to the form of 
a pyramid. This is the composition of the Baths of Car- 
acella — or Columbia University at New York — the 
pyramid it may be called. 

The Line. — The last composition and perhaps the 
most simple of all is the line. Symmetrical or unsym- 
metrical, a silhouette composition seen from one side only 
or from both. 

Perhaps all compositions are in part line compositions, 
for the qualities of each exterior facade are precisely 
those of the line. In general, each type merges into the 
next. Hybrid types are without number, and some of 
these we must try to analyze. They are difficult to ar- 
range, but when well composed are singularly interest- 
ing. 



Reconstruction of the Floors in the 
Equitable Building Baltimore, Md. 

BY CORVDON T. PURDY. 

THE reconstruction of the floors in the Equitable 
Building in Baltimore, after the fire, presented an 
unusual problem, and the terra cotta arch adopted by 
Mr. Joseph Evans Sperry, the architect of the building, 
to meet the requirements, is worthy of special notice. 

The building was originally constructed in 1890, and 
is nine stories high. It has a structural iron frame; but 
the exterior walls are not supported by it. The columns 
are made of cast iron and are placed along all wall lines, 
as well as through the middle of the building, so that 
they carry the floor at every point, and the walls simply 
enclose the building. 

The floor beams were originally arranged and figured 
for a Guastavino construction, and the joist beams were 
figured light, as is ordinarily and properly done with 
that construction. They were spaced six feet nine inches 
to eight feet four inches apart, and the girder beams, 
which were made strong enough for any ordinary short 
span fireproof construction, including the live loads now 
required by law, were mostly spaced fifteen feet five 
inches apart. 

The buildings on the opposite side of the street, both 
ways, were not burned and the walls of the Equitable 
Building were not much injured. Unlike other buildings, 
the fire came into this one slowly; but it burned fiercely, 
and the destruction of the interior was nearly complete. 
This result was largely due to the way in which the floors 
had actually been made. A cheap non-fireproof con- 
struction was substituted for the Guastavino. It con- 
sisted of a five-inch segmental arch of hard terra cotta 
covered with a two-inch plank floor resting on top of the 
beams and on the crown of the arch without any filling 
material in between. This left the bottom of the beams 
exposed and provided fuel for the flames. Everything 
that could burn was consumed; the partitions, which 
were made of a local product called Lime of Tiel, were 
completely wrecked; in several places heavy safes broke 
through the segmental arches and fell to the basement, 
leaving gaping holes above; and every wheret he terra 
cotta arches were more or less injured. 

It was evident at the first examination after the fire 
that all the interior construction of the building would 
have to be rebuilt, unless, possibly, the old structural 
frame might be used over again. In all material respects 
it was intact. Some of the columns were broken, many 
of the joist beams were bent and twisted, and quite a 
number of the girders were in bad shape; but broken 
columns could be replaced, and fortunately the beams 
were made of wrought iron instead of steel and could, 
therefore, be straightened and used again. 

The worst feature of the problem of using the old 
structural frame in the reconstruction of the building 
was the lack of strength in the joist beams. They were 
strong enough for the Guastavino construction as origi- 
nally designed, but the question of cost and other con- 
siderations prevented the use of that form of construction. 
The arch used, however, would have to have the same 
characteristics, that is to say it would have to distribute 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



183 



its load to the girder beams as well as to the joist 
beams. 

In addition to this primary requirement it was also 
necessary, 

First, that the weight of the entire construction of 
the floor, including the beams, the plastering, the filling 
over the arch and the floor finish, should not be more 
than ninety pounds. 

Second, that the ceiling in each story should be level 
and unbroken, except by the girders. 

Third, that the fireproofing quality of the construc- 
tion, as a whole , should be unquestionable ; and 

Fourth, that the projection of the girders below the 
ceiling line should be covered particularly well. 



bottom of the beams is fully provided for. It' will also 
be noticed that the blocks are made to arch both between 
the beams and between the girders — side construction 
in the former case and end construction in the latter. 

As finally constructed the end blocks adjoining the 
girders were turned the other way, so that these pieces 
were made as ordinary skew backs. The size of the 
blocks was then modified to meet this change and to 
satisfy the varying widths between the joist beams. The 
forms of these blocks, as actually constructed, are shown 
in the illustration. 

The specifications required that the girder blocks cov- 
ering the projection of the girder beams below the ceiling 
should all be anchored together under the beams with 




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• PETAIL.5HOWINQ.REINFORC1MC- 



DETAILS OF FIREPROOF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION, EQUITABLE BUILDING, BALTIMORE, MD. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect; Corydon T. Purdy, Engineer. 



At first it was thought that all these conditions could 
be met with reinforced concrete construction ; but every 
form of such construction occasioned a greater weight 
for the floor than the ninety pounds, and if a form suffi- 
ciently light in weight could have been devised it would 
have required a hanging ceiling, which was objected 
to. 

The plan finally adopted provided for a flat semi- 
porous terra cotta arch thirteen inches in depth. The 
general scheme of this arch as proposed is shown in the 
illustration. It will be noticed that it extends two inches 
below the joist beams, and that the girder cover extends 
two inches below the girder; thus the fireproofing of the 



iron staples. With this tying together of the blocks and 
the notched arrangement of the skew backs, the perma- 
nency of the construction, even under the worst condi- 
tions, seemed to be assured. In fact, after the covering 
is once constructed it must be broken to pieces before it 
can be taken off. 

The total weight of this arch, with the wood finish, 
the cinder concrete filling, the plastering and the beams, 
just came within the ninety pounds limit. In all other 
respects it was equally acceptable. It was also the most 
economical plan considered. It served as an excellent 
illustration of what can be done with reinforced terra 
cotta. 



1 84 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Suggestions for Architectural Travel 
in Spain. 

BY L. MORRIS LEISENRING. 

T( ) a lover of the arts Spain presents so much of rich- 
ness and color, of variety and contrast, of the ex- 
quisitely refined and of the ruggedly picturesque, that it 
is difficult to account for the comparative lack of interest 
shown in her by the student world. Of late years archi- 
tects have'shown her more appreciation, but it is still 
undoubtedly true that the great majority of student trav- 
elers do not cross her borders. This may be due in a 
measure to her own attitude, for she has proudly held 
aloof from modern innovation and change, requiring the 
traveler to do as the Spaniards do, and rather rubbing 
in the fact that he is in Spain and not at home. The way 
of the traveler is hard here, and even Baedeker grows 
pessimistic once he is south of the Pyrenees and habitually 
looks on the dark side. But to the enthusiastic student 
a few inconveniences met and cherished comforts left 
behind only add spice to his experiences, especially in a 




SAN ESTEBAN, SALAMANCA. 
Note square tower at Crossing. Peculiar to this locality. 

country which will give so much in return for her petty 
shortcomings as grand old Spain. 

For as well as what may be called "modern archi- 
tecture " she offers for study strata of the civilization of 
ages. Before history began, her native Iberian stock, 
which seems to have sprung from the soil itself, was 
given a touch of the North by the wandering Celts. The 
Phoenicians and Carthagenians gave the first impulse to 
her civilization, and the Romans, after the fierce Punic 
wars, established their beneficent rule for four hundred 
years of fruitful peace. It was then that Spain's architec- 
ture began. The Goths and Vandals worked three centu- 
ries of destruction and feeble imitation of the arts of their 
predecessors before the Moors blazed their path from 
south to north and held themselves on the peninsula by 
continual warfare for seven centuries. During these 
years they developed a civilization which stands as one 
of the first the world has produced, and which has left 
this ultra Christian country a heritage of art and tradition 
which shows itself in all forms of her life to-day. 

Coincident with the final overthrow of the Moors 
the Catholic kings opened the possibilities for a new 




WHITEWASHED SEVILLE. 

civilization when through Columbus they discovered our 
world. Immediately riches poured in and Spain found 
herself, under the first rulers of the Austrian line, the 
mistress of two continents. She was thus placed in a 
position so entirely analogous to our own recent past, 
that we must feel a thrill of sympathy for her sufferings 
from the pangs and penalties of the nouveau riche. Like 
us, after years of privation and warfare during which she 
had not time to look to her arts, she found herself in 
immediate need of an architecture rich enough for her 
new station in life. 

Up to this time she had produced only a few nobly 
simple Romanesque and Gothic churches. These styles 
at once assumed a more elaborate character. Moriscos 
were set to work for their Christian masters and the 
Ouatrocento was transplanted from Italy. From this 
time on the development of the Renaissance took much 
the same course as in Italy, the rich fancy of the Plater- 
esque and Grotesque styles dying down to the correct 
precision of the Cinquecento, and the coldness of this 
style meeting violent protest in the florid Rococo, which 
in turn dwindled to commonplaces in the eighteenth 
century. 

The crime of Spain, according to the critics, is hor 




■ ' :^ V^- 







Note. — The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to his 
traveling companion, Mr. Frederick Reed, for the use of a number of 
the illustrations in these articles. 



GERONA, ON THE ONA. 

failure to have developed and carried to a logical con- 
clusion any style which may be strictly called Spanish; 
It is difficult to grasp the exact point of this, for elimi- 
nating from consideration the wonderful art of the 
Saracens, that child of nomad African parents that was 
born and raised in Spain, we find here types to be seen 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i*5 




CHURCH OF SANTA CATA- 
LINA, SEVILLE. 



A PATIO, RONDA. 



A PATIO, RONDA. 



TOLEDO. THE CATHEDRAL 
SPIRE FROM THE ROOFS. 



in no other country. Also in her adoption of foreign 
styles Spain has masterfully adapted them and given 
each a distinct Spanish character. She has also shown 
particular skill in developing the allied arts, such as 
wrought and chiseled iron and brass; sculpture in wood, 
generally colored or gilded; encaustic and enameled tiles; 
tooled leather and beautiful armor. 

It was her sudden fall from power and internal decay 
under the Inquisition which paralyzed her architectural 
progress, rather than a dearth of imagination and creative 
power in her artists. A country cannot be called barren 
of these qualities which produced a Berruguete, a Diego 
de Siloe, a Valdelvira and a Montanes, who worked in 
the free spirit of the early Renaissance, or a Herrara, 
who could as cleverly articulate the dry bones of the 
Cinquecento as any of his Italian confreres. 

So while Italian, French and even German influence 
is seen in plenty, it is influence only, and the results 
answer the requirements of Spanish climate and customs. 

Now, when one has said "Spanish climate and cus- 
toms " he has in no wise committed himself, for from the 



mountainous North of Aragon and Catalonia to the 
gentle slopes and plains of Andalusia is a long cry in 
manners, customs and language even. " Quien dice 
Espana dice todo " (who says Spain says all) is believed by 
the Spaniard to be entirely true, but true of his Spain, 
his province. He turns a cold shoulder to his brothers 
living across the mountain ranges which almost inva- 
riably separate one Spain from another, knowing little 
and caring less of what is doing a day's journey from his 
own hearthstone. His true national character shows 
itself only in his sturdy championship of that Quixotic 
ideal, " L ' Honora Espana" which it is the business of the 
government to look out for. As the country's configu- 
ration has placed him in a little corner hard to get out 
from, he calmly develops his individuality, living with all 
his might, in grace, dignity and peace, leaving reforms 
for to-morrow and dreaming of the glorious past. It is 
the contrasts so developed which make one's impressions 
here so keen and incisive and give such spice and flavor 
to his experiences. 

That man who loves the study of 'his fellows as well as 





church at Salamanca. 

Note pierced work under roof. 



GOTHIC DETAILS FROM THE ROOF 
OF THE CATHEDRAL, SEVILLE. 



IN THE JARDIN DEL PRIN- 
CIPE, ARANJUEZ. 



CONVENT DE SANTA PAULA, 
SEVILLE. 



i86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





THE GENERAI.IFE FROM THE MEZgUITO, AI.HAMHRA 



CASA CAUELLO, CORDOBA. 
Example of the larg-e doorways leading to the Patios. 



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THE APSE, SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES, TOLEDO. 



SCREEN, CATHEDRAL AT GRANADA. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



187 




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COURT OF THE IRISH COL- 
LEGE, SALAMANCA. 



CLOISTER, SAN JUAN DE LOS 
REYES, TOLEDO. 



of the arts, will find in Spain a joy forever. For here he 
finds the most picturesque of countries to be architectu- 
rally thoroughly worth while; giving him the excuse, so 
to speak, of lingering to study, while becoming ac- 
quainted with ideals so different from his own. The 
dress of the peasantry, their implements, water jars, 
blankets, alforjas or saddlebags, botas or wine flasks, 
snuffboxes and even the hair on the donkeys' backs, 
show charming decorative forms. These with the festivals, 
fairs, dances, games, and bullfights of the people will 
appeal strongly to an artistic nature. 

As it is the purpose of this article to aid the pro- 
spective traveler, the following hints will be given in as 
few words as possible, though it is difficult to adopt a 
guidebook manner in writing of Spain. 

It will be advantageous to look over the following 
books before making out the itinerary, further sugges- 
tions for which are given later: 

Technical: " Monumentos Arquitectionicos de Es- 
pafia, " published by the Spanish government. Prentiss, 
"Renaissance Architecture in Spain"; Street, "Gothic 




1HE TOLEDO 
MADRID. 



BRIDGE, 



SAN GREGORIO, VALLADOL1D, 

RENAISSANCE INFLUENCED BY 

MOORISH AND GOTHIC. 

Architecture in Spain"; Fletcher, " History of Architec- 
ture"; frontispieces in The Brickbuilder for some years 
back, and that part of the larger architectural histories 
devoted to Spain. 

General: Hale, "Story of Spain," "Seven Cities 
of Spain " ; Hay, " Castilian Days " ; D'Amicis, "Spain 
and the Spaniards" ; Irving, "Sketch Book" and "The 
Alhambra " ; Jennings, "Tourist in Spain, 1835-38"; 
Calvert, "Impressions of Spain," "The Alhambra," 
"Moorish Remains in Spain"; Junghaendel and Garlett, 
"Die Baukunst Spaniens " ; Villa-Amil, " Espana Artis- 
tica y Mommental "; Waring, "Architectural Studies in 
Burgos "; Waring and Macquoid, "Examples of Archi- 
tectural Art in Italy and Spain"; Wyatt. "An Archi- 
tect's Notebook in Spain." Historical novels: Crawford, 
" In the Palace of the King"; Roulet, "God the King, 
My Brother." 

Both Baedeker's and Ford's (Murray's) are excellent 
handbooks. Baedeker's is the more concise and up-to-date. 
Ford's is the best for the sportsman and general traveler. 

The best time for travel is in the spring and fall. The 




DOORWAY, CHURCH OF SAN 
PABLO, BARCELONA. 



A TYPICAL DOORWAY IN 
AVILA. 



A DOORWAY, AVILA. 



A BALCONY, SALAMANCA. 



1 88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ideal trip as regards time of year and pleasurable incident 
would be to start from Gibraltar about the middle of 
March and allowing, say two months for the trip, to ar- 
rive in the northern mountains as the heat of summer 
becomes oppressive. If one travels necessarily in the 
autumn or with a desire to follow the course of architec- 
tural development which was in general from north to 
south he should start from Port-Bon or Iran about the 
middle of August and reach Granada any time during 
October, while there is still fruit in plenty and the days 
are sunny and warm. Travel in the winter, north of 
Andalusia, is almost impossible for one used to a warmed 
house, as no arrangements are made for heating. It is 
possible, however, to travel through the summer months, 
if one is careful to avoid a sequence of midday sun and 
vaultlike church. Suggestions follow for trips of one, 
two and three months' duration. 

ONE MONTH. 

Ronda £ day Avila i day 



Granada 3 ' 

vSeville 3 ' 

Cordova 1 

Madrid 2 ' 

Toledo 2 ' 

Segovia 1 ' 

Escorial J 

Time allowed for actual travel 7^ days. 

TWO MONTHS. 

Ronda 4 day Escorial 1 day 



Salamanca 3 

Valladolid 1 

Burgos 3 

Saragossa 1 

Tarragona 1 

Barcelona 1 



Granada 6 

Seville 6 

(Seville to Cadiz by 
boat. ) 

Cadiz 1 

Jerez 1 

Cordova 3 

Madrid 3 

Aranjuez 1 

, Toledo 5 



Avila 2 

Salamanca 6 

Valladolid 1 

Burgos 3 

Trip to Silos 2 

Saragossa 2 

Lerida 1 

Poblet 1 

Tarragona 2 

Barcelona 2 

Gerona £ 



Segovia 2 

io£ days' actual travel. 

THREE MONTHS. 

Ronda £ day Avila 2 days 



Granada 7 

Cordova 3 

Seville 7 

Jerez 1 

Cadiz 1 

(Cadiz to Lisbon by 

boat. ) 

Lisbon 3 

( Including excursions 
to Beleni and Cintra. ) 

Alcobaca 4 

Batalha 1 

Thomar I 

Coimbra 1 

Santiago-de-Compos- 

tella 3 

Leon 2 

Zamora 1 

Salamanca 6 

Medina del Campo . .\ 
14 days' actual travel. 



Escorial 1 

Madrid 5 

Aranjuez 1 

Toledo 6 

Alcala de Henares. . .\ 

< ruadaljara \ 

Segovia 2 

La Granja 1 

Valladolid 1 

Palencia \ 

Burgos 5 

Trip to Silos 2 

Trip to Saragossa 

with stops 2 

Saragossa 3 

Lerida 1 

Poblet 1 

Tarragona 2 

Barcelona 3 

Gerona \ 



This may be extended to include a trip to the Baleric 
Isles; sailing from and returning to Barcelona in three 
days and four nights, or one may return via Alicante, 
from whence picturesque Murcia may be visited and Bar- 
celona regained via Valencia and the east coast towns 
which are not particularly valuable to the architect. 

Language. — It is misleading to say that a knowledge 
of the language is not necessary. One can speak English 
and pay two prices, or French and fare not much better. 
If he ventures at all from the beaten track he will be at 
a loss with either. But it is reassuring to consider how 
very little Spanish he may know and still make his way. 
A few phrases gleaned from a phrase book or dictionary 
or from endeavors to read the Correspondencies Espanola 
(the principal newspaper) will, with persistency and a 
pleasant manner, almost invariably see one through. 




SHOWING THE SPANISH FEELING FOR DECORATIVE TREAT- 
MENT, AT ITS HEIGHT. 

*Method ok Travel. — One traveling for experience 
may find tramping, bicycling, etc., pleasant, but the 
student with limited time had best rely on the prosaic 
train. He will find, in the natural course of things, short 
trips to be made in diligences, muleback or on foot which 
will break the monotony of railroading. If one can afford 
to travel first class he had best do so. This will give the 
privilege, at a considerable advance in price over the 
regular first-class fare, of traveling by the trains t/c luxe, 
which are about twice as fast as the regular trains. The 
expense of this sort of travel is, however, formidable to 
the average student. Any well-bred person may very 
enjoyably travel third class if he is willing to offer, as 
well as accept, the somewhat elaborate courtesy of the 
Spanish peasant; to treat all men as his equal and use 
his rain coat for a seat cushion. Certain unpleasant 
habits of the Spaniards are found in all classes, while 
their many ingratiating ones are found most strongly 
evidenced in the sturdy, dignified and courteous man 
of the people. The second class may be left un- 
spoken of as one gains no advantage in point of time 
over the third (the fast trains carrying first class only) 
and in addition has stuffy cushions and the most uninter- 
esting and boorish type of travelers. 

At the first large city (as at Granada on the south or 



* See " A Tramp in Spain," Bart Kennedy; "In Northern Spain" 
(Tramping and Camping), Gadow; " Sketches A wheel in Modern Ibe- 
ria," F. B. and W. II. Workman; description of a tour on horse- 
back (page 12), Murray's Handbook for Spain. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



189 



Barcelona on the north) one should apply during his first 
day for a billett par kilometros or mileage ticket, good 
on all railroads in Spain. He should first consult the 
Guia Official dc los Ferro-Carriles, or general railroad 
guide, to decide the distance (in kilometers) he will 
probably travel. For the one-month trip given here it 
will take about three thousand kilometers, for the three- 




FINIAL OVER DOORWAY, TOLEDO. 

months trip about four thousand. (They cannot be used 
in Portugal. ) This is a most excellent method of secur- 
ing transportation, saving at least forty per cent and 
being (unlike circular tickets) always available to go 
anywhere within the time limit. They are sold for from 
eighteen hundred kilometers good for three months to 
twelve thousand kilometers good for fifteen months. 
One's photograph, about two and one-half inches square, 
must be presented with the application, for identification. 
It takes five or six days to get the ticket. The holder 
presents this at the ticket offices en route, receiving a 
ticket for the detached number of kilometers. 

In traveling by boat one should go first class and 
should previously inquire whether anything to eat may 
be had on board. Pleasant trips of this kind may be 
made from Gibraltar to Cadiz and Lisbon ; between 





|P 


^*\ ,'• -"'"1 -r-. ^5$5 





OUTLOOK FROM SEGOVIA, TEMPLAR CHURCH IN THE 
MIDDLE DISTANCE. 

Cadiz and Seville on the Guadalquivir; from Barcelona 
to Palma, Majorca and so on. 

Diligences are seldom needed except to reach the 
towns from the usually isolated railway stations. Some 
trips, however,, must be made by them, as to La Granja 
from Segovia and to the monastery at Silos from Burgos. 
This last, for which the guidebooks give directions, is a 
journey both by diligence and on mules which should not 
be missed if time can be spared to it. If the weather is 
good the outside seats are always sought for. 

(T/iis article will be concluded in the October issue.) 



The Relation Between English and 
American Domestic Architecture. 

BY FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN. 

THE ESSENCE OF MODERNITY. 

THE more definite of the qualities and characteristics 
that go to make up the modern English type of res- 
idence architecture have already been considered. The 
influences exerted by architectural styles derived from 
historic precedents existing in England, as well as those 
emanating directly from the material employed, have 
been taken up at length. Except in the larger or more 
monumental modern buildings (Fig. 1), the suggestion 
of an historic style is never given in such a way as to be- 
come formal or insistent, and therefore even with the 
most modest structures it cannot appear pretentious or 
overpowering. Indeed it may be said that the third most 
important characteristic of English domestic architecture 
is its unpretentiousness, its naivete, its quiet domesticity 
of effect. 

Several things may be deduced from a study of the 
various examples of this modern type. They uniformly 
avoid the use of conventional architectural forms and 
moldings, as weii as any fixed formality in the balance of 
facade or use of material. To take as an instance Mr. 
Macartney's house in Sussex (Fig. 2), it will be noticed 
at once that no conventional cornice is used upon the 
building. At one end is a simple coved molding with 
small iron brackets carrying the detached gutter, while 
in another place the eaves are formed by the projecting 
rafters alone. Where the roof projects over the face 
walls of the gable there is no elaborate raking cornice or 
set of moldings, but the slates lap over and the roof is 
finished in the simplest, most " cottagey " manner. 
Again, the stonework of the wall surfaces is treated in a 
great variety of ways : at one place a fairly conventional 
ashlar; at another the method of laying is less exact and 
more broken up ; while in the first story wall, beside the 
doorway, rough courses of all kinds of stone are em- 
ployed, and in the return from the gable face the rough- 
est kind of ashlar treatment is utilized along with some 
brickwork that repeats the material used in the exterior 
corner angles of the walls. The only moldings that ap- 
pear in the entire design are along the top of the simple 
entrance-door opening, which is thus quietly emphasized 
and accented. See how closely these modern walls re- 
semble the stonework in the walls of the old house at 
Lincoln (Fig. 3), where the growths of moss and lichen in 
the crevices are responsible for the principal differences 
of aspect between them. 

Mr. Brierley's " The Close " (Fig. 4) is slightly more 
architectural in effect, though still sufficiently picturesque 
and informal in composition to be classed in the same 
group as the other dwelling. The difference results 
somewhat from the severe simplicity of plan and the ad- 
ditional historic suggestiveness of the material (brick) 
and, in part, from the treatment of the finish upon the 
top of the gable walls, which more closely suggests 
Elizabethan precedent. 

But, beside the qualities already enumerated, there are 
a great many modern country dwellings where the charm 
depends upon something less tangible than is indicated 



190 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



by the term " historic style." Perhaps it would be more 
illustrative to say that in some of this modern work has 
been reproduced the quality of " picturesqueness, " which, 
in essence, forms so much of the charm of many an old 
house. This picturesqueness is most elusive and impal- 
pable in result ; its spirit is so fleeting and evanescent, so 
variable, that it is only possible to say that, in part, it de- 
pends largely upon composition ; the grouping of plain 
and different textured wall surfaces, gables and dormers; 
of windows, projecting and recessed wall planes and 
chimney tops; but above all, its effect must be informal 
and unstudied. The new composition must reproduce 
the atmosphere of old groupings obtained naturally by 
the changes, alterations and additions made by generation 
after generation of owners. 

The work of one architect, Mr. Lutyens, is consistently 
picturesque time after time. Stone seems his favorite 
material, and in such rambling country houses as "Or- 
chards " and Fulbrook House (Figs. 5 and 6) he has evi- 
dently closely suited his treatment to his material, adapt- 
ing both from local existing buildings belonging to the 
less formal historic periods. 




FIG. 2. ENTRANCE FRONT, "MINSTED, SUSSEX. 
Mervyn Macartney, Architect. 

The elusive element of the picturesque is not alone 
the birthright of the English architectural designer, as 
the bold plastered gable flanking the crisp-angled chim- 
ney, the stretch of dormer-broken, penthouse roof with 
pointed timbered gables, and the stone-terraced walks of 
the house reared against the sky across the little rough- 
grown American garden (Fig. 7) offer ample evidence. 
The element of the picturesque lurks ever rather in the 
minute than in the composition of a grander scale, and 
here, in such another engaging grouping as that of but- 
tressed entrance and indrawn chimney, of gable, bay and 
latticed casement (Fig. 8), is a bit of more modest, less 
assertive proof. This is what is called — for want of a 
better term — " picturesque." Such compositions as 
these must have been felt for and built up in perspective 
study before the different elements were coldly placed 
and figured in elevation and in plan. 

After the style, after the careful selection of material 
and its perfect fitness to its method of use (" technique ") 
and to the locality where it is employed, after the nice 
adaptation of the technical possibilities of the material 
and the employment of all those refinements native to it, 




FIG. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY, KINGSTON-ON-THAMES. 
Alfred Cox. Architect. 



perhaps the greatest attribute of this modern work in 
England is the extreme art to which the architectural 
designers of that country have attained in the pleasing, 
unartificial employment of motif and material, and their 
composition into masses of happily contrasting texture, 
color and form. Through some subtile and intuitive pro- 
cess they have succeeded in stepping outside the bounds 
of stiff architectural restraint that so often hold the de- 
signer in bondage. There is an informality of effect, the 
result of a higher art, that makes each structure an inti- 
mate and personal expression of the problem presented 
by that individual dwelling. This problem is approached 
directly, solved simply, and treated with refinement 
through all its working out. The result is that these 
dwellings present an aspect of unconscious "homeli- 
ness," in the true meaning of the word, that is rarely 
experienced in the dwellings of any other country. 




FIG. 



OLD STONE HOUSE BACK OK CATHEDRAL, LINCOLN. 



It is true that architectural style must be evolved from 
historical precedents that are both native and natural to 
it, and that it is almost impossible to find an English 
dwelling or manor house of any age at all that does not 
contain much of this"homely "feeling. But the inevita- 
bility of this result should not detract from the credit to 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



191 




FIG. 4. GARDEN FRONT, "THE CLOSE," BROMPTON. 
Walter H. Brierly, Architect. 

be given to those individuals who have to-day succeeded 
in reproducing this effect so consistently and continuously 
as is done by the best younger English architects. It 
may be that it is this feeling that creates the atmosphere 
that makes all England so attractive to the traveler. 

Undoubtedly a great deal of the effect of English do- 
mestic architecture must be attributed to the customary 
surroundings of the ordinary English dwellings, — sur- 
roundings that are unusual and rarely found in America; 
for no English residence, however humble, is considered 
complete until its proper accessories of shrubbery and 
garden have been perfected and developed. But even 
where such accessories are impossible, as in a ^house 
abutting directly on the street, the designer so con- 
sistently reproduces the atmosphere of many composite 
old dwellings, or so unconsciously interprets the condi- 
tions imposed by his materials, that the building itself 
possesses a sense of absolute fitness to its location. 

An attempt to define the exact constitution of this 
type of dwelling may be suggestive and help in clarify- 
ing the problem for the individual student. . Using the 
terms "Classic" and "Gothic" in the somewhat arbi- 
trary though broad application already alluded to, the 
one being intended to refer to the balanced plan and 
composition of the buildings of the English Renaissance, 




and the other to the more subtile, irregular, unbalanced 
treatment of dwellings, in both plan and elevation, that 
was a survival of the period of Gothic supremacy in 
architecture, it may be possible to arrive at a point of 
view that will be understandable both to the writer and 
to the reader. " Classic " architecture is easily definable 
and reduced to a comprehensible set of rules, while 
" Gothic " architecture admits of no such exact definition, 
being rather the individual crystallizations of a con- 
stantly varying form and spirit than the reproduction and 
composition of a well understood series of architectural 
motives. Taking these meanings, therefore, it might 
be possible to define the trend of modern British archi- 
tectural practice by saying briefly that it consists of the 
use of Classic detail in combination with Gothic forms, 
feeling and composition. A supplementary definition 
might be made that would apparently state just the re- 
verse of this, but in the end the meaning is nearly the 
same; and in the nice merging of these two styles lies, as 
it seems to the writer, the success or failure of modern 
English architecture. Often the combined features are 
both Classic and Gothic, and sometimes, as has been 




FIG. 



SOUTH FRONT, FULBROOK HOUSE, SURREY. 

E. L. Lutyens, Architect. 



FIG. 5. SOUTH TERRACE, "THE ORCHARDS, SURREY. 
E. L. Lutyens, Architect. 



intimated, an individual instance may be found where it 
would be more appropriate to say that Gothic detail or 
features have been used after a Classic fashion, but the 
first statement would seem to more invariably apply' 
and this latter one may be confined rather to individual 
and exceptional instances. 

But after all, the dominating, underlying feeling that 
makes itself apparent through all this work, the feeling 
that alone succeeds in blending together the two archi- 
tectural styles hitherto considered as most antagonistic, 
is the modernity of treatment that is a /ways present in 
greater or less degree. It is this feelihg — and although 
its effect is noticeable and easily recognized, it is itself 
so intangible that it is impossible to definitely seize upon 
and analyze its characteristics — that it is necessary for 
the American designer to assimilate and to intuitively 
comprehend before he can even begin to apply its princi- 
ples in practice to the different series of localized prob- 
lems that constantly confront him. For the spirit and 
essence of modernity, where it can be discerned and 
reapplied to our own problems, is ours by right as a con- 



1 9; 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIG. 7. HOUSE, CIN'CINNATI, OHIO. 
Edwin I. Lewis, Jr . Architect. 

temporary; and this characteristic may be used in pre- 
cisely the way the English themselves are using it, as a 
leaven to allow of the incorporation and adaptation of 
Elizabethan or other historical motives into our modern 
architectural problems. 

The type of architecture which has reached a distinc- 
tive and typically modern development in such dwellings 
as have been grouped together in villages like Port Sun- 
light, Leigh and Bournville, while apparently blossom- 
ing suddenly, was yet of slow and gradual development. 
As evidence of this we find many of the individual fea- 




tures, distinctive and typical of most of the up-to-date 
modern work, in dwellings now regarded — by compari- 
son — as old-fashioned. The group of houses that fol- 
low, for instance, all designed by Mr. Norman Shaw, 
have a certain historic and sequential interest in repre- 
senting the process of- evolution through which English 
design passed in attaining its present definite type of 
residence architecture. All include some portions that 
are evident survivals of the routine engendered by the 
previous uninteresting architectural decade. In some 
ways they still appear uncouth in composition and not 
wholly satisfying in proportion; some details are unne- 
cessarily ugly or meaningless; some moldings un- 
studied, commonplace and unornamental ; while several 
betray a certain effect of awkwardness from an evident 
lack of ease in combining what must have then seemed 
somewhat incongruous elements. Yet it is now possible 




FIG. 9. A HOUSE IN LONDON. 

Norman Shaw, Architect. 



ENTRANCE MOTIVE, HOUSE, WARWICK, 
P. Manton Wakefield. Architect. 

to realize how far they were in advance of their time, and 
how clearly they shadow forth the essential traits — even 
some of the mannerisms — of the architecture that "was to 
succeed them. 

The first (Fig. 9) represents a problem that has not 
yet proved wholly amenable to the formula- championed 
by the modern" English practitioner. Indeed this par- 
ticular example is as good, if not better, than many 
city dwellings that are being erected in London to-day. 
Of the two bays one seems a little too archaic in orna- 
ment and fussy in molding; and the other (all the more 
so" by contrast) somewhat awkward and uncouth, which is 
further emphasized by the lack of unity between its finish 
at the top and its relation to the gable, wall and roof be- 
hind it, to which it is somewhat ungraciously attached. 

The composition is yet sufficiently interesting to hold 
the attention, and by simplifying the molded members 
and making their scale more appropriate to the brick win- 
dow caps, giving the brick bay less projection and a dif- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



193 




these dormers is ungraceful. (Later we will see how, by 
placing the corner window on the angle and leaving the 
gable dormer treatment just as it is here, the English 
have obtained a more natural and pleasant design. ) The 
first story bay is quite as successful as those on the other 
house, but the doorway hood still possesses the faults 
already mentioned in the house hoods of Bedford Park. 
The arches over the window openings on the side are too 
high and heavy, while the whole composition is just a 



FIG. IO. DOUBLE HOUSES, BEDFORD PARK. 

Norman Shaw, Architect. 

ferent crowning finish, this composition would compare 
favorably with the English town house of most modern 
design. 

The suburban dwelling was then, as now, more cer- 
tainly and successfully soluble. The two cottages in Bed- 
ford Park (Fig. 10) may reveal a certain still apparent awk- 
wardness, but those in Richmond Terrace (Fig. n) are 
excellently treated with bays, dormers and chimney tops 
quite thoroughly typical. The one in 
the immediate foreground, running 
off the picture, shows the use of two 
materials, brick and tiles (or slate), for 
different sections of wall surfaces, 
to which attention has already been 
called. The bays here are excellently 
treated. The second story win- 
dows are a little crude and clumsy, 
the dormer much better in scale 
than the preceding examples, and 
the fronts and chimney tops quite 
thoroughly typical. The cottage 
beyond shows the use of a motive 
triply repeated (this later becoming 
a favorite trick of the modern school, as may afterwards 
be noted). The window employed on the side return of 





FIG. II. 



TWO COTTAGES, RICHMOND 
TERRACE. 

Norman Shaw, Architect. 




FIG. 12. HOUSE, BEDFORD PARK. 

Norman Shaw, Architect. 



FIG. 13. THE INN, BEDFORD PARK. 
Norman Shaw, Architect. 

little bit fixed and inflexible. The 
other illustrates the triple repetition 
of a motive — a favorite trick of the 
modern school — repeated in the lar- 
ger Bedford Park house (Fig. 12), 
where it is accented by the three 
bays immediately below the gables, 
and combines dormers and bays 
quite as successfully as on the nearer 
house. The clumsy windows, the 
crude dormers of the one cottage, 
and the awkward doorway hood of 
the other are obvious defects, while 
both compositions are a trifle too 
fixed and inflexible. 

The Inn at Bedford Park (Fig. 13) is perhaps the most 
interesting composition of the group. Its bulging front 
windows are precisely like those in a few old surviving 
fronts around London and throughout England. The 
gable is repeated with monotonous regularity, but the 
wall surfaces have been nicely broken by the varied uses 
of plaster, brick and tile, and the door hood is an improve- 
ment over both the examples criticised. 

Although this group of dwellings will lose by com- 
parison with more recent English work, still, judged on 
their own merits, it must be confessed that, though not 
wholly successful, they still possess considerable charm 
and ease of treatment ; while occupying the position they 
do midway between the old school and the new, with the 
new influences still awkward and uncertain of expression, 
they well deserve a place in any record of the progress 
and development of the new Renaissance in English 
domestic architecture. 



i 9 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



SALARIED GOVERNMENT ARCHITECTS. 

THE discussion in the International Congress on the 
execution of important government and municipal 
architectural work by salaried officials appears to have 
touched a sore spot, judging by the earnest protests 
which were voiced against this species of architectural 
patronage. It was summed up that there were two good 
reasons against the giving of important municipal work 
to salaried officials, namely, it was neither for the good 
of the administration nor for the good of the public. 
We are in such a state of transition in this country that 
it is too early yet to see how our government buildings 
can best be designed and built, having in view all the 
difficulties and application of politics, which cannot be 
ignored. Apparently none of the speakers at the Con- 
gress were in favor of having work done by salaried 
architects. Every objection was raised, and the most 
convincing arguments were put forth to show that it was 
hopeless to expect any good out of a 
government employee, and yet we fancy 
that there is another side to the ques- 
tion which would come home very 
closely to many an architect who has 
been worked to the very verge of dis- 
traction by a large practice, and who 
has seen his opportunities only half 
elaborated, simply from lack of time 



man were sure 
of a fixed sal- 
a r y , even 
though it 
might be a 
small one, he 
would be freer 
to devote him- 
self to the ar- 
tistic solution 
of the problem 
before him. 
Also it is 
reasonable to 
a s s u m e that 
the architect 
who has once 
solved prop- 
erly a munici- 
pal or govern- 
ment problem 
is better quali- 
fied to do it 






■^MO^BUa 


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CORBEL, EXECUTED BY SOI Til AM BOY 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 



GUNTHER BUILDING, BALTIMORE, MI). 

Simonson & Fietsch, Architects. 
Brick furnished by Ironclay Brick Company. 



and money. 
There is a very 
strong feeling 
that architects 
should always 
be on salary 
when e m - 
ployed upon a 
large building; 
that the per- 
centage sys- 
tem of pay- 
ment is funda- 
mentally 
wrong, in that 
the harder a 
man works to 
secure an eco- 
nomical re- 
sult, the less 
money he gets; 
and that if a 



TENNESSEE TRUST BUILDING. 

MEMPHIS, TENN. 

Shaw & I'feil, Architects. 

Brick furnished by Hydraulic-Pressed Brick Co. 

again than any beginner, however tal- 
ented. 

The real objection to government 
salaried architects which we experience 
in this country was not touched upon 
at all by the Congress, namely, the 
utter hopelessness of keeping the offices 
out of politics. That is the reason why 
we have had such poor success with 
government designed buildings up to 
The fact that our present government 
architect at Washington is so conspicuously successful in 
his art simply emphasizes the difficulties which preceding 
administrations experienced. 



a few years ago. 



OPPORTUNITY. 



THE September Century magazine had a number of 
drawings by Joseph Pennell of the French Cathe- 
drals. It also had sketch plans and illustrations of two 
lodges, to be built at a cost of about §1,000. It further- 
more printed a very brief but comprehensive article by 
Benjamin Ide Wheeler on the Rebuilding of San Fran- 
cisco. This made three distinctly architectural features 
in a single number of a popular magazine, all of which 
goes to show that architecture is rapidly becoming one 
of the foremost attractions for the people, and that we 
are as a nation, becoming great builders. 

Architecture, as a profession, presents such fascinat- 
ing opportunities that it is no wonder that our brightest 
young men are flocking into it in such numbers. Each 
year it seems as if our architectural schools were turning 



THE BRICKBU I LDER 



195 



out more incipient architects than could pos- 
sibly find place, but the demand for good men 
is constantly a little larger than the supply, 
and opportunities which were unheard of a few 
years ago are now multiplying in all our large 
cities. It was not long since that the engineer 
would have scouted the idea of his requiring 
any architectural assistance in designing a 
bridge. But in New York they not only de- 
mand the highest architectural talent in con- 
nection with bridge building, but they decline 
to allow a public bridge to be built unless it 
comes up to a pretty high standard of excel- 
lence. In Boston the railway corporation 
which controls the transportation system and 
monopolizes so much of the streets, has re- 
cently called to its aid a commission of five 
prominent architects, who are to devise with its 
experts as to the proper architectural features 
for its elevated structures. And the story can 
be repeated in nearly all of our large cities. 
This country has the money, and if our architec- 
ture is not all that it might be, perhaps the archi- 
tects themselves are partly to blame. Surely 
the opportunities are enough for any one. 




REINFORCED STEEL 
CONCRETE. 

THE reinforced concrete 
mania is not confined 
to this country, to judge by 
the proceedings of the Lon- 
don International Congress 
of Architects. The reports 
of the papers read upon this 
subject, and the discussions 
which followed, sound very 
familiar. If they are as old 
to the English practitioners 
as they are to us, this must 
have been a dreary session 
of the Congress. We have 
been interested personally, 
however, in noting in the dis- 
cussions about concrete, its use and abuse, the constantly 
recurring comparisons with brick and terracotta, and the 




ELGIN NATIONAL WATCH WORKS, ELGIN, ILL. 

Patton & Miller and Frank Abbot, Architects. 

Roofed with French A. Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company 



PUBLIC LIBRARY, UNION HILL, N. J. 

Albert Randolph Ross, Architect. 

Terra Cotta furnished by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 

general opinion was by no means always to the disadvan- 
tage of the latter [material. 
One of the speakers cleverly 
put it that nothing succeeds 
like failure. Surely the con- 
crete constructors have had 
abundant opportunity to 
learn by their failures. That 
they are learning good les- 
sons, that steel concrete is a 
recognized factor in good 
construction to-day, we do 
not question for a minute. It 
has its admirable uses, but 
the time is not yet when 
steel concrete can be car- 
ried to its ultimate conclu- 
sions, as claimed by those 
who favor it so strongly, 
without incurring a risk 
which was by no means 
overlooked in the discussion of the Congress.^ 

In this connection it is of interest to notice how largely 
practice in this country was cited, and what 
frequent reference was made to the experience 
of the United States. About twenty-five 
years ago a bright young Englishman, Mr. 
Gale, upon winning the Godwin Bursary, 
chose to come to this country and study 
American constructive methods. He made a 
very interesting report thereon, which can be 
found tucked away in the proceedings of the 
British Institute. We believe that he was the 
first foreigner to recognize that we had any 
construction worth studying, and since then 
the number of architectural visitors to our 
shores has been yearly increasing, so that we 
can fairly claim now that we have something 
worth investigation, and, even though rein- 




FAIENCE MANTEL. 

Hartford Faience Company, Makers 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL BY A. A. RITC1IER, ARCHITECT. 

Conklin^-Armstrong Terra Cotta Compauy, Makers. 

forced concrete came to us from France, we fancy there 
are a few ideas in its application which would be of value 
even to French construction. 

That steel concrete has come to stay, and that it will 
.be developed properly, is unquestioned. But Mr. Post 
voiced the sentiment of many American architects in his 
statement that ferro-concrete was used here with consid- 
erable trepidation, from the fact that there were no used 
constants which could be employed in computing 
strengths, and that, in "fact, the opinion of the material 
was very much like that of the distinguished Mr. Weller 
with regard to veal pies — " They were wery good things 
when you knows the lady as made them." 




DETAIL BY W1DMANN, WALSH & BOISSELIER, ARCHITECTS. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. Makers. 

.SUB CELLARS. 

STEEL skeleton construction came to us out of the 
West, and now another feature has been added to 
architectural possibilities. In most of our cities there is 
a legal limit to the height to which a building can be 
carried. In none of them is there any limit to the depth 
to which it may descend. The buildings which were 
erected in Chicago up to a few years since had very shal- 
low cellars, or basements, as there existed a mistaken 
hypothesis that the soil under Chicago was not suitable 
for heavy buildings, and would not support the loads. 
It is a singular manifestation of the way in which even 
professional men will follow a blind lead, that for so 
many years Chicago architects continued to float their 
buildings on a layer of mud, when only a few feet be- 
neath was a particularly good hard blue clay substratum 
resting directly upon rock. 

The later buildings erected in Chicago have been very 



largely equipped with from two to four sub-cellars, foun- 
dations being carried down from forty to one hundred 
feet below the street, giving ample opportunities for all the 
underground work which could be desired. There is no 
particular limit to the depth to which a building can be 
carried. While we are not yet able to excavate to a great 
depth as economically as we can the shallow cellars, such 
difficulty will undoubtedly be overcome, and we may easily 
predict that in buildings of the not very distant future 
there may be in some instances as many stories beneath 
ground as there are above it. In the meantime the ten- 
dency to build two or more cellars, one under the other, 
is quite manifest, and in some of the larger cities many of 
the older buildings, originally provided with but one base- 
ment, are having sub-cellars built under them without 
disturbing the 
superstructure, 
thus adding from 
one to two more 
stories available 
for mercantile 
purposes. 




DETAIL BY THE WINKLE TEHHA 
COTTA CO. 



BUILDING 

OPERATIONS 
FOR AUGUST. 

FROM official 
building re- 
ports received by 
/'//c American Con- 
tractor, New York, 
from various 
cities, less than 
usual in number, 
by reason of Labor 
Day intervening, 

it appears that prosperity continues in the building 
trades. While some cities show a falling off, the loss is 
overbalanced fully two to one by gains. When it is re- 
membered that August, 1905, with which month the pres- 
ent reports are contrasted, was a month of decided activ- 
ity, largely breaking previous records, the present 
showing is exceedingly favorable. The following figures 
show the percentage of gains over August, 1905: Atlanta, 
57; Bridgeport, 176; Cincinnati, 7; Denver, 65; Los 
Angeles, 4; Milwaukee. 16; Memphis, i,S; New Haven, 
18; Newark, 46; Omaha, 11; Philadelphia, 19; Portland, 
Ore., 94; St. Louis, 20; Seattle, 68; South Bend, 256; 




DETAIL BY H. W. KIRCIINER, AHClIirECT. 
American Terra Cotta .V Ceramic Co., Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



197 




FIREPLACE TILE MADE BY GRUEBY FAIENCE COMPANY. 

Syracuse, 93; Toledo, 280; Tacoma, 82; Washington, 
14. Twelve of the cities reporting show a loss. The 
figures for all the boroughs of New York are not at hand, 
but the loss in Manhattan is 40 per cent. The percent- 
age of loss in other cities is as follows: Buffalo, 57; 
Chicago, 15; Duluth, 21; Grand Rapids, 3; Harrisburg, 
70; Kansas City, 20; Louisville, 50; 
New Orleans, 67 ; Paterson, 83. In 
New York the situation must be as- 
cribed to the immense number of 
permits taken out last year, the 
enormous number of contracts placed 
during the earlier months of the 
present year and the circumstance 
that the construction of apartment 
houses is almost at a standstill, there 
being really an overconstruction of 
that class of buildings. Taken al- 
together the reports show a healthful 
and satisfactory condition. 



ROMAN LIME. 



THERE has recently appeared in 
the market a mortar-making 
material which promises to fill the 
place in this country which is occu- 
pied in France by the Lime of Tiel. 
This material, known as Roman 
Lime, is manufactured by the Cum- 
mings Cement Company of Akron, 
N. Y. It is hydraulic in character 
with certain fireproofing qualities of 
an asbestic nature and is warranted 
not to stain brick or stonemasonry. 
and capable of carrying a larger 
than either Ouick Lime or Portland 




rel. Although the Lime of 
Tiel still brings a very high 
price in our market, it is 
frequently specified in im- 
portant work of the highest 
class where a stainless mor- 
tar is desired. 

The manufacturers of 
" Roman Lime" or "Amer- 
ican Lime of Tiel " make 
the strong claim that what- 
ever can be done with Lime 
of Tiel of France can also 
be done with their product, 
and that the latter is, in 
every 
respect, 
fully 
equal 
to the 
French 
product, 
being 
as care- 
fully 
manu- 
factured 
and just 




DETAIL BY CHARLES VOLZ, 
ARCHITECT. 

Standard Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



as thoroughly hydrated. 



THE UYERSON WAREHOUSE, CHICAGO, ILL 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 
Fire-proofed throughout by National Fireproofing Co. ^ ^f^^ in g an Francisco . 



IN GENERAL. 

Wyatt & Nolting, architects, Balti- 
more, announce the removal of their 
offices to the Keyser Building, Calvert 
and German streets. 

V. O. Wallingford and C. W. Spen- 
cer, architects, Albuquerque, N. M., 
have discontinued their association. 
Mr. Spencer will continue the office 
at Albuquerque while Mr. Walling- 











HI 

ml 


■Sv Jv' 





DETAIL BY THE NEW JERSEY TERRA 
COTTA COMPANY. 



It is light colored 
proportion of sand 
Cement and is con- 
siderably cheaper. 

Lime of Tiel is 
used in France to 
an enormous extent 
in concrete sea 
walls, reservoirs, 
aqueducts and 
buildings of all de- 
scriptions. On ac- 
count of its stainless 
qualities it was used 
exclusively in the 
construction of the 
Equitable Building 
in New York City 
despite its cost of 
about $4. 50 per bar- 



Young & Son, architects, Templeton Building, Salt 
Lake City, request manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples. 

The National Electrical Contractors' Association, 
W. H. Morton, secretary, Utica, N. Y., has adopted a 
set of standard symbols for wiring plans, which are 
meant especially to be helpful to architects. 




COMMONWEALTH ELECTRIC CO. STATION, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Shepley kutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



1 98 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




WAINSCOT IN CAFE OF HOT HI. DEVON, NEW YORK. 
Finished by The Rookwood Pottery Co., in colored mat glaze Faience 



The terra cotta used in the house of S. G. Bayne, Esq., 
White Plains, N. Y., Frank Freeman, architect, illus- 
trated in The Brickbuilder for September, was manu- 
factured by the Excelsior Terra Cotta Company. 

The American Enameled Brick & Tile Company are 
furnishing about a million of their brick for the new 
Plaza Hotel, New York City. This company is shipping 
nearly one-half a million of bricks per month, which they 
are enabled to do because of the enlargement of their 
plant, made necessary by an increased demand for enam- 
eled brick throughout the country. 

The following named buildings will be roofed with 
Edwin Bennett's roofing tile: Davidson residence, Wash- 
ington, Wood, Donn & Deming, architects, red unglazed 
Mission tiles: Williams residence, Washington, G. O. 
Totten, architect, green glazed Spanish tiles; Bliss resi- 
dence, Washington, A. C. Goner, architect, red unglazed 
Spanish "S" tiles; Shoemaker residence, Philadelphia, 
James C. Fernald, architect, red unglazed Spanish tiles. 



The idea of using glazed tiles or brick, to 
overcome the soot of London, is not new. It 
has been advocated for some years and prac- 
tised, in spots and panels, now and then. But 
Mr. Halsey Ricardo, who received the Society 
of Arts Silver Medal about four years ago, for 
a paper on -'The Architect's Use of Enameled 
Tiles," has put his ideas into practise by facing 
the walls of a whole house — a large unattached 
mansion in the Addison Road — with glazed 
brick colored green and blue, dressed with a 
matt-glazed terra cotta of a light color. The 
mass of the wall appears to be green; the blue 
is used in smaller quantities for spandrels, etc. 
The roof is of glazed Spanish tiles of a bright 
green. 

The city of Springfield, Mass., is alarmed 
at the erection of a tall building in its business 
district and that excellent spokesman '///, Re- 
publican, pleads for a maximum limit of one 
hundred feet as a height for future buildings. 
This is probably a satisfactory limit for the 
needs of Springfield at present and for many 
years to come. But the newspaper quoted goes 
too far in saying that New York and Chicago 
would be better off in a business way had sky- 
scrapers "been limited to one hundred feet. There is 
no doubt but that the skyscraper is in need of regula- 
tion, and none are so ready to welcome this as are the 
architects of the country. The upward tendency of 
buildings is not beautiful, nor sanitary, nor in the end 
wise, but it'is almost a platitude to say that under the 
present conditions it is a necessity. 



T' 




THE MILWAUKEE ELECTRIC RAILROAD & LIGHT CO. S 
PUBLIC SERVICE BUILDING. 

Brick furnished by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 



COMPETITION FOR A MASONIC TEMPLE. 
'HE Masonic Temple Company of Beaumont, Texas, 
invites competitive plans for a two-story Masonic 
Temple, sixty by one hundred and fifteen feet, cost not 
to exceed §25,000.00. Successful architect to give bond 
that building can be erected for estimate given. The 
company reserves the right to reject any and all plans. 
For further particulars, address C. E Walden, Chairman 
Building Committee, Beaumont, Texas. 

FOR SALE — Architect's office with furnishings, located in a 
city in the middle West with a population of 12,000, mostly Germans. 
No other architect in the city. There are also several near-by towns 
without architects. Good opportunity for a German. Address 
" N. B.,' - care " The Brickbuilder." 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAUGHTSMEN WANTED — Good 
paying positions for competent men in a terra cotta factory located 
near New York City. State age, training and references. Address 
"T. C ," care " The Brickbuilder." 

SCHOOL of ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA 

THE FOUR YEAR COURSE. Offers full professional training, with an option in 
Architectural Engineering, leading to the degree of B. S. in Arch. 

THE GRADUATE YEAR. Affords opportunity for advanced work in design and 
other subjects, leading to the degree of M. S in Arch. 

THE TWO YEAR SPECIAL COURSE. I 'or qualified draughtsmen, offers advanced 
technical training, yielding a certificate of proficiency. 

THE UNIVERSITY. Also grants advanced standing to college graduates, offers a 
combination of liberal and technical courses whereby the degrees of A. B. and 
B. S. in Arch, can be taken io six years, and conducts a Summer School in which 
architectural studies may be taken. 

FOR FULL INFORMATION address Ur. J. H. Pknniman, Dean. College Hall, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 







* i r - — •_ 



- " « 



X 1 n r 



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X 

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3g 
3a 






THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 113. 




•SECTION 



FOOM THE 



MONTE -DI-PASCHE 




SECTION 



FROM THE 



SIENA' 



PORTA'PISPINE 



ITALIAN CORNICES, WILL S ALDRICH, DEL 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 114. 




tlXVATlOfl 



•5ECT10M 



WATER TOWER AT CHAPINVILLE. CONN 
Stone, Carpenter & Willson, architects 



THE BRICKBU ILDE R. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 115. 




BLOCK PLAN 




THE PHILADELPHIA 
ORPHAN ASYLUM, 

WALLINGFORD, 

PENN. 

DELANO & ALDRICH, 
ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 116. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 

MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, 

SCRANTON,' pa. 

Little & O'Connor and Edward Langley, associate, Architects. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15. NO. 9. PLATE 117. 



H 
X 

K 

w 
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M 

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H 
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2 2 

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THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE HE 







REAR ELEVATION. 

WILLIAM L. ELKINS MASONIC HOME FOR ORPHAN GIRLS, PHILADELPHIA 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 119. 




Ill I i I 



Hfttb 




FRONT ELEVATION. 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 

PHILADELPHIA ORPHAN ASYLUM, WALLINGFORD. PA 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects. 






THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 120. 




LAUNDRY BUILDING. 




REAR ELEVATION. 




VIEW IN THE COURT. 

PHILADELPHIA ORPHAN ASYLUM, WALLINGFORD, PA. 
Delano & Aldrich, architects. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 121. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 





THE GYMNASIUM 

MRS. DOW'S SCHOOL, BRIARCLIFF MANOR, N. 
H. Van Buren Magonigle, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 122. 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 

MRS. DOW'S SCHOOL, BRIARCLIFF MANOR, N. Y 
H. Van Buren Magonigle, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 123. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 124 . 




-Second. f loop.. Plan. 




THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 125. 




II 5 VAT ION 




Door Or Dor-c t- 



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Bed doom _J Bld£oom 



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Gymnasium O" t h i c d Floob.. 




DoofOf Pdech. 





.ADMINISTRATIO/M BUILpiNC. 



EGENTON ORPHAN ASYLUM. BALTIMORE MD 
Wyatt & Nolting, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 9. PLATE 126. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV 



OCTOBER 1906 



Number 10 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March ii, l! 



Copyright, 1906, by Rogeks & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $5-°° P er y ear 

Single numbers ....................... 5° cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ................... $(>. 00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Ten a Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Briik Enameled 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages on' 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

DELANO & ALDRICH; HARDING & UPMAN; CLINTON GARDNER HARRIS; MAURAN, 
RUSSELL & GARDEN; GEORGE T. PEARSON; PETERS & RICE; BRUCE PRICE & 
de SIBOUR; JAMES PURDON; ARGYLE E. ROBINSON. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

MAUSOLEUM AT NACHTSCHEWAN, PERSIA Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS >99 

SUGGESTIONS FOR TRAVEL IN SPAIN. (Concluded) L. Morris Leisenring 200 

ARRANGEMENT AND CATALOGUING OF PHOTOGRAPHS... William Stanley Parker 204 

THE RELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND AMERICAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 

Frank Chouteau Brown 208 

THE VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION. II John H. Phillip* 212 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 216 



THE BRICKBVTLH™ 



VOL 15 No. 10 



DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTS- OF | 
(ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF- CLAY/ 



OCTOBER 1906 



THE INCREASING USE OF BURNT CLAY. "J 

THE question is frequently asked of us, to what ex- 
tent will concrete supercede burnt clay as a con- 
structive material. We admit a decided bias which quite 
naturally influences our opinion, but it is our conviction 
that concrete has not yet and is not likely to supercede 
burnt clay to any appreciable extent, and in this convic- 
tion we are fortified by many facts gathered from the 
broad field of current building operations. Concrete in 
its best form is a desirable building material for many 
purposes, but surely it is not adapted for all constructive 
work. 

It must be borne in mind that building operations in 
this country are going on at a very rapid rate, that the 
volume of new work is constantly increasing and that 
there is a growing demand for the best of all building 
materials. Wood, because of its increasing cost, is more 
than likely to be eliminated as a possible medium. To a 
large extent brick and concrete must eventually take its 
place, and there is every reason to believe that in this 
increasing demand for a substitute for wood burnt 
clay will stand more than an equal show. 

As was pointed out by many of the delegates to the 
Congress of Architects recently held at London, concrete 
is still an unknown quantity. It may be anything from 
one part cement to two parts gravel or cinders or one 
part cement to twenty parts of other materials. There 
are no recognized standards in concrete to-day, and we 
have an unprecedented record of failures in its use. 
The mere relative cost of the two materials will not, we 
believe, be a serious factor one way or the other, for 
there is really little difference between the cost of good 
concrete and of good brickwork, the odds being on one 
side under certain conditions, and on 4he other under 
different ones, although it is pretty safe to say that first- 
class concrete would be fully as expensive as brickwork. 
It is, therefore, merely a question of choice of 
materials. 

Notwithstanding the unprecedented and well-directed 
efforts made by the concrete interests to secure a demand 
for their materials, and the very liberal employment of 
concrete by architects and builders throughout the coun- 
try, it is nevertheless a fact that this year has been the 
largest in the matter of production and sales ever known 
in the burnt clay industries. Nearly all of the pressed 
brick manufacturers of the country have been running 
their factories night and day to keep up with their orders. 
The output of architectural terra cotta has nearly doubled. 



Burnt clay fireproofing plants are doing more business 
than ever before in the history of this industry. Single 
factories are now producing as many enameled bricks as 
were put forth by all of the factories combined a few 
years ago. The use of roofing tiles has grown far be- 
yond the experimental stage and is a thriving, growing 
business, while one need only follow the illustrations in 
the architectural magazines to appreciate how rapidly 
faience for both interior and exterior work has grown in 
favor among the best architects in the country. 

The fact is, the country is so large and the demand for 
good material is actually so far beyond the supply in 
many cases that there is plenty of room for all good build- 
ing materials. Brick and terra cotta will more than hold 
their own, one of the many reasons being that the 
architect is able to obtain good and lasting color 
schemes and enlivening texture in his wall surfaces by 
the use of these materials to an extent that would be 
simply impossible with any other material. 



BERLIN WORLD'S FAIR. 

The city of Berlin proposes to have a World's Fair in 
1912. There is not the slightest doubt that if the Em- 
peror William has set his mind on this scheme it will be 
done and done well, and there is also no question but 
that the world will find a lot to study in a fair of this 
description held at Berlin. Probably no country in the 
world has made such remarkable tremendous advance 
in the arts and industries as has been so notable a 
feature of the development of the German empire. 
In the cement industry, from being at the very bot- 
tom of the line she has stepped to first place. Her 
furniture and decorations have come to occupy a very 
high place, as was abundantly shown at our own St. 
Louis Exposition, where the Germans made the best 
exhibit of any of the foreign countries. Germany 
has not held a world's fair of any moment since 1873 
at Vienna, if, indeed, that could properly be called 
a German fair, and with the enormous development in 
the sciences, the manufactures and the art industries, 
the world will be justified in expecting some pretty 
fine things from the Berlin Exposition. We can cer- 
tainly believe that the buildings will go up like clock 
work, will be delivered promptly on time and that 
when the Emperor opens the Exposition it will be really 
ready, something which could have been said about no 
other exposition the world has so far seen. 



lOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Suggestions for Travel in Spain. 

(concluded) 

BY I.. MORRIS LEISENRING. 

Expenses and Living Arrangements. — The expense 
of traveling in Spain is about the same as in Southern 
France and Italy. If one travels third class he can live 
at comfortable hotels at the prices following and average 
for actual going expenses ten pesetas a day (about $1.50). 
This does not include, however, the numerous little 
things continually in evidence, such as fees, entrance to 
galleries, etc., and one wishes always to buy photos and 
post cards and often more expensive remembrances. One 
hundred dollars a month would allow one considerable 
purchasing power. As the peseta, with a nominal value 




FACADE OK THE UNIVERSITY, SALAMANCA, SHOWING THE 
CORRECTION OF THE PERSPECTIVE BY THE ENLARG- 
ING OF DETAIL TOWARD THE TOP. 

of twenty cents, is worth but fifteen cents, the traveler re- 
ceives a liberal premium on foreign money. Although 
there is much counterfeit money in circulation, and the 
traveler must look sharply to his change, he is not nearly 
so much subject to petty knavery as in Italy. Generally 
speaking, it is more expensive in the south than in the 
north. Hotel charges are made by the day and include 
lodging and three meals. In Andalusia one lives well on 
nine or ten pesetas; in Madrid, as the English would say, 
" they will do you for seven "; while in Old Castile and 
Catalonia one is well housed and superabundantly fed for 
six. An arrangement can always be made if one leaves 
before his full day is up, and, if one meal remains to his 
credit, he may have instead a plentiful lunch including a 
bottle of wine to be eaten en voyage. A lunch should 
never be omitted when starting on a long journey. 




ON THE BEACH AT TANGIER. LOADING BEEVES FOR SPAIN. 

Breakfast is usually a sad affair of a roll and a cup of 
thick chocolate full of cinnamon, or coffee mingled with 
goat's milk which coagulates disgustingly. Butter is an 
impossibility, as it is imported from Holland. If the 
label on the can is dated less than two years back it is 
considered extremely fresh. The other meals are bounti- 
ful and are served in courses, the long late dinner being 
tedious to one not speaking conversational Spanish. A 
great many meats are served, excellent vegetables and 
salads and always fish. Eggs may be had in any form 
for the asking. Two kinds of wine are usually supplied. 
Though water is not much used with meals, it is gener- 
ally excellent and is brought from the mountains, often 
at great distances. The Spaniards drink great quantities 
of it. and water carriers vend their wares both summer 
and winter. ' One remembers them particularly from 
Granada, where their drawling cry of " Agua-agua freddo 
coma los niaves" " Water cold as the snows," has so often 
lifted his eyes from sunburned streets to the distant 
peaks of the snow-clad Sierra Nevadas. After dinner 
coffee is taken at the cafes, where every one goes to play 
dominoes or pedro. Hotel proprietors are usually en- 
tirely reliable and no extras are charged. It is well, how- 
ever, to have the bargain distinctly understood before- 
hand with him or one of his family, and to ask for a rate 
a peseta less than you expect to receive. Rooms are left 
bare of linen, so that the new arrival can see that every- 
thing is fresh. If traveling in the summer one will do 
well to carry a mosquito netting for use at those inns 
which do not provide a canopy. Even where there are no 
mosquitoes the early sunrise wakes into action hordes of 
pestilential flies. Also in warm weather a can of "black 
(lag " or other insect powder will be found useful, for 




IN THE GARDENS OF THE ALCAZAR, SEVILLE. 






THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



20I 



where goats and donkeys have the entree of the family- 
circle the Pulex irritans is not to be denied. 

Business is conducted as in other Latin countries, on 
the bargaining- system, which makes a game of the sim- 
plest exchange. This applies to the hiring of guides, 
horses or any special conveyance. One-half the price de- 
manded should be offered and two-thirds paid as a gen- 
eral rule. All regular routes have their prices fixed, and 
foreigners are asked the same as natives. 

A passport is said to be necessary, but is never called 
for. It is, however, best to have one in case of accident. 
It is more valuable if vise at a Spanish, and if one intends 
to visit Portugal, at a Portuguese consulate. If one 
wishes to leave Portugal by sea, he must have one. 

Sketching, etc. — An official looking document is 
always valuable in securing permission to measure or 
sketch. A letter from one's university, with seal affixed 
and a wisp of ribbon, if possible, will do wonders. Per- 
mission to work in a church may be had from the sac- 
ristan by the aid of a small fee, but if higher sanction is 
necessary the cardinal, archbishop or other church func- 
tionary in charge is usually approachable for a permit to 
work in any church in his town. For secular buildings 




CA1HU.DKAL, BUKGUS. EXAMPLE OF THE S1AR POINT 
VAULTING PIERCED AT THE CENTER. 



ED 



the permission of the owner or of the caretaker is usually 
sufficient. If one invites the Spanish official love of red 
tape he will spend his days in waiting for permission to 
do what he probably could have done before being inter- 
rupted. An amusing incident occurred in one of the 
cathedrals where we had secured permission to take some 
measurements. The longest ladder on the premises 
would not reach, so we engaged a carpenter to bring a 
longer one. A great deal of pain was caused at the church 
door to the sacristan, carpenter and all concerned by the 
fact that this ladder had not been officially blest and 
therefore could not enter. However, two superimposed 
tables and the best blest ladder available, anchored by 
several terror-stricken supernumeraries, finally did the 
work. 

One will need a camera very much, as he does not 
find post cards and photographs here so plentiful as in 
France and Italy. He had best carry all the films or 
plates he will possibly need, as Barcelona and Madrid 
are the only places where he can replenish his stock, and 
they are not found in plenty even there. He should 
also carry all the sketching materials he will need. 

Although the cathedrals are rightly said to be the 




CUIDAD DE FRIAS, NEAR BURGOS. EXAMPLE OF AN 
ANCIENT HILL TOWN. 

museums of Spain, the city and provincial museums, 
such as those at Cordova, Valladolid, Burgos and so on, 
should by no means be neglected. Here will be found 
refreshing bits of local color, the art products of the 
neighborhood. They are usually open only in the fore- 
noon and after 4 p. m. ; sometimes only on certain days; 
but the stranger can usually have entrance by application 
to the care-taker, to whom is due a small fee. 

To say anything about what to see and where to see 
it is almost impossible in an article of this length. 

There is comparatively little left of Roman work, and 
the general architectural student will scarcely find it 
worth while to go out of his way to visit the ruins of 
Merida and Sagunto or the wonderful bridge of Alcantara. 
At Italica (near Seville), Cordova, Segovia and Tarra- 
gona he will find much of it thrown in his way. 

Rough remains of Visigothic churches and fortifica- 
tions show at Cordova, Toledo and Merida. In Asturia 
the principal type was developed as at Oviedo and Cova- 
donga. This type is well shown in the churches of San 
Pablo and San Pedro at Barcelona. 

The Romanesque isj principally in the northwest. 
Santiago de Compostela, Leon, Zamora, Toro, Salamanca, 
Avila and Segovia show varying types. The distinguish- 
ing feature in the cathedrals is the large lantern tower 
at the crossing, which same feature is so beautifully 
worked out later in the Gothic. Avila and Segovia show 
smaller churches with rich portals and rose windows, 




THE GUADALQUIVIR AND lORRE DEL OC, SEVILLE. 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




IRON BOSSES ON THE MISSION 

DOORS TO THE HOSPITAL OF 

VERA CRUZ, TOLEDO. 



and at Segovia external 
colonnades and graceful 
square towers pierced 
with arched windows. At 
Gerona, Tarragona and 
Silos are beautiful cloisters. 
For the G otitic again we 
find the north most fruit- 
ful. Earlier examples are 
at Tarragona, Salamanca, 
Lerida, Burgos and Tudela, 
while later developments 
with more foreign elements 
are seen at Leon, Santiago 
de Compostela and the 
cathedrals at Burgos, 
Toledo and Seville. The 
northeast shows an impres- 
sive type with extremely 
wide naves in the cathedrals 
at Barcelona, Gerona and 
Palma Majorca. At Sala- 
manca and Avila the late Gothic churches with square 
towers at the crossing are graceful both in exterior and 
interior effects. At Burgos the pierced work at the 
crown of the star-shaped vaulting of the cimborio and 
chapels is notable. 

The Moorish style is of course seen at its best in the 
south. At Cordova the wonderful mosque, started in 
785 A. D. and enlarged in the same style several times, 
is the first great monument of the Saracens. It is 
marred by the intrusion of a Christian church in its very 
heart and by the decay of its carved cedar ceiling which 
has been replaced by plaster vaulting whitewashed. But 
we can forget these things in what is left. Beautiful 
glass and tile mosaics show the influence of Byzantium 
here. The old fortress palace of Medina Az Zahra, 
which surpassed the Alhambra, stood three miles to 
the north of Cordova and is now a total ruin, having 

borne the short life of 
seventy-four years. At 
Seville, in the charm- 
ing Giralda and the 
Orange Court with its 
Puerta del Perdon, we 
see the only remains of 
the former mosque, 
which was replaced by 
the cathedral. Near by 
is the Alcazar, which is 
the best example of the 
interior of a Moorish 
palace that we have to- 
day. The colors are 
still vivid and the 
whole is in excellent 
repair. It was built for 
Spanish kings by 
Moorish work men. In 
the ruins of the Al- 
hambra now being 
skillfully restored, we 





CLOISTERS SAN ESTEBAN, 

SALAMANCA. 



MOATED CASTLE NEAR MEDINA 
DEl/CAMPO, 



find the culminating 
point of Moorish endeav- 
or. A Moorish bridge 
and remains of several 
patios will be seen at 
Ronda. Among the 
ruined castles which dot 
the hills may be men- 
tioned that of Gaucin, 
near Gibraltar. The 
Church of El Cristo de 
la Luz and the Puerta 
del Sol at Toledo show 
early types. As exam- 
ples of minor residences, 
the Casa de Mesa and the 
Talliar del Moro at Tole- 
do should be noticed. 

The Mudejar style or 
late Gothic forms with 
Moorish decoration is 

very rich and plastic. It may best be seen at Se- 
ville, Toledo, Saragossa, etc. This is a style indige- 
nous to Spain, showing delightful brickwork and flow- 
ing wall surfacing. Notice the brick towers at Saragossa 
and Seville, the wall treatment of the Casa de Pilatos, 
iron doors to the Orange Court at Seville, the church of 
the Transito and palace of the Ayalas at Toledo. 

The rich Plateresque and Grotesque styles, Spain's ver- 
sion of the Ouatrocento, are seen in all parts of the coun- 
try. Their stronghold is at Salamanca; though more 
thoroughly Renaissance cathedrals are found at Granada, 
Malaga and Jaen, and the richest single exampleis thetown 
hall at Seville. Examples of this rich style are par- 
ticularly noticeable at Granada, Seville, Burgos, Avila, 
Leon and Santiago. A peculiar type of Renaissance 
of lacelike detail due to Moorish influence is to be seen 
at Valladolid in the Collegio de San Gregorio. 

Of the Cinquecento the preeminent example is the 
Escorial, which, however dry in detail, is one of the 
most imposing groups of buildings to be seen anywhere. 
Moreover it is extreme- 
ly Spanish in plan and 
mass. It is enough of 
a monument to glut 
one's appetite for this 
style at one gulp. The 
unfinished cathedral at 
Valladolid may be 
mentioned as another 
of the works of 
Herrara. 

The Rococo, or Chur- 
rtguera, and the Ba- 
roque are also found in 
all "parts of theVxmntry 
and are much more bold 
and reckless than their 
Italian cousins. The 
imposing (from posi- 
tion) Palace of the A corner of the market, 
Bourbons at Madrid salamanca. 




I 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



203 




gives an example of 
the latter. 

In Portugal a style 
with many of the char- 
acteristics of the Ro- 
coco was developed 
much earlier, and per- 
haps through commerce 
with the East it bears 
striking resemblance to 
the rich ornament and 
powerful masses of the 
architecture of India. 
This is the Arte Mono- 
Una of 1480 et seq. The 
best examples, more or 
less combined with late 
Gothic, are seen at 
Belem, near Lisbon, Batalha, Cintra, Alcobaca, Thomar 
and Coimbra. Tiles are still used on the facades of 
buildings, and many splendid effects are made in this 
way. If one has stopped at the Azores he will have 
seen a colonial imitation of the mother country in 
the tiles used there. 

There is not space here to contrast the Moorish 
cities of Andalusia, their narrow winding streets, low, 
white stuccoed houses, wide doorways and bower-like 
patios with the gray stone Gothic of the north, where 
bold eaves overhang the pierced work of attic stories ; 

nor to speak of the 



CHURCH OF THE MAGDALEN, 
SARAGOSSA. 




brickwork of this city 
and the stonework of 
that or of the wood 
carving here and the 
ironwork there. The 
reader will find all this 
out for himself. These 
few words may help 
him to start his tour 
better prepared than 
was the author. 

A word may be said 
as to the bearing of 
Spaniards towards 
Americans. An old 
gentleman gravely told 
my traveling com- 
panion that we were 
taking our lives in our 
hands in touring Spain 
so soon after the recent 
war. We were in nowise fearful of this, but we were not 
prepared for the kindness which seemed to prompt every 
one to go out of his way to make us understand that 
"bygones were bygones." 

Another thought which here intrudes is of the 
development of Spain's lost possessions which will 
now be so much under our influence. Will not 
the architects who work in them look to Spain for 
inspiration as her colonies have always done ? For 
that matter we have in our own Southwest a coun- 
try with Spanish traditions. Is it not natural that 
architects there should study from models both tradi- 



APSE OF THE OLD CATHEDRAL AND 

FACADE OF AN ADJOINING 

PALACE, SARAGOSSA. 



tionally and climatical- 
ly suitable ? 

When all is said, 
Spain is a country 
which casts a spell over 
the traveler. He looks 
back on days spent 
there as days spent in 
another world. He is 
cold-blooded indeed 
who has lived there and 
not felt the itching of 
his designing hand. 
But whether her in- 
fluence bears fruit in 
his work or not he will 
be a different man 
from having known 
her. 





TOWER OF THE CHURCH OF SAN 
PABLO, SARAGOSSA. 



THE DESIGNING OF PUBLIC MONUMENTS. 

DURING the ten years following 1876 this country 
built a great many public monuments, mostly to 
the soldiers and sailors of the Civil War. The financial 
depressions about 1890 interrupted the growth of these 
monuments but with the prosperity that this country has 
experienced of late years a new and plenteous crop has 
sprung up in many of our large states. A change has 
taken place, however, in the manner in which most of 
them have been designed. In the earlier period the me- 
morials, as far as they were designed at all, were the 
creations of the sculptors, and the pedestals, the accesso- 
ries, the architectural portions were in most cases slighted 
and generally poorly designed. There are few good , 
monuments twenty-five years old to-day which owe their 
design to any architect of repute. Now it is almost the 
exception to find a large public monument, the design of 
wnich is placed unreservedly in the hands of the sculptor, 
and in a number of cases the conditions have been re- 
versed, and it has been the architect who had charge of the 
whole, the sculptor appearing as an accessory. The result 
has been a large and interesting series of monuments, many 
of them designed most 
admirably, and enlist- 
ing the service of the 
best architects in the 
country. We have only 
tomentionsuch works as 
the Lincoln Monument 
at Chicago, the Shaw 
and the Hooker Monu- 
ments in Boston, Mr. 
Magonigle's Monument 
to the Maine and to 
President McKinley, 
the Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors' Monument at Morn- 
ingside Park, to illus- 
trate how architecture 
has really taken the 

lead in the design of doorway of the college, 

these structures. granada. 




204 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Arrangement and Cataloguing of 
Photographs. 

BY WILLIAM STANLEY PARKER. 

THE arrangement of the various data to which an 
architect is constantly referring, such as foreign and 
domestic photographs, reproductions issued in technical 
publications, articles similarly published, catalogues of 
commercial products, and constantly increasing practical 
data on construction is one of the important questions of 
office administration. The great amount of time con- 
tinually wasted in hunting up references in a poorly 
arranged collection could be saved with a profit at the 
expense of an initial outlay of time for some systematic 
arrangement and an occasional outlay to keep it up 
to date. 

Moreover a mass of unused material would be made 
available. Any material that is worth office room is 
worth careful arrangement. Many an architect while 
carefully placing his professional earnings where they 
will return him the best rate of interest leaves in a 
heterogeneous collection of portfolios, rolls and scrap 
books, his collection of foreign photographs, costing 
perhaps hundreds of dollars, and representing an invest- 
ment which is returning him no dividends at all, or only 
at the expense of valuable time on account of inacces- 
sibility. 

It is with the care of photographs that this article is 
especially concerned. Their proper arrangement and 
cataloguing are at once extremely important and ex- 
tremely complicated. If each photograph told but one 
story, illustrated but one single unit of value, the prob- 
lem would be different and easy ; but each print offers 
many, some an infinite number of suggestions, and the 
collection demands some system which will adequately 
cross index it, collecting the scattered suggestions under 
their various heads, giving access to each print along all 
the lines of thought on which it bears. 

We are becoming more and more in the habit, and 
rightly so, of turning to the card catalogue for solution 
of all such problems, but in this case, to my mind, 
the card catalogue system would be so cumbersome as to 
have distinct disadvantages for office purposes. No 
matter how carefully the collection were shelved and 
numbered, the using of a set of cards to find out where 
to look, when it was a matter of detail which might occur 
in a hundred different places, would cost too much time. 
Suppose you wanted to look over the photographs you 
had that might offer a suggestion for a hooded mantel. 
A card catalogue would tell you that there were perhaps 
twenty-five photographs of that nature, numbered 
121, 125, 236, 873, etc. Not being able to remember 
all these numbers at a glance, you would take out the 
card and one by one find the photographs by their 
numbers. Or if the photographs were in books you 
might have two or three volumes to handle for the sake 
of a few pages. 

If you could only connect the photograph and the 
catalogue physically ; know that you were pulling out a 
photograph of a hooded mantel because of some mark 
easily visible on it, not merely because it was number 



173, which the catalogue advertised as representing a 
hooded mantle ; if you could only eliminate one step in 
the process and half the paraphernalia, wouldn't it save 
time ? That was the point of view which suggested the 
system outlined below. 

And let me say here that the scheme is not considered 
applicable to every collection of photographs. For the 
large collections of Public Libraries, Architectural 
Schools, etc., the scientifically developed card catalogue 
system is undoubtedly the best if not the only proper 
solution of the problem where the collection is not actu- 
ally handled by the public or where the size demands a 
greater subdivision of the catalogue system. The scheme 
I suggest is intended for private collections of perhaps 
five or ten thousand, where it would be easier to glance 
at one hundred photographs of a somewhat more inclusive 
group but distinguished from the rest instantly, than it 
would be to pick out directly, through reference to a 
necessarily voluminous card catalogue, the ten or fifteen 
of that hundred that were actually important. 

In this connection, also, it may well be argued that the 
extra photographs handled in this manner will help to 
refresh one's memory of the collection in general. This 
point has even been cited to me as an argument against 
a too clear arrangement which might prevent one's seeing 
any photograph except the ones of immediate importance. 
While this is to an extent true, there are occasions where 
references are wanted in the shortest possible time, and 
these occasions are by that proof important and should 
not be neglected for the sake of a general knowledge of 
the collection. 

I had early decided, on general grounds, to keep my 
collection of photographs standing on edge on shelves 
behind glazed doors, the photographs being mounted on 
cards of uniform size. The surface formed by the edges 
of the cards struck me as an available place to index the 
collection. All that was necessary was to represent 
"type " and " style " in some manner. The few general 
divisions of " style " could be easily represented by color, 
a blue or a yellow strip pasted over the edge of each card 
to represent Gothic or some other style. Of course the 
" type " could be represented by the location of the color 
on the edge of the card, near the top, for domestic 
work, perhaps, or near the bottom, for ecclesiastical. It 
only remained to choose what colors should represent the 
different styles and what subdivision of the vertical edge 
of the card would best cover the field of architectural 
work, both in general and in detail. 

The colors almost selected themselves, and they 
seemed to me to express as naturally the different styles 
as colors to some people express personalities and sensa- 
tions. This may be individual, and the reader may not 
feel them in the same way. The colors selected are as 
follows : 

Classic, white 

Early Christian, brown 
Gothic, yellow 

Renaissance, red 

Modern, blue 

Of course the divisions are very broad and the divi- 
sion points arbitrary, but seem to be sufficient. If it 
were felt desirable the periods of transition could be 
easily represented by using half units of two colors, but 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



205 






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GOVERNMENT ADMIN- 
ISTRATION BUILDINGS 

SCHOOLS-LIBRARIES 
MUSEUMS ~ 

OTHER PUBLIC 
BUILDINGS — 

PLACES" MONUMENTS 
FOUNTAINS-BRIDGESctc 

CATH E D PAL- ABBEY 
TEMPLE • BAPTISTERY- 

CITY CHURCHES 



COUNTRY CMURCHE5 

CHURCH FURNITURE 
5CREEHSALTARS- fcTC^ 

PALACE5- LARGE 
COUNTRY ESTATES- 

CITY AND TOWN 
HOUSES- 

SMALLER COUNTRY 
HOUSES - 

COTTAGES AND 
FARM BUILDINGS 

GARDENS AND 
ACCESSORIES- 

0O0R.5 AHO WINDOWS- 

CHIMHIEJ- GABLE i BELT.T- 
CORNICES- BUTTR.E55E5- 

LOCiQIE-CLOISTERJ-PORCHEJ 
RALCON.lE.f- BALUSTRADE 5 ■ 

TOWER5-n.ECHEy-5PlRE5 
BELFRIE.5-TURRET5- DOMES 

CAR.VIN<3 



FIREPLACES- NICHES- 
CEILINGS- VAULTING 
PAVEMENTS- 

QLAZING 
STAIRCASES " 

FURNITURE 

METAL WORK- BRICK. 
if TERRA COTTA WORK 

GATEWAYS 

PANELLING • MOSAIC 

AND IN LAV WORK ■ 

UNASSie,HEO • 






3 

s 

u 

u 



W 

o 

D 



(RENAISSANCE) 



= YELLOW 



=-<5EEEN- 

(qarden w'k) 



= 5ROWN [7^1 = J-K3HT BLUE- 

(EARLY CHRISTIAN,) & (METAL wV 6* QLA2.ING) 



ILLUSTRATION OF PHOTOGRAPH CATALOGUE: This represents the edges of fifty-two mounted and catalogued 
photographs. The thickness of the mounts is somewhat enlarged for purposes of illustration The colors are represented by 
symbols as denoted. The schedule at the right is the key that would be placed at the end of the shelf on which the photographs 
would be kept. The horizontal lines are shown as they would appear drawn on the edges of the cards in actual use, the heavier 
lines dividing the main groups. 



206 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



this has not appeared to be necessary. In fact, the use 
of half units of different colors can be used to better 
advantage where there are in one photograph examples 
of different styles of the same type of work. 

These divisions merely cover the field of European 
styles. The principle would apply as well to any collec- 
tion of Japanese or Indian, or other work large enough to 
demand subdivision. 

The subdivision of the edge of the card for "type" 
was not quite so easily done, but has gradually assumed 
the following order. Roughly speaking, the edge is 
divided into halves and the halves into thirteen divisions 
each. The upper half covers the field broadly, the upper 
four divisions applying to " Public" buildings, the next 
four to " ecclesiastical " work and the next five to " do- 
mestic." The lower half represents details. 

The divisions arrange themselves as follows: 
f Government Administration 
Schools. Libraries. Museums 



Public 



Other Public Buildings 

Palaces, Gardens, Monuments, Fountains, Bridges 



Ecclesias- 
tical 



Domestic 



! 



Details 



I Cathedral, Abbey, Temple, Baptistry 

j City Churches 

"J Country Churches 

i Tombs, Pulpits, Chantries, Altars, Screens, etc. 

f Royal Palaces, Large Country Estates 
| City and Town Houses 
Smaller Country Houses 
Cottage and Farm Buildings 
[ Gardens and Accessories 
'Doors and Windows 
Chimneys, Gables, Buttresses, Cornices, Beits 
Loggie, Cloisters, Balconies, Porches, Balustrades 
Towers, Fleches, Spires, Belfries, Turrets, Domes 
Carving 
| Fireplaces, Niches 
■1 Ceilings, Vaulting, Pavements 
I dazing, Staircases 
I Furniture 
Metal work. Brick and Terra Cotta work 
Gateways 
[Paneling and mosaic or inlay work 
(Unassigned) 
The subdivision of public buildings is tentative. 
The first group of " Government Administration " build- 
ings seems to take one broad group, but the next two 
could be according to each individual's ideas or along the 
lines suggested by each collection. Collections vary in 
emphasis, and a type of building especially illustrated in 
any one collection might well be given the importance of 
a whole division, grouping a larger number of not so 
fully represented types under one head. It may be felt 
that some of these divisions of detail are very broad and 
embrace too many different units, but one principle on 
which I have worked throughout is, as I have said above, 
that it would be easier to look through a large group, all 
the photographs of which are easily found, than, by a 
more complicated system, to arrive at the special part 
of that group that was for the moment important. 

An eleven by fourteen inch mount, set upright in a 
case, presenting the long edge for division, will allow 
twenty-six divisions of three-eighths inch each with 
one-eighth inch between. It may be that more 
smaller divisions would give more freedom for sub- 
heads, but there is visible a strip of color only as 
wide as the thickness of the card, and the purpose 
would be defeated if the bits of color were made so small 
as to be confused. The lines of division are drawn across 



the edges of the cards, and between the big groups heavy 
lines serve as guides to carry the eye along without con- 
fusion. 

The illustration shows a group of cards catalogued for 
possible subjects and combinations, showing the effect of 
the edges of the mounts when indexed in this way. 

It seemed well to adopt colors in two cases for "type" 
in addition to the colors for "style," and light blue is 
used to represent "metal work" and "glazing," and 
"green" to represent "garden work." 

The advantage of this visual indexing on the photo- 
graphs themselves is perhaps most clearly marked by one 
of those "types," which is marked not only by position 
but also by color. For instance, any photograph bearing 
on the broad question of "garden work " will be dis- 
tinguished by a green strip just above the third heavy 
line. At a glance of the eye the photographs will be 
detected, and if reference to either Italian or French or 
English examples is specially desired the collection is 
further reduced, with no sacrifice of time, due to a general 
geographical arrangement on the shelves, and one can 
set about the study of the photographs bearing directly 
on the problem without loss of time. 

It may be felt at first glance that this system is com- 
plicated, but a card of reference at the side of the case 
will give ready reminder of what each color and each 
division represents, and one has only to run one's finger 
along the edges of the cards to find with great readiness 
the ones that may bear on the question in issue. As was 
inferred above, these may include, under a broad head- 
ing, photographs of different bearing, but the mere pull- 
ing of them part way out of the case will discover this 
fact at small expense of time. 

The cost of any system is always an important point 
and one that is apt to prompt the first question of a skep- 
tic. The cost of installing a collection in this way will 
be divided between two processes ; the one the cost of the 
mounts and the mounting, the other the value of the time 
needed to arrange, line the edges, and stick the colored 
squares on to the cards in the proper places. As to the 
first, it may vary largely. A card is needed of sufficient 
thickness to make the strip of color easily visible. The 
card I have used is an extra No. i steel gray, which costs 
two and a half cents apiece. Of course you can mount 
the prints yourself if you have the time and the inclina- 
tion. If you get it done for you you will pay probably 
from eight to twelve cents a card, according to the method 
and care employed. I think it is generally conceded that 
a print which is put on a card and then rolled flat with 
the usual roller will have more tendency to curl the 
mount than one which is laid on the card and patted 
down smooth and then put under a press till dry. How- 
ever it may be, the flatter the cards will remain the easier 
will be the handling of the collection and an extra cent 
or two, if insuring this, will be well spent. As to the 
amount of labor needed to do the cataloguing it is not 
great. Having, in the first place, marked the subdivi- 
sions on the edges of two cards for guides the rest can be 
ruled off in sets of a hundred with the two guides at 
either side, the small divisions being ruled with pencil 
and the main divisions being enforced by broad ink lines. 
The lower half of the card while used for details should 
have heavier lines dividing it into groups of four or five 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



207 



to assist the eye in following a horizontal course along 
the edges. The actual labor of putting on the colors 
again is a simple one. The colored papers come in sheets 
about eighteen by twenty-four inches and one sheet will 
make enough three-eighths inch squares to last a lifetime. 
With the different colored squares in envelopes or boxes 
ranged before you the only element in the work which 
demands any great time is the mental process of observ- 
ing the various features in each photograph which demand 
recognition on the edge, a colored square being affixed at 
the proper point as each broad division or bit of detail is 
noted. This may be a matter of two minutes to each 
photograph. 

Uniformity of size of mount is an essential in the 
working of this scheme. The usually purchased com- 
mercial sizes of photographs do not vary very greatly 
and the extremely large ones generally form but a small 
part of a collection, and may well be separately arranged. 
The bulk of any collection can probably be mounted on a 
card measuring eleven by fourteen inches. The very 
large margin that is often found in public collections is 
of little value except aesthetically, for practical use of less 
than none. 

I found conspicuous evidence of the value of this 
scheme when I applied it to the edges of the leaves of a 
bound volume of the Brochure series, covering the 
monthly publications of two years. I made the group of 
leaves of each month's issue the unit and colored the di- 
vision with water color. It was a very simple proposi- 
tion. When finished, I found that there was no color ap- 
plied to any month in the third unit under domestic work. 
In other words, there were no examples in that volume 
of small country houses (as I had chosen to classify 
them). There were several instances of village and farm 
buildings, but the division of "small country houses" 
was a blank. At a glance at the edge of this volume this 
was evident, and no tiresome and fruitless thumbing of 
the leaves was needed to disclose the fact. The one 
place where some examples of Gothic country churches 
might be found was equally easily seen, as also the few 
examples of metal work. The time saved from fruitless 
search is a more marked example than the method of ob- 
taining an exact object. 

The arrangement of the photographs on the shelves 
will depend on the way in which one refers to them. 
And there are several ways, as, for instance, (a) for a 
photograph of a special example ; (b) for a photograph of 
any example of a special type of building; (c) for a photo- 
graph of any example of some tpye of detail. 

The third case, where one looks for examples of de- 
tail, will not affect the arrangement on the shelves, for in 
that case reference will always be had by means of 
" color " and " edge division." The arrangement on the 
shelves will depend on whether access to the photo- 
graphs is mainly desired along the first or along the 
second way mentioned above. If along the first, as rep- 
resenting some special example, then the geographical 
arrangement will best answer the needs, enabling one to 
turn at once to any city or place in which the desired ex- 
ample may be. If access is mainly desired along the 
second way, i. e., photographs of any example of a special 
type of work, then the arrangement on the shelves may 



well follow the general subdivisions on the edge of each 
card and group the various types together. Thus, divid- 
ing each country into twelve groups, marked by divisional 
numbered guides, the arrangement might be as 
follows: 



1. Public Buildings. 

(Taking the entire group.) 

2. Cathedrals, etc. 

3. City Churches. 

4. Country Churches. 

5. Church Furniture. 

6. Royal Palaces, etc. 



7. City and Town Houses. 

8. Smaller Country Houses. 

9. Village and Farm Work. 

10. Gardens. 

11. Furniture. 

1 2. Details. 



In this way reference to a type is easy, and reference 
to details is the same as it would be in any case, for while 
a photograph might naturally find its place under " Small 
Country Houses," it would still, in all probability, be of 
value under several detailed headings, which must 
always, therefore, be sought by " color " and " edge 
division." 

The finding of any special example would mean, of 
course, going through the division in which it would fall. 
With either arrangement the photographs would be 
grouped by countries. 

To facilitate the returning of the photographs to the 
shelves after using, each card has the number ( 1 to 12) of 
its division marked on one corner, and it is returned to 
any point within that division. No further accuracy of 
location is needed. Of course there would be the same 
number appearing on French or Italian as well as Eng- 
lish photographs, but it would not seem necessary to 
mark this difference, though a rubber stamp might en- 
able the office boy to handle them with accuracy as well 
as with considerable benefit to himself. 

Another advantage of this system is that, while in acard- 
catalogued system a misplaced photograph is practically 
lost, in this it would only be in picking out a group of 
one type that there would be any trouble, and even then 
a misplaced card might easily be detected by the color 
which is sought, no matter where it might be on the 
shelf. 

There is one further possibility of subdivision which 
can be applied without, I think, making too many com- 
plications. The division between interiors and exteriors 
may often be a convenience and can be easily expressed 
by a black ink line on the color strip. In the divisions 
covering " Church Furniture " and " Carving " this mark 
may be translated to mean "wood work" and form an- 
other subdivision of value in a large collection. Again, 
two such marks might be used to designate half-timbered 
work. The use of these added subdivisions is limited by 
the small actual size of the strip of color and the com- 
plexities which would be caused by too many designating 
units, which, if carried to excess, would defeat themselves 
and be neglected in practical use. 

The value of this system of cataloguing, it seems to 
me, lies in the visual cross indexing of the collection on 
the photographs themselves without the need of refer- 
ence to any other set of cards. The colors that may be 
chosen and the naming of the subdivisions can be 
varied indefinitely to suit individual ideas and col- 
lections. 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Relation between English and 
American Domestic Architecture. 

MODERN WORK IN ENGLAND. 

BY FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN. 

IT is indubitable that at the present day England has de- 
veloped an insular and national type of architecture as 
distinctively modern as any product of France, Germany, 
Austria or Italy; modern, despite the fact that it is more 
conservatively based upon old work; and for that reason 
of nearer approach to lasting artistic excellence than the 
pronounced, bizarre and eccentric products of the newer 
schools in any of these other countries. It is but natural, 
when we consider the importance given by the English- 
man to his home and home life, that the best and 
most distinctive examples of their architectural practice 
are found among the rural dwellings, both small and large, 
to which the British architect gives so much of his atten- 
tion. In the working out of this architectural style, 
English designers have also been able to infuse some- 
thing of its feeling into their larger public buildings — 
although with less inevitable success — sometimes in- 
deed, resulting in a merely petty and finical rather than 
quiet and imposing effect. 




FIG. 2. 



DOUBLE COTTAGE WITH END ENTRANCE, 
BOURNVILLE. 



So scattered and hidden away are most of the dwell- 
ings comprising the modern domestic architecture of 
England that the casual traveler in that country receives 
substantially little idea of the strength, prevalence and 
character of the movement. No one who has not 
attempted to study on the ground the recent architecture 
of England — or any other country -can appreciate the 
difficulty of finding this executed work, with which — 
through reproductions — he may be tantalizingly famil- 
iar. The original structures seem, when the attempt is 
made to locate them, to have utterly disappeared. The 
Englishman's tendency to fence in and enclose his dwell- 
ing increases the difficulty in that country, and often 
makes it impossible to know of the new buildings erected 
within his hedges and parks. So some realization of the 
actual situation may best be obtained by visiting one of 
the several model towns newly built by English capital 
within the last few years. 

Of these there are four whose names are already 



familiar to American architects: Port Sunlight, Leigh, 
Bournville and Letchworth. The one first named, con- 
structed in connection with "Sunlight Soap" and 
situated most accessibly within a few miles of Liverpool, 
is perhaps the best known and most thoroughly devel- 
oped: while Bournville, near Birmingham, a settlement 
for the workmen of the Cadbury Cocoa Works, is nearly 
as complete. Built to conform to one general scheme of 




FIG. I. DOUBLE COTTAGE WITH FRONT AND SIDE 
ENTRANCE, BOURNVILLE. 

arrangement, layout and architecture, these villages fur- 
nish almost ideal surroundings for the individual cot- 
tages of which they are composed. 

When strewn about in a community accustomed to 
displaying only architecture of age and historical associa- 
tions, important modern buildings are apparently un- 
noted by the local residents. And this local ignorance 
exists even in regard to a building so monumental in size 
and epoch-making in style as Mr. Bentley's tremendous 
new Westminster Cathedral in London (very completely 
illustrated in The Brickbuilder for September, 1904), 
perhaps almost supreme in importance among the modern 
architectural products of England. If its exact location 
were unknown the existence of this monumental struc- 
ture might never be suspected by the stranger passing a 
stone's throw away. 

The gap existing between such an enormous struc- 
ture as this and the smaller residential building, is even 
yet not thoroughly bridged by the English architect. 



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double cottage, bournville, 
(same plan as fig. i) 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 



209 




FIG. 4. BRICK AND HALF-TIMBER 
COTTAGE, PORT SUNLIGHT. 



Wonderfully fortunate 
as he almost universally 
is in his treatment of 
the dwelling, and espe- 
cially felicitous as he 
has been in this one 
individual instance, 
there yet remains the 
broad field and many 
kinds of buildings oc- 
curring between these 
two extremes, where 
the English architect 
is not yet invariably 
or even often success- 
ful. Excellent as gen- 
erally are his smaller 
churches, yet, from the 




FIG. 7. PLAS1KR AMD BRICK- 
GABLES, PORT SUNLIGHT. 



distinct modernness of its architectural 
treatment, as much as from its size, this 
Westminster Cathedral still stands alone. 
Among the new English churches, the 
best evidence the same simplicity, refine- 
ment and restraint, and even the domes- 
ticity which are such predominating char- 
acteristics of modern English dwelling 
architecture. Where stone has been the 
selected material, the English architect 
has generally wisely based his building 
rather closely upon historic English stone 
originals, selecting, as a rule, those of 
the more domestic character, where less 
insistence has been placed upon the 
.extreme Gothic characteristics of the 
style. It is only when these new 
churches have been constructed of brick 
that the material has sometimes prompted 
a design radically different than would have been possible 
with stone. Few historic brick Gothic churches existing 
as precedents, the designer has been thrown back upon 
a treatment natural to the material, and under the in- 
fluence of the modern movement has developed his 
church design in much the same way as he has developed 
his dwelling architecture, resulting in a composition of 
the same intimate touch and modern feeling that is 
characteristic of the recent English dwelling. Many the dormer and the central bay motive is sufficiently 




FIG. 5. HALF-TIM 
GABLE, PORT 



wholly charming and 
original designs of this 
type exist, some of the 
best of which have 
already been illustrated 
in the The Brickbuilder 
in the issue for Decem- 
ber, 1904. 

It will be acknowl- 
edged that modernity of 
aspect is only to be 
obtained through the 
use of familiar and "his- 
toric " materials — such 
as brick, stone, plaster 
and slate or tile. It is 
then evident that the 
effect is secured by the 

way they are used — in the greater num- 
ber of materials combined, in their utili- 
zation in unhistoric ways, and always in 
the greater simplicity of the resulting 
compositions. While motives and details 
derived from different historic styles are 
still employed, the parts and principles of 
varying periods are blent each with the 
other so naively, directly and naturally, 
that a newness of effect is obtained even 
with these hackneyed and over-worked 
materials. And so the circle has been 
run and we are brought once more — 
though from a diametrically opposite 
position — to consider the value of ma- 
terials and their appropriateness to 
modern architectural effects. 

No better comprehension of the differ- 
ent values natural to plaster and brick 
may well be obtained than by the study of so suggestive 
a comparison as is offered by the three Bournville 
cottages (Figs. 1, 2 and 3), all apparently different ex- 
ternal handlings of one general plan arrangement. The 
differences of treatment suggested by brick and plaster 
may be compared in Figs. 1 and 3, where these two 
materials have been used for the second story. With the 
brick wall of Fig. 1, the use of the arched entrance, 



BEK AND STONE 
SUNLIGHT. 





FIG. 



PLASTER AND STONE COTTAGES, PORT SUNLIGHT. 



FIG. 8. BRICK BLOCK OF HOUSES, PORT SUNLIGHT. 



2IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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FlO. 9. I'OKIIUN UK GKOUl' UF 
HOUSES, PORT SUNLIGHT. 



obvious and reasonable. 
With a second story of 
plaster, it becomes pos- 
sible to carry it over 
the porch in the corner 
on beams and timbers, 
giving a pleasanter, 
lighter treatment for 
this detail of the design. 
The continuous bay 
upon the first story is 
naturally given a flat 
roof, while the dormers 
become two small 
gables, relieving the 
plaster by the accent of 
the bit of timber work 
in the gable apexes. 
Each individual may decide for himself as to what 
extent and exactly in what manner the change of ex- 
terior design was suggested by the change from brick 
to plain plaster for the second story walls; and the use of 
plaster, in turn, the nice accent obtained in the sugges- 
tion of half-timber construction in the two dormer 
gables. 

The insertion of half-timber, although sufficiently ob- 
vious, was not an absolute necessity. The problem was 
possible of solution by the use of plaster alone, as in Fig. 
2, where the restriction of the plaster surfacing to the 
single gable, however, quite alters the whole composi- 
tion. In this cottage the plan has been slightly varied, 
apparently to avoid the rather heavy brick-arched en- 
trance (Fig. 1), for which the much more attractive 
timbered and glazed porch at the end of the house has 
been substituted. 

Of the three, the first, confined to one material, is a 
simple and pleasing composition with the modern spirit 
sufficiently in evidence and a distinctive dormer and bay 
treatment. In the third, the composition is strengthened 
by the greater importance of the two gables that have 
taken the place of the simpler dormers, more thoroughly 
breaking up the plain roof surface and tending to reduce 
the undue prominence of the end gable. In the second, 
with its single plaster gable and overhanging bay, the 
dual purpose of the house is less perfectly expressed and. 




with the exception of the side porch motive, this is, per- 
haps, the least interesting of the three compositions. 
The large English brick, it should be noted, has been 
used in these three cottages with a noticeable effect upon 
the scale of the building. 

The natural trend of modern usage is to avoid mate- 
rials of such innate historic style-suggestion as "half- 
timber" in favor of those of more pliability and of simpler, 
less obtrusive surface texture — -such as brick and plaster. 
When the English designer employs half-timber it is with 
great restraint and never with such insistent monotony 
that it becomes tiresome to the eye; rather is it skillfully 
blended witli other materials, and used to accent or em- 
phasize some single portion of the design (Figs. 3 and 4), 
always with such restful contrast of plain wall surface or 
other (comparably) simpler material as to make it a pleas- 




" FOUR OAKS," SUTTON, *COLDFIELP. 
W. H. Bidlake, Architect. 



FIG. II. BOUSE AT EDGBASIOK. 

Herbert Buckland. Architect. 

ing, rather than a striking, note in the design. In the 
most successful instances of its modern employment, half- 
timber has been used in the simplest rectangular patterns, 
with a rather generous — and unhistoric — amount of 
plain plaster between. With a more demonstrative tim- 
ber patterning, its tendency is to smack overmuch of a 
slavish imitation of the old half-timber manors. Yet for 
overhanging gables, projecting second-story bays, or 
merely as a relief from over-large plain surfaces of brick 
or plaster texture, no other architectural material is more 
effective than this — certainly none other blends more 
charmingly into a picturesque composition. 

Sometimes half- 
timber is less convinc- 
ingly used contrasted 
with plain stone or 
plaster surfaces. One 
Port Sunlight dwelling 
(Fig. 5) furnishes an 
instance in a rather un- 
pleasing and over- 
ornate composition that 
would have been bet- 
tered by a simpler and 
freer treatment 
throughout; with 
plaster instead of stone, 
and with less carving 
on the timber work. fig. 12. cottage, bourn vii.i.k. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 I I 



The combination of plain plaster surfaces with limestone 
(Fig. 6) or brick certainly causes a modern effect. The 
raking overhang of gables may be treated with a modern 
characteristic simplicity (Fig. 6) that verges on bareness; 
or the more conventional barge-board, with its suggestion 
of the old timbered style, may be employed (Fig. 7). 

The contrast offered by Figs. 6 and 7 indicates the im- 
portance of trees, vines and shrubs in lending atmosphere 
and illusion to what otherwise seems a more ordinary 




fig. 13. 



PI.ASTEK, BRICK AND SLATE COTTAGES, 
PORT SUNLIGHT. 



composition. It is the lack of just such natural acces- 
sories that tends to make the block of dwellings (Fig. 8) 
appear bare and awkward, although a certain amount of 
this effect may result from carrying the brick of the front 
gables above the roof line to finish in a coping. The 
coped gable of curving contour, unless restricted to the 
very simplest and most obvious outlines, is apparently 
less pleasing — from its more historic suggestion — than 
the simpler gable treatment, where the roof slope itself 
determines the outline of the gable face (Figs. 6, 7 and 
9). The more out of the usual and peculiar this curvilin- 
ear outline, the less satisfying and restful the result 
(Figs. 8 and 9); the straight sloping gables, with raised 
coping and pointed apex (Fig. 9) following the line of the 
roof, generally appear more consistent and pleasing than 
those of irregularly waving and undulating outline. 

The English designer does not go out of his way to 
avoid a bare and abrupt gable end (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9), 
often these gables forming the principal feature in his 
composition. Neither is he afraid of breaking through 
the horizontal cornice lines of his building (Figs. 1, 6 and 
8). This may be an evidence of the informal Gothic 
spirit animating these small dwellings; causing the cor- 
nice, if it exists at all, to be of less importance in English 
work than it is in American practice, where we are still 
burdened by the classic precedent making the heavy hori- 
zontal line of the cornice so important in our Colonial 
work. In Professor Lethaby's house, for instance (Fig. 
10), the cornice is almost altogether omitted. There 
is, to be sure, a "jet" with a hanging gutter to collect the 
roof rain-water, but where the bay windows break through 
this gutter there is no suggestion of cornice and they are 
finished with the simplest parapet cover or coping, and 
at the side the bay window is given stone quoins as well 
as coping. Other than this, the entire wall and window 



trimmings are of brick used in the simplest possible 
manner, with a nice admixture of Gothic gable and classic 
window treatment. Other instances showing this disre- 
gard of a strongly defined cornice line abound in English 
work, indicating, in this particular if in no other, the 
influence of one English " historic " style of architecture. 

The house designed by Herbert Buckland for himself 
(Fig. 11) is novel and unusual, although it presents 
towards the street a more formal elevation. Its uncon- 
ventionalities but make it the more interesting and the 
simple use of plaster work, with the long sloping plain 
surface of the roof, unmistakably denote its modernity. 
Its roof treatment is related to that on the most artistic 
of the Bournville group here reproduced (Fig. 12). 
Along with the Port Sunlight dwelling (Fig. 13), this 
represents the best and most artistic expression of the 
modern English cottage type. While lacking the preten- 
sion (and probable expense) of the larger country houses, 
they still contain an amount of charm equal to the best 
of them and exceeding that of many; while as instances 
of the use of several materials, and for their treat- 
ment of bay windows, gables and doorways, they are of 
quite exceptional interest. Even the heavy dividing 
muntins of the wooden sash are important in securing 
the atmosphere of these structures. 

So far we have seen that the use of plaster in large 
plain surfaces is generally indicative of the modern design 
and treatment of the building. Occasionally, half timber 
work after the old manner is employed; more rarely the 
walls are treated with slate or shingles; and often — in 
the use of brick — the old type of work is closely approx- 
imated. How exact this approximation actually is may 
only be realized by comparing these modern buildings 
with some of the "historic" structures already illus- 
trated the block of houses in Fulham, shown in Fig. 




FIG. 14. GROUP OF HOUSES, FULHAM. 

Walter Cave, Architect. 

14, for instance, whose window openings are closely 
derived from Georgian models. While not a mere copy 
of the old work, this treatment is as exact a working out 
of its very form and feeling as it is desirable to realize at 
this later date. Equally instructive is the somewhat 
more Gothic composition by the same architect (Fig. 15), 
where similar bay forms, along with the conventional 
pointed Gothic gable, are used with even better effect. 
Again and again the best modern English work suggests 



2 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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FIG. 15. VlUAKAGfc, KILHaM. 
Walter Cave. Architect. 



an even closer relation- 
ship to historic deriva- 
tives in point of time 
than we know actually 
to exist, although its 
modernity is sufficient- 
ly proved by the added 
"material," if a name 
with so exact a mean, 
ing can be used in this 
connection, that is in- 
corporated into its de- 
sign. 

In no particular does 
the modern work ap- 
pear to better ad van 
tage than in its frequent successful combination of differ- 
ent materials for different portions of one architectural 
composition. The illustrations indicate many different 
uses of two or more materials: such as brick and half- 
timber (Fig. 4), plaster and brick (Figs. 2, 6 and 7), 
half-timber and stone (Fig. 5), brick, plaster and half- 
timber (Fig. 3), and of brick, plaster, half-timber and 
tile or slate (Fig. 13). The use of tile or slate as a 
covering for perpendicular wall surfaces ("similar to our 
use of shingles) is a treatment that is rather unusual in 
English work, where this texture as a wall covering is 
somewhat rarely employed. The examples illustrate 
nevertheless, the possibilities of their use — even (as in 
Fig. 13) with the bay window in its most American 
form which should he full of suggestion to the de- 
signers of this country, where the texture of shingles 
almost exactly parallels the European slate in a material 
distinctively native and natural to us. 

To sum up: the more obvious lessons to be drawn by 
the American from the modern English movement are, 
first — the use of brick in its most simple, direct and 
obvious employments; second —the use of plaster in 
large plain surfaces, especially in combination with brick 
and shingles and half-timber; third — the composition of 
any or all of these materials on various portions of the 
wall surface of a single structure; and last — that in 
these compositions half-timber is used with greatest 
effectiveness and success when most sparingly employed, 
and its most successful applications point the moral 
that unless beams and plaster, when used together, are 
very carefully studied, they are likely to give too slavish 
an imitation of old English timber work, which — as 
with any too servile reproduction of the mannerisms of 
a style of no modern vitality --is unfortunate and nega- 
tory to the inducing of the proper modern spirit. 



AMERICAN CATHEDRAL TO BE FOURTH 
LARGEST IN THE WORLD. 

THE massive Cathedral of St. John the Divine, now 
building in New York, will be the fourth largest in 
the world. St. Peter's Rome, leads with an area of 
227,069 square feet. The Cathedral of Seville in Spain 
follows with 124,000 square feet. The third place is 
taken by the Duomoof Milan which spreads over 107,000 
superficial feet. St. John the Divine covers 99,500 
square feet. 



The Village Railway Station. II. 

BY JOHN H. PHILLIPS. 

ONE of the most important buildings, if not the most 
important, in any village or suburban town is the 
railway station. 

The picturesque stone buildings with wide, overhang- 
ing tile roofs — the charming type developed by the late 
H. H. Richardson — have long been considered a model 
for the country railway station. 

This new railway station is assumed to be in the 
suburbs, some twenty-five or thirty miles from the city. 
The road is equipped with electricity (third rail) necessi- 
tating first, the elimination of all grade crossings; second, 
prohibiting the crossing of tracks at the stations. 

In order to reach the platforms it is imperative that 
passengers travel by means of subway or overhead 
bridge, therefore we have the two types — the subway and 
the overhead or elevated type of stations. I have chosen 
the subway type, it is the easier adapted to general con- 
ditions and street grades of the average suburb. 

The property adjoining the station has been graded 
to meet the grade of tracks and the street crossings run 
beneath the tracks in the form of a bridge viaduct. The 
station proper consists of two wide platforms with the 
ratcks running between. The umbrella type of shelter 
shed is used, the central portion only being covered with 
a tile roof. 

The platforms are screened in with glass and iron 
within eight feet of the driveways on each side of the 
station. This remaining eight feet of platform with the 
overhanging roof forms an excellent marquise for the 
passengers that drive to and from the trains. 

A feature is made of the entrance in the form of a 
triumphal arch gateway. The ticket office, waiting 
rooms, toilets, etc., are placed symmetrically about this 
axis. Passengers desiring to take trains from the city, 
pass directly underneath the tracks through the subway 
to the opposite platform, thus typifying the subway 
station. 

Regarding the materials of construction for the 
station; the Gustavino Arch is very well adapted to this 
type, with round terra cotta columns and heavy iron 
guards at base, to prevent chipping off of the terra cotta 
when trucking the baggage ; this makes a very practical 
as well as an artistic treatment for the station, permitting 
color to be introduced to very good advantage. 

The amount of baggage, being comparatively light for 
a station of this kind, is easily handled by being trucked 
through the subway to the opposite platform and elevated 
by means of lifts. 

As to the style of architecture best adapted to -this 
new type of station, it is well to remember that the 
American depot has replaced the gate of the feudal walled 
city and the triumphal arch. For this reason it should 
be placed at a focal point where, if possible, a number of 
streets converge, so. strangers glancing down any of the 
radial streets may be able to see the main feature which, 
in the present case, is a large gateway with massive doric 
columns capped with a tile roof which gives dignity 
and at the same time harmonizes well with the style of 
architecture which is so much in favor to-dav. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



213 




A VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION. 
John H. Phillips, Architect. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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l'KIVATH STABLES, BROOKLYN. W. B. Tubby, Architect. 




STORE AND OFFICE BLOCK, SOUTH FRAMINGHAM, MASS. Allen, Collens & Berry, Architect 




PUBLIC GARAGE, BALTIMORE, MD. Beecher, Friz & Hregg, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



215 




WAREHOUSE, CHICAGO. 

Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 











^--i^v-dAAAv 





STOKE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 




MERCANTILE BUILDING, BALTIMORE. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 



SAVINGS BANK, BALTIMORE. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 






2l6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





BRANCH TELEPHONE BUILDING, ST. LOUIS. 
Barnes & Young, Architects. 



BRANCH TELEPHONE BUILDING, GERM ANTOWN, PA. 
John T Windrim Architect. 




BRANCH TELEPHONE BUILDING, ST. LOUIS Eames & Vuung, Architects 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE report just issued by the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey, containing statistics of the clay-working 
industries in the United States for 1905, shows a sub- 
stantial increase in the manufacture and value of these 
products. 

The common brick industry, the most widespread of 
all the clayworking industries, makes up a little over 
half of the brick and tile value, and forty-one per cent of 
all clay products. The number of common brick increased 
from 8,665, 171,000 in 1904 to 9,817,355,000 in 1905. New 
York continues to be by far the largest producer of com- 
mon brick , reporting over one and one-half billions, valued 
at $10,297,214. The next largest producer of common 
brick is Illinois, which marketed 1,125,024,000 in 1905. 
The only other State producing over a billion common 
brick was Pennsylvania. 

The greatest per cent of increase in all clay products 
is that of front brick, the production of which jumped 
from 334,351,000 in 1904 to 541,590,000 in 1905, a gain of 
24.69 per cent. The average price was raised, too, increas- 
ing the gain in value to 27.84 percent. Pennsylvania was 
the leading State in this product, and the average price in 
that State was $12.81. The next largest producer was 
Ohio, with an average price of $12.01. New Jersey was 
third in quantity, but beat the leading States in average 
price, the price there being $15.86. Illinois, which came 
fourth, only realized an average of $ 1 1 . 44 forher front brick. 
On account of this the value of the Illinois product was 
exceeded by Missouri and by Virginia. The percentage 
of front brick in relation to the total of brick and tile 
products, was raised a little, it now being 5.84 percent, 
or 4.75 per cent of all clay products. In 1904 these per- 
centages were 5.25 and 4.24. 

Architectural terra cotta, which showed an increase 

during the 
year of 
nearly a 
million dol- 
1 a r s , or 
21.81 per 
cent, and is 
now 4. 1 1 per 
cent of the 
brick and 
tile prod- 
ucts. This 
industry is 
more con- 
c ent rated 
than any 
other, that 
is, there are 
fewer of 
them in any 
given State. 

DETAIL BY TEMPLE, BURROWS & MCLANE, ? , , 

ARCHITECTS. in taCt > tfte 

The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. reports Say 





ABATIOIR OF THE NEW YOKK BUTCHERS DRESSED BEEF 
COMPANY, 39TH STREET AND IITH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

Horgan & Slattery, Architects. 

Face and Enameled Brick used in Exterior and Interior supplied 

by Carter, Black & Ayers, New York. 

that only four States show more than three industries. 
New Jersey is the leading State and furnishes nearly 
one-third of the entire amount. New York has second 
place, Pennsylvania third. 



FITNESS IN DECORATION. 

ONE of the most charming qualities of the Italian 
decorative work is its personal and local quality. 
The artists of the fifteenth century did not go far afield 
to seek subjects to depict upon the walls of their palaces 
and public buildings. Instead, they chose the exploits 
of their own rulers, warriors and great men, so that the 
decorations of the Italian buildings to a very considerable 
extent depict the history of the times in which they were 
built. We are unfortunately too prone in this country 
to disregard any such procedure. In the Boston Public 
Library there is one attempt to immortalize Sir Harry 











imssi 


1 



DETAIL BY MULLIKEN & MOELLER, ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



2l8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




NEW YORK STATE SEAL. 

Geo. L. Ileins, Architect. 

Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Company, Makers. 

Vane. Otherwise all the motives are foreign ; the myth- 
ical search of a crusader, the nightmare-like development 
of antique and horrible religious mysteries; the gods of 
Greece and Rome find there a place, but nothing even 
remotely related to American life and history. In the 
Congressional Library at Washington, so far as we can 
recall, there is not a single decoration of any sort which 
has the slightest bearing upon America. From the 
standpoint of pure art it matters less what the subject be 
than the manner of its presentation and its relation to its 
setting, but the country is the loser by failing to utilize 
more fully the themes of our own life. This fact has 
been appreciated by only a few of our best decorators. 
The work in the Minnesota State Capitol, Turner's deco- 
rations in the DeWitt Clinton High School, New York, 



and Blashfield's work in the Iowa State Capitol, are all 
inspired by American themes, and though the classic 
forms of antiquity ms»y lend themselves more readily to 
decorative purposes, and though our artists may not yet 
have learned how to treat modern life in a decorative 
spirit, yet in the long run and for the future art, will be 
the better for retaining at least a semblance of local color 
and tradition. We will venture to say that more people 
have thoroughly and keenly enjoyed the historical paint- 
ings surrounding the rotunda in the capitol at Washing- 
ton than will ever be able to take in and comprehend the 
Sargent decoration in Boston, largely because the Wash- 
ington works are of ourt ime, our life and our country, 
and can be understood by every one who sees them, even 
though their artistic quality is in some respects below 
criticism. 





ROOF OF UNITED STATES CUSTOM HOUSE, BALTIMOKE, MD. 

Hornblower & Marshall, Architects. 
Roofed with 6x9 Promenade Tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 



NEW YORK STATE SEAL. 

II. J. i lardenbergh, Architect. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Captain Fitzgerald M. O'Lalor, a member of 
the Boston Fire Department, has adapted a 
device to form part of the ordinary fire door 
so common in all city buildings which would 
seem to be possibly of great assistance to fire- 
men fighting the flames. In each fire door he 
would construct a metal slide which can be 
operated from either side to leave an opening 
sufficiently large to admit the passage of one 
of the large fire nozzles. This would at once 
allow firemen to bring a stream to bear upon 
the interior of a room while the door itself 
would protect them from the direct action of 
the flames. It would also, to an extent, 
obviate the necessity of breaking down the 
door to get at the fire, a procedure which is 
usually followed by the first fireman who 
arrives on the spot. He also suggests the 
placing of several traps in the first floors of 
warehouses, thus making it possible to get at a 
fire in the basement without cutting holes in 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



219 




Geophysical Laboratory at Washington, Wood, Donn & 
Deming, architects. 



RAILWAY STATION, PERU, IND. 

W. R. Kaufman, Architect. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile, made by Cincinnati Roofing 

Tile and Terra Cotta Company. 



the floor. Both of these de- 
vices are thoroughly practical 
and should be incorporated in 
the construction of every 
large warehouse or factory as 
they entail an extremely slight 
additional cost and would give 
the firemen immediate control 
over a blaze. 



r *■ 



IN GENERAL. 
George Alexander Wright 
and B. J. S. Cahill of San 

Francisco, and George Rushforth of Stockton, Cal., have 
formed a co-partnership for the practice of architecture. 
Offices 2277 California Street, San Francisco. 

The architectural terra cotta used in the Abell 
Building of Baltimore, Delano & Aldrich, architects, 
illustrated in this issue of The Brickbuilder, was 
manufactured by the Excelsior Terra Cotta Company. 

Edwin Bennett's Roofing Tiles have been selected 
for the new library at North Andover, Mass., Guy Lowell, 
architect, for the new pumping station at Wilmington, 
Del., a new garage at Baltimore, and the new Carnegie 




DETAIL BY' WILLIAM STEELE & SON, ARCHITECTS 
Excelsior Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



. CHICAGO'S IMPROVEMENTS. 

THROUGH the efforts of the Merchants' Club Chi- 
cago is likely to become one of the most beautiful 
cities in the United States. Mr. Daniel H. Burnham's 
plans for general and correlative improvement have long 
been under consideration, and it now seems as if his 
schemes, as well as those of numerous other architects of 
the West, were to be combined and put into execution. 
The principal features to be considered are the follow- 
ing: 

That there be an outer parkway encircling the entire 
city. That the river front be beautified by embank- 
ments, driveways and granite 
docks. That for a civic cen- 
ter a new city hall be built. 
That subways relieve all sur- 
face, as well as elevated lines. 
That the railroads be concen- 
trated into two terminals, mak- 
ing dignified entrances to the 
city. That all streets be per- 
fectly paved and kept clean. 
That the present scheme to 
build the Field Museum and 















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DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA COMPANY. j 



DETAIL BY IIELMLE & HUBERTY, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

the Crerar Library in Grant Park be carried out to lead 
to Chicago being an art and literary center. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAUGHTSMAN and designer, age 
thirty, sober, reliable, speaks German, fluent conversationalist, good 
perspective artist in color and ink, rapid worker, fifteen years in best 
offices in this country, desires permanent engagement or partnership 
where above qualifications will be appreciated. New York preferred. 
Address Designer, Care THE BRICKBUILDER 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAUGHTSMEN WANTED — Good 
paying positions for competent men in a terra cotta factory located 
near New York City. State age, training and references. Address 
"T. C.," care THE BRICKBUILDER. 



220 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



# 



Competition for a Bank Building 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 

COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 7, 1907 



PROGRAMME 




of terra cotta and the 
be taken largely into 



HE problem is a One Story Bank Building. The location may be assumed in any city 
or large town of the United States. The site is at the corner of two streets of equal 
importance. The lot itself is perfectly level. The building is to occupy an area of not 
over 5,000 square feet, its shape being a square or a rectangle of any desired 
proportion. 

Above a base course of granite (not over 2 feet high) the exterior and interior of 
the building are to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta. employing colored terra cotta, 
in at least portions, of the walls. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of 
notes, printed on the same sheet with elevations and plan, at a size which will permit of two-thirds 
reduction. 

The following points must be considered in the design : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the architectural problem. 
In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use 

development or modification of style, by reason of the material, will 
consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage 
the study of the use of Architectural Terra Cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the de- 
signs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to 
be executed. 

The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta and the 
sizes of the blocks. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: 

On one sheet, two elevations (front and side | drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch, and on 
the same sheet the floor plan at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. Also the color key or notes. 

On a second sheet half-inch scale details of main entrance, windows and cornice, and 
other portions of the building necessary to interpret the design. Also a section showing 
best view of the interior at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be 24 inches by 36 inches. 

The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are ti be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on 
plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a 110m de plume or device, and accompanying same 
is to be a sealed envelope with the 110m de plume on the exterior and containing the true name 
and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before January 7, 1907. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is 
r served to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned 
may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 



any 
the 



the 



For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality 
of the terra cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 10. PLATE 127. 




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DJUVEW4Y 



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First noon Plan 



\C- 




POST OFFICE AND CUSTOM HOUSE. MARBLEHEAD, MASS. 
Peters & Rice, architects. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 10. PLATE 134. 





HOUSE AT NEliDHAM, MASS. 
James Purdon, architect.-, 



\ 



THE BRICK BU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 10. PLATE 136. 




WASHINGTON PARK WAREHOUSE, CHICAGO 
argyle E. Robinson,- Architect. 



'■ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 10. PLATE 137. 




PUBLIC GARAGE, ST. LOUIS. Mauran, Russell A Garden, Architects. 




1RANCH TELEPHONE BUILDING, ST. LOUIS. Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 10. PLATE 135. 




YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, WASHINGTON. D. C. 

Harding & Upman, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 10. PLATE 132. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV 



NOVEMBER 1906 



Number i i 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 189a. Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ...........•■•■.••■••• 5° cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ................... ?6.oo per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

II 

II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PAGK 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

ALLEN & COLLENS AND J. LAWRENCE BERRY; DAVIS & BROOKS; LINDLEY JOHNSON 

KIRBY, PETIT & GREEN; MANN & MacNEILLE; GEORGE OAKLEY TOTTEN, Jr. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGH 

INLAID DECORATION IN A GRAVE TOWER AT KIM, PERSIA Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 221 

ENGLISH SUBURBAN HOUSES 222 

A VILLAGE RAILROAD STATION. Ill V. Ma* Dunning 226 

ARRANGEMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND MAGAZINE PLATES William Stanley Parker 228 

THE VILLAGE COTTAGE. II ..Hubert G. Ripley and A. J. Russell 231 

A ROW OF HOUSES — WASHINGTON Wood, Donn & Deming 233 

A ROW OF HOUSES — WASHINGTON Wood, Donn & Deming 234 

A SMALL HOSPITAL FOR THE TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS Scopes i Fuestmann 235 

MATERIALS FOR HOSPITAL FLOORS Henry Carleton 236 

THE BUCKINGHAM BUILDING Mc Kim. Mead & White 237 

AUDRAIN BUILDING Bruce Price & deSibour 237 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 23S 




Si 



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u 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 15 No. II 



DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTSOFl 
SARCHITECrVRE- IN -MATERIALS OF CLAY/ 



NOVEMBER 1906 



SB 



Commercialism in Art. 

IT is quite probable that in no country in the world has 
architecture been so influenced by commercialism as 
in the United States. It is therefore a question of in- 
terest as to what effect this commercialism has had upon 
architecture as a fine art. In its answer lies a good deal 
of the prospect of the future, for surely commercialism 
will never cease as a factor in our business activity. By 
commercialism we mean the subordination of matters of 
architectural design to mere expediency of dollars and 
cents. This may or may not be a sacrifice of art. It 
frequently is such, but more frequently it means a sacri- 
fice of the architect's peculiar desires. We all feel at 
times that we could do a little better, could be a little 
more successful in our work, if we were not obliged to 
consider the cost, or if our clients would only step one 
side, put off all questions of cost, and give us carte 
blanche. It is extremely doubtful, however, if such free- 
dom would conduce to the best kind of growth. Develop- 
ment does not count along the lines of the things, the 
paths, the functions, with which we are most familiar, 
and which we are conscious of having mastered, but, 
rather, success comes from our failures, from our attack- 
ing and attempting the problems which are new to us, 
from reconciling hostile elements and bringing conflict- 
ing interests into harmony and appropriateness. Looked 
at in this light and measured by the results, we are in- 
clined to believe that commercialism, so far from threat- 
ening the death of art in this country, has been the direct 
cause of some of our strongest and most vigorous growth. 
It constitutes a species of ferment which keeps the body 
architectural from becoming stale or from mummyfying. 
Perhaps the most notable illustration of this is afforded 
by our modern office buildings, the so-called sky scrapers. 
These present a problem which is primarily utilitarian, in 
which the business element always predominates and 
which from first to last has been controlled by commer- 
cialism. Whether the results be the best that could be 
accomplished may well be questioned, but certainly no 
other country in the world, no other nation has solved the 
problem in anything like as satisfactory a manner as it 
has been solved in this country. In the process of study- 
ing these buildings a keen alertness has necessarily been 
developed by our architects. The spirit of emulation has 
made each watch the other and be open for every pos- 
sible advantage and saving, so that the designing of these 
tall structures, the results of which at first were so crude 



and so uninteresting, has become a science as well as an 
art and has profoundly affected the manner in which a 
design is studied in other lines. Unlimited opportunities 
have never been good for any one. We need the restric- 
tions and restraints in order to keep us reasonable and 
sane, and the very commercialism that sometimes op- 
presses us so cruelly is constantly working out for the 
good of the profession. If it does nothing more, it cer- 
tainly develops a spirit of competitive cooperation which 
cannot fail to be of value to our national architecture. 

In the process of our national development it is inevi- 
table that the spirit of commercialism should interfere 
with individual successes. There will be opportunitieslost 
because of the short-sighted financial policy of those who 
control the purse strings. There will be artistic concep- 
tions curtailed and often ruined because of the wrong 
emphasis placed upon puerile practical requirements. 
But on the other hand, the spirit of commercialism is 
what has called into being our marvelous architectural 
development to-day. If it were not for the profit that 
our buildings have been made to pay the business dis- 
tricts of our cities to-day would be as uninteresting as 
they were in the dreary times of the vernacular. The 
speculative builder has made our suburbs hideous in 
places, but the speculative builder has also placed within 
the hands of some of our architects opportunities such as 
no previous generation could have imagined, and besides 
all the evil which commercialism might inflict upon our 
artistic development, it must be acknowledged that there 
is a great deal in enlarged opportunity, increased power, 
and a material development which has made the artistic 
success a reality. We have to take the good with the bad, 
and whether it be that the bad is less offensive than we 
imagine or that the bad is turned to a good purpose, the 
fact remains that commercialism has kept alive architec- 
ture in this country and has brought victory and strength 
into the profession, preventing it from developing either 
the academic dullness of German art or the monotonous 
mediaeval spirit of England. The United States to-day is 
the foremost architectural country in the world, measured 
by its attempts and by its positive achievements. There 
is no other land where the opportunities are so great nor, 
on the whole, so well improved. We owe this to the 
spirit of commercialism which has gone side by side with 
marvelous prosperity and has made good conditions 
better, giving the architect a free hand where before he 
was only a struggling draughtsman, and opening up all 
sorts of unheard of opportunities. 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Modern English Suburban Houses. 



YOU may search the world over, but in house design 
you will not find anything more delightful than the 
best English examples. Houses more commodious, 
more carefully appointed, more luxuriously fitted up with 
warming and ventilating appliances and hot water sup- 
plies — such houses, maybe, you will find elsewhere, but 
no houses more pleasing to the eye, no houses which rest 
so quietly on the country-side, no houses which have 
about them such an air of contentment and mellowed 
comfort. Therein is the essential quality of English 
domestic architecture. Such houses, however, are not to 
be found anywhere and at any moment, for commerce 
and industry have swept away much of the old work, and 
in its place have arisen dead formalities or the showy 




HOUSE AT LEICESTER. 

Kverard & Pick, Architects. 

mixtures brought into being by the nouveau riche. We 
can pass by those years when the all-important consider- 
ation was to have a grand-looking mansion, whether the 
interior fitted in with the exterior or not. Those were 
the years when it was thought proper to swallow up 
nearly the whole of the space with reception rooms, while 
the living-rooms were squeezed in as best might be. 
Truly that was not the most admirable phase of English 
domestic architecture ; indeed, about those grandiose 
erections there was no domesticity at all; they were 
artificial conceptions, the very antithesis of real house 
design. For such latter we must turn to an earlier period 
or to a later one. Half a century ago it would have 
been futile to search among town examples, but now one 
can see the good work that is being done in the suburbs, 
clearly showing that, while in the large buildings, archi- 
tects have picked up again the thread of English Renais- 
sance, in the smaller houses there has been a reversion to 
the quiet, unpretentious work which is so satisfying. 
There are, it is true, some dreadful legacies, say those 



of the early nineteenth century, when architectural 
design was as sluggish as it could be, or those perhaps 
more disconcerting legacies of mid-Victorian years, by- 
products of Gothic, ill-digested and nauseating. Nor can 
we overlook the fact that the latter distraction is not by 
any means finished with, for our fancy-loving builder 
continues to sprawl the same sort of thing in the suburbs, 
persisting in his trefoils and quatrefoils, his lumpy leaves 
and strange birds, and all the rest of the things which 
the handy carver will strike out of stone at so much a 
dozen. Nevertheless, admitting this, it cannot be gain- 
said that English house architecture is well on the road 
to its best ideals, and there can be found in every town 
new houses with much of the old feeling about them. 

Now the architect who is designing a country house 
has difficulties enough to face, but with the suburban 
house he has still more; the chief of these arising out of 
the usually restricted nature of- the site and the limita- 
tions of cost. In the majority of cases, suburban houses 
are erected more or less as a speculation, and there is no 
money to throw away on those expensive embellishments 
which are sometimes so effective in houses built for 
clients with a long purse. What sins, indeed, may not be 
covered up with expensive material! And speaking of 
material, it is worth while noting the frank use now 
made of bricks. It was once the mistaken idea that if a 
house could not be built of stone, it was best to make it 
look like stone, by a plentiful use of stucco — the most 
deadly uninteresting surface texture imaginable. Brick- 
work had to hide itself behind such a skin, but the stucco 
had a distressing way of cracking from top to bottom in 
all directions, falling off in patches which were most un- 
sightly and could not be satisfactorily doctored. That 
was probably the chief cause of stucco going out of 
vogue. What a saving blemish ! For good brickwork 
then had a chance, and now is very extensively seen in 
suburban houses, together with plain, painted woodwork, 
which has largely ousted another vicious fancy, i. c. , 
graining. Since we are discussing domestic architecture, 
it may be said, without fear of contradiction, that Eng- 
land furnishes by far the most interesting examples of 
the use of brick. The myriads of small brick houses, 
charming in their simplicity, which are found in nearly 
all of England's countryside, have excited the admiration 
of foreigners generally who have had occasion to travel 
either on or off "the beaten track." The best of these 
are not of modern origin. Nevertheless, it may be said 
of the work of to-day, especially in the better class of 
house-building, that English architects are showing an 
understanding in the use of brick which is worthy of the 
study of all architects. Undoubtedly rough-cast is very 
frequently used, but it has an infinitely superior surface to 
stucco, and, moreover, it affords a most serviceable outer 
skin on houses in exposed situations — in the country es- 
pecially. Accompanying this article are some examples 
of suburban houses around London. In the Wimbledon 
district a great number of such houses have been erected. 
Those here shown are representative of the best of them. 
There is no necessity to describe the houses in detail, 
because the illustrations clearly show the exterior 
treatment and the materials employed. Surbiton is 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 





HOUSE AT LEICESTER. 
Everard & Pick, Architects. 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




GARDEN FRONT, " OAKHILL DRIVE," SURBITION, LONDON. 
Walter E. Hewitt, Architect. 




HOUSE AT WIMBLEDON, LONDON. 
Hubbard and Moore, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



225 




226 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



another London district where many excellent suburban 
houses have been erected recently. Quite big houses 
are to be found in both these districts, set down in fairly 
good-sized pieces of ground, well screened from the road 
and making as much effort as possible towards being a 
country-looking place. 

Hampstead is another suburb of London where a 
wonderful amount of good building has been done, not 
only in large houses for the wealthy class who favor this 
district, but also in smaller houses for people of mod- 
erate incomes — houses which, though being of necessity 




PLAN, HOUSE AT EALING, LONDON. 
P. Morley Horder, Architect. 

in rows or semi-detached, are free of those unrefined 
treatments which have attached a stigma to "suburban 
villadom." These houses at Hampstead have been 
under the direction of careful and tasteful owners. Mr. 
Willett especially has carried out some most successful 
schemes -small colonies of good, red brick houses, all 
differing in design, but harmonizing well together. 

Mr. Willett has developed many other districts of 
London, and it is to be regretted that there are not more 
far-seeing builders who appreciate the worth of good 
architects, entrusting the design to them instead of to 
some practitioner whose paramount claim is that he is 
ordinary and cheap. 

It will be noticed that the majority of the accompanying 
illustrations areof housesaround London. Igive two exam- 
ples, however, from the provinces — some suburban houses 
at King's Heath, Birmingham, by Bateman & Bateman 
i sturdy houses with good chimneys); and a house at 
Leicester by Everard & Pick, this latter being included to 
show the large type of house to be found in some suburbs. 



A Village Railroad Station. III. 

BY N. MAX DUNNING. 

IT would be difficult to cite an instance where the de- 
mand on the part of the public for better architecture 
has been more conscientiously met than in the case of 
the great railroad corporations throughout the country, 
in the improvement of their stations. There was a time- 
when the railroad station and its immediate vicinity was 
the most defacing blot on the average town. The trend 
now is to make these stations themselves attractive and 
convenient, and also to make the surroundings beautiful, 
giving the towns to which they form the gate of entry 
the advantage of a complimentary first impression on 
the part of visitors, and impressing favorably the thous- 
ands who go through on the trains toward other destina- 
tions. 

There can be little doubt that the benefits from these 
depot improvements are twofold at least. They add 
greatly to the attractiveness of a railroad and uncon- 
sciously encourage people to travel more ; in this sense 
they would seem to prove the theory on the part of some 
and strengthen convictions on the part of others that 
there is a definite commercial value to art. 

But, in a broader way, these improvements made by a 
quasi public corporation encourage other improvements 
in a town, and in many instances the building of a hand- 
some station, with its little garden spots and approaches, 
has been the beginning of an era of civic enthusiasm that 
has transformed towns from their unkempt, ill-lighted and 
ill-paved condition into places where there could be 
some joy in living. 

It very often requires only a slight impetus to start a 
community on the way of great improvement, and the 
new " Depot " very often furnishes just this impetus. 

The station, which is the subject of this article, how- 
ever, is to become a part of what is already predestined 
by The Brickbuilder to be a "Model Village," and 
the author of this design realizes fully the responsibility 
that rests upon him in attempting to design a station that 
will be in artistic value commensurate with the other 
splendid buildings for this village that have been hypo- 
thetically erected before. 

The requirements have been classified in the follow- 
ing manner: Inasmuch as this is a suburban village of 
some three thousand inhabitants made up of the families 
of men who have their business in the near-by city, the 
station should provide a general waiting room where men 
and women may mix if they so desire, and also provide a 
retiring room for women and a smoking room for men. 

There should be a carriage entrance and a direct walk 
leading up to the entrance vestibule and directly into the 
ticket office and telegraph booth. 

For the confirmed "Commuter," however, the walks 
leading directly to the station platform would be always 
the most used. A monthly visit to the ticket seller is 
about the extent of this man's use of the station. For 
him the greatest virtue in a station plan is the directness 
with which he can get to the platform, in order that he 
may take time at home to finish his morning^meal and 
still get the " 7. 15 in." 

The only entrance to the depot from the track side is 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



227 




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'" >* J! 








■ v i'l 1 ■ °y *■ ■■,.,. ■» 



A VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION®®® 



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through the doors into the general waiting room and the 
only entrance from the park side through the vestibule, 
bringing both entrances under the control and observa- 
tion of the agent in charge. 

It is intended that the building be of brick of a brown- 
ish red color, and broad surfaces have been maintained, 
relieved by pattern work in brick and trimming in terra 
cotta of a slightly lighter shade. The broad band above 
the spring line of the arched waiting room windows is to 
be of terra cotta with a very flat ornamentation and intro- 



ducing very low colors either in diaper pattern or at 
random. 

The roof should be of a green clay tile and the metal 
work of copper and black iron. The terrace work and 
fountain should be of terra cotta, embellished with gar- 
den pottery. 

The long, low building seems best to emphasize the 
long sweep of the tracks and the only accents are the 
tower which recognizes the axis of the avenue and the 
gable over the span of the baggage platform. 




A VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION «•• 



2 21 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Arrangement of Photographs and Magazine Plates. 



BY WILLIAM STANLEY PAKKEK. 



Note. In publishing this series of articles it is our desire to present the various methods of keeping photographs 
and magazine plates that are in actual use in architects' offices. We do not expect, however, that the writers will be 
able to interview every member of the profession in each locality and it is our hope that any one who has developed a 
system of keeping this sort of material, which has not been discovered by this investigation, will give us the privilege 
of presenting it to the readers of The Brick builder. — Editors. 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 



INVESTIGATION in Boston of the different methods 
adopted by practising architects for the arrangement 
and filing of photographs and magazine plates seems to 
show that, at least with photographs of foreign examples, 
there is no one cure-all for the problem. The points of 
view are so different, the methods of reference to the data, 
the specialization of styles, the personal equations all vary 
so much that what may appeal to one man fits badly or 
not at all the requirements of another. There is, how- 
ever, very good reason for such a dissertation as is pro- 
posed in this series of articles; for few architects are 
found who are wholly satisfied with their system, however 
complete; few who do not find some lack, some blind- 
spot in their method. Perhaps in these reviews they 
may find an answer to their needs in the method of some 
contemporary, who, in one of those periods of leisure 
which are apt to come to those in the profession, has had 
time to evolve a solution of the vexing problem. 

Let us consider " Photographs " first. They comprise 
a very broad field, if we interpret the word liberally. 
Leaving out of consideration for the moment all " Maga- 
zine Plates,'' which we will consider as a class by them- 
selves, we might, with reason, group together as a single 
class of data all photographic reproductions of whatever 
sort, whether they be direct prints from the negative, 
such as the photographs we buy abroad, or process repro- 
ductions of a print, such as book illustrations. In this 
way we would include, therefore, not only the separate 
photographs that we collected on our own travels but our 
books on architecture, which are largely reproductions of 
what some one else has at one time collected and for one 
reason or another grouped together and reproduced for 
our benefit. 

It is clearly necessary, however, to divide our collec- 
tion of " Photographs " at the outset and leave our books 
as they are. They are and will continue to be of service 
to us to the extent that we are familiar with them. For 
their orderly arrangement and to assist our reference, a 
card catalogtie may well serve, but back of the catalogue 
must be an intimate knowledge of the library, if one 
would get the fullest benefit from it. 

The photographs will cover the work of the past only, 
for the work of the present is so fully covered by modern 
technical publications that it will fall under our second 
division of "Magazine Plates." But even here a com- 
plication arises because of the many photographs of old 
examples that are being reproduced now in the magazines, 
for they rightly belong with other illustrations of old 
work and offer another complication to the man who is 
looking for a comprehensive logical system. 



The problem, then, as to photographs, is reduced 
theoretically to the arrangement of the separate prints of 
old work collected from time to time and the plates of 
old work reproduced in magazines. No one seems to 
have attempted, however, to connect these two in prac- 
tice. No matter how the photographs themselves are 
arranged, the plates, although complimentary in value 
for reference purposes, are kept with the other plates 
which represent modern work. 

As to the residuum of photographs, then, which com- 
prises merely the separate prints, there is a wide differ- 
ence of opinion as to method of arrangement. This is 
traceable partly to the difference in manner of reference 
and partly to other practical considerations. There are 
three methods I have found used. 

First, the prints mounted on the leaves of albums. 

Second, mounted or otherwise fastened to leaves and 
held together in groups either by a cord passing through 
eyelets, or by the more modern loose-leaf binder. 

Third, mounted on cards and kept detached in groups. 

By the first method the photographs are irrevocably 
fixed in place in whatever order may originally have 
been chosen, but it is claimed by those who favor this 
way that individual prints are not lost as they would be 
if they were on separate cards. 

By the second method the photographs can be rear- 
ranged at any time and also any single print or set of 
prints can be removed from the binder and used sepa 
rately. This of course gives the possibility of loss when 
once a plate is removed. 

By the third method the collection is made up of 
separate units, any one of which is available by itself, 
unencumbered by a weighty volume or the need of any 
release from a temporary binding. Those who favor this 
plan acknowledge the chance of loss but see in the 
arrangement a flexibility and an ease of handling which 
make them willing to take the chance. 

The manner in which one refers to his photographs 
has a distinct effect naturally on the arrangement which 
he prefers. Broadly speaking, there seem to be two 
different points of view in this regard. The one of the 
man who refers to his collection for some particular ex- 
ample which has a bearing on the subject in hand and 
which he remembers byname, as, for instance, St. Paul's 
Cathedral or the Campanile at Siena; the other, of the 
man who seeks for suggestion along some line, some 
type of work, such as country houses or city churches, 
some class of detail, such as plaster ceilings or Gothic 
balustrades, not knowing in exactly what building he 
may find it. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



229 



The first man naturally demands a geographical 
arrangement, whether card catalogued in detail or not, 
and I have found him generally satisfied with bound 
volumes, that is to say the first method. The second man 
demands an arrangement based rather on types of work. 
If he prefers to keep his photographs bound up in vol- 
umes, for safety, he is forced, perhaps reluctantly, to 
spend more time in his search, for he must pass over all 
his photographs geographically in order to find the ex- 
amples of detail which he seeks, for I have found no 
instance of a collection bound in a definitely fixed order 
that was arranged by " type," that is, ecclesiastical work 
grouped together, domestic work together, and so on. 
Indeed, it is hardly conceivable that one would care to do 
that. It seems quite logical, therefore, that the men 
who generally refer to photographs in this way lean to- 
wards a more elastic arrangement and favor either the 
loose-leaf binder or the separately mounted detached 
photographs, that is, the second or third method. The 
photographs can then be arranged by "type," but at any 
time be temporarily assembled geographically or vice- 
versa. 

Of those who advocate separate mounts none seem to 
have done more than make a first grouping of the photo- 
graphs either typically or geographically, if we except the 
firm which has seen fit to adopt the system of cataloguing 
described in a previous number of The Brickbuilder. 

It is quite possible there are valuable examples which 
I have not unearthed, but the trend of opinions and con- 
ditions among the thirty odd firms of which I have 
knowledge leads me to feel that the possibility is remote. 

Only one of that number, having arranged his collec- 
tion primarily, has catalogued it in detail, including his 
books as well as other photographs and prints. This cat- 
alogue, however, is solely along the lines of geographical 
division and while it allows him to find readily all his 
illustrations of any one building it gives no cross line of 
attack, by the way of "type," for instance; but as he 
does not demand this in his use of his material it is com- 
plete forhis purposes. 

MAGAZINE PLATES 

With "Magazine Plates" the problem is quite differ- 
ent. Instead of a more or less fixed collection, which 
grows only at such intervals as the owner travels abroad, 
we have a constantly increasing mass of material which 
demands incessant attention. It sweeps in on us each 
month like a flood, and unless we entrench ourselves be- 
hind some system which shall act as a breakwater, to 
shatter the waves into orderly ripples, we find ourselves 
knee-deep in an accumulation of unassorted data, thirst- 
ing for examples we cannot find and moaning to our- 
selves, "Water, water everywhere and not a drop to 
drink." , 

There is an old conundrum which asks " How can you 
learn Book-keeping in three words?" and the answer is 
"Never lend them." If we apply this question to 
" Plate-keeping," the answer may well be " Throw away 
most." This seems to be the almost unanimous opinion 
as to the first step in the process. A comparatively small, 
carefully selected group is far more valuable than an 
elephantine collection which contains all those plates which 
the over-cautious mind feels "may come in handy 



some time." The physical properties and actual cost of 
the material, which differ so greatly from those of a 
photograph collection, define largely the form of arrange- 
ment. The plates lack the stability of the mounted 
photographs, but it would never occur to one to mount 
them, of course, on account of expense; they cannot, 
therefore, be stood up on shelves and arranged as 
mounted photographs can be. The collection is constantly 
growing and whatever the groups into which it is divided, 
each must be capable of indefinite expansion. A set of 
fixed albums, therefore, does not apply. 

In actual practice, I have found the same method, 
fundamentally, in almost every case, where there was 
any method at all. The desirable plates having been 
culled, they are subdivided according to type of work with 
further subdivisions of locality, construction, etc., each 
division being kept intact either by some form of port- 
folio or folder, in which the plates are all separate, or by 
some form of temporary binding in which the plates are 
fastened in sets. 

Here, again, we find the same two points of view ex- 
pressed as in the case of photographs. The man, who, 
having found the desired plate, wants to use it by itself, 
keeps it loose in some folder; the man who, having 
selected the plates he considers of real value wishes more 
surely to prevent their loss, binds them in sets which are 
less easily misplaced than a single sheet. There can be 
no argument between the two men as to which is the best 
system. It is idle to suggest to the man who wants to 
go north that the road to the south is less muddy. It is 
a matter or choice to fit individual opinions. 

Each point of view is worked out in several different 
ways. In one case, I found the loose-leaf binder, with 
its split rings and stiff covers, used to group the plates 
into the form of books, each plate being reinforced in 
some way on the binding edge to prevent tearing, where 
the holes are punched for the rings to pass through. 
About eighty plates can be put in each binder with the 
name of the group marked on the back of the bind- 
ing, so that, with the binders standing in rows on a shelf, 
any one can be easily found. 

Another way that has been developed is to fasten to 
the edge of each plate a binding of cloth reinforced with 
a strip of thin card. These bindings are inexpensive and 
commercially available. Through holes punched in this 
strip of card the plates are bound together with paper 
covers by means of metal clips. Each group is numbered 
on the cover and the subject indexed in a card catalogue 
with reference to the number of the group. The groups 
are hung in numerical order on iron rods fastened at 
right angles to backs of cupboards, the rods being about 
one and one-half inches on centers, rings on the binding 
clips sliding over the rods. The depth of the cupboard 
is sufficient to take the length of a plate. With this 
scheme only the edges of the groups are in view, the num- 
ber on each cover being seen by a slight moving of the 
edge. This arrangement makes a card catalogue neces- 
sary to the use of the collection. Each of these methods 
takes up considerably more space per plate than any of the 
systems in which the plates are not bound together. 

According to my investigations, the number of firms 
that bind the plates together in some way or other is to 
the number that prefer to group them together loosely, 



230 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



about as two is to seven. Some of these latter merely 
slip the plates into shallow drawers, some put them in 
brown paper folders on shelves, some in portfolios of one 
kind or another, but the majority, not only of those who 
prefer this general arrangement, but even of all those 
who have any method at all, put their plates in vertical 
files. With this arrangement divisional guides mark the 
various groups and subdivisions and any division can be 
easily removed for scanning and replaced in its proper 
position. This system is as compact as is possible, per- 
fectly flexible and expansive. In one case, I found the 
divisional guides numbered, and reference was had by 
means of a small card catalogue. The advantage seems 
somewhat doubtful, for reference is more indirect than 
where the name of the group and of each sub division is 
marked on the top of the divisional guides. If the drawer 
is deep enough to insure the tops of the divisional guides 
being always visible above the sometimes unruly plates, 
then direct reference to the groups, which woaftl be 
arranged alphabetically, would seem the simplest way. 



CONCRETE AGAIN. 

r pHE official report on the collapse of the Amsden 
X Building, at South Framingham, Mass., by which 
twelve workmen were killed and others injured, lays the 
cause to the failure of the concrete foundation piers. These 
supported iron columns on which rested the first floor. 
The piers were so built that their lower ends stood in fif- 
teen inches of water. On examination the concrete was 



The plates are marked in some way, either by the title 
or the number of the folder in which they belong. 

This system, as is true of all the variations of the 
loose sheet type, has an advantage over the other type in 
that there is less work required in the constant filing of 
new plates: a mark on the plate and the dropping of it 
into its folder is all that is needed. 

•It is interesting to note that while with photographs 
some preferred to refer to them geographically, they did 
not follow the same line with plates, but referred to them 
by type and grouped them accordingly. 

It is quite evident, from such survey of Boston effices 
as I have been able to make, that here at least there is no 
revolution in progress. Few men have developed any 
special system, the large majority has sought the easiest 
way out of the difficulty. And that is significant of 
the truth that the way out must be easy. No complicated 
scheme will survive the test of practice. Whatever way 
be adopted it must be possible to keep it up at small ex- 
pense of time and thought. 



found to be almost as soft as when placed in the wooden 
boxes. It appeared as if cast into the form from a height, 
which caused a separation of the sand, cement and gravel. 
The next step is to fix the blame. Was the concrete 
poorly mixed? Was there water in the forms- Could 
springs have opened under each foundation? Was there 
proper inspection by the architects? Was the builder 
competent ? 




'HE EAST FRONT, HORHA.M HALL, ESSEX, ENGLAND. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



231 



The Village Cottage. II 



BY HUBERT G. RIPLEY AND A. J. RUSSELL. 



THE candlestick-maker's father was a Russian who 
got away to England "between two days" at a 
time when few of his companions were so lucky. After 
a year or two, to get his breath again, he married a stolid 
daughter of Kent, settled down to his old trade in brass 
and copper, and brought up a fine family in peace and 
forgetfulness. His eldest son he called Orloff, and 
taught him the high lights and shadows of his art, — 
principally high lights. Now, Orloff was, of course, con- 
vinced that he was a better craftsman than the old man, 
but he was generous; so, rather than set up for himself 
in England and make a pauper of his father by taking 
away all his trade, he embraced his parents and his 
brothers and his sister — he had only one — and sailed for 
Boston. 

With the trials of Orloff in his early days in Boston 
we are not concerned, but with his days of prosperity we 
have much to do. He soon found that making Russian 
brass and copper work in Chelsea and selling it on Boyls- 
ton Street was not unprofitable; and besides, as his 
father had been an organizer before him, so Orloff, too, 
found it worth while to regulate the business of his com- 
petitors. So he formed a trust, sold out his foundry, and 
retired to a suburb to begin his troubles ; for Mrs. Orloff, 
whom he had married early, now saw her way to 
" mingle with the Face Cards." And properly to mingle 
she must have a house, just a modest little house. That 
is what she said, and Orloff believed her and let her bring 
the rising young architect of the town — there is always 
one — to tea. Thus did Orloff put his foot in it; but not 
his house, not yet, but soon. 

Orloff let them have their own way, — the R. Y. A. ,* 
Mrs. Orloff and the daughter of the house, hereafter to 
be known as the only child. Orloff made but one con- 
dition, the house must remind him of Kent, the place he 
had known enough to leave. The O. C, f who had, in 
the course of her education, been on a real self-conducted 
tour to Italy and the Orient, and had once taken her 
coffee on the Terrace at Amain, felt that no house would 
be complete for her without a Pergola and a dressing- 



room. In vain did Orloff protest that personally he had 
no desire to sit among the bugs. The O. C. made it 
clear to him, without raising her voice, that there were 
other places he might sit, — the back stoop, the cellar 
and the conservatory, where his pipe smoke might, for 
once, do some good, were among the localities she 
suggested. She also hinted that a young lady in white, 
with a pink parasol and lavender shadows on her face, 
where the grape leaves intercepted the sunlight, was a 
pleasant thing to have in the front yard, if only for deco- 
rative purposes; and Orloff knew he was beaten. As to 
the dressing-room, he also gave in, though he wondered 
half aloud why any girl should want a dressing-room 
when she had her own room and the hall upstairs and 
also kept the bathroom door locked all the hours in the 
morning when everybody else wanted to use it. This 
brought the O. C. to the question of another bath of her 
own. She was glad to have Father lead up to it so aptly. 
But it was no use. Orloff appreciated too well the value 
of good brass and what it had done for him to be willing 
to have any more of it than absolutely necessary hidden 
away in the walls in the basely-corrupted form of water- 
pipes. 

In the end they came to some sort of an agreement, 
except, of course, the R. Y. A. — they never do agree to 
what clients want; it isn't professional. The house 
was finished. There was a place to sit, a place to eat, 
two places to wash the dishes and a place to watch young 
plants unfold their souls. There were real bricks on the 
walls and terra cotta, too, and real regularly irregular 
slates on the roof. A stable for the horse and the cow — 
they wouldn't let the old man keep a pig — "It's so 
common, you know," said the O. C. — and Orloff was 
easily induced to smoke in cellar the almost all the time 
that he wasn't doing the plants good in the conservatory, 
with the doors to the dining-room tight shut, with metal 
weather strips besides. On the whole, they like the 
house; e'ven the Face Cards like it. Do you? 



* Rising Young Architect. 
tOnly Child. 






232 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



233 




.THlED.fi.ooe. 



A ROW OF HOUSES, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 



2 34 



THE BRICKBUILPKR 





A ROW OF HOUSES, WASHINGTON, D. C. , 
Wood. Donn & Deraing, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



235 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



A Small Hospital for the Treatment of Tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York. 



SCOPES & FUESTMANN, ARCHITECTS. 



WHILE the hospital is a purely local institution, de- 
signed especially to meet peculiar requirements, it 
has, nevertheless, certain features which would naturally 
commend themselves to those who have under considera- 
tion the erection of small hospitals for the treatment of 
tuberculosis, and more especially may this hospital serve 
as something of a model when it is known that its plans 
have stood the test of competition, and that they have had 
the personal supervision of those who have been pioneers 
in this country in the open-air treatment of pulmonary 
tuberculosis. 

The site is admirably adapted for the building, being 
sixty feet above Saranac Lake and commanding a good 
view of the surrounding country. 

One of the chief objects of this design was to intro- 
duce as much sunlight as possible into the patients' 
rooms and still retain good ample porch area. 



Rooms ten feet by thirteen feet six inches have 
been provided for twelve acute and eight convalescing 
patients. The twelve rooms for acute cases, which are 
confined to the first and second floors, open directly 
on to spacious, covered porches (one hundred square 
feet being allowed each patient). Each room has two 
windows, one of which is wide enough to admit a 
bed being wheeled through. These windows give 
good ventilation, together with ample sunlight, which 
is one of the chief points in designing a building of this 
nature. 

The eight rooms on the third floor will be used for 
convalescing patients who will be able to use the lower 
porches for their out-door cure. 

The plumbing is separated from all corridors by two 
doors. The entrance is well placed, giving all patients 
the privacy which is desired. 



236 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Materials for Hospital Floors. 



BY HENK 

FOR a great many years the hospital floor has been the 
subject for much discussion and experiment, but as 
yet it is doubtful whether a "perfect floor " has been dis- 
covered. Inquiry among those who have had long and 
varied experience in building hospitals has not resulted 
in establishing the fact that there is to-day a type of floor 
which meets satisfactorily all requirements. Nearly 
every kind of material is used, from wood to the patented 
systems, and while nearly all fulfill, in a degree, the dif- 
ferent requirements, — some to a greater extent than 
others, — ■ there is no one material which is satisfactory 
in all respects. * 

A " perfect floor " for a hospital must be non-absorb- 
ent, fireproof, germ proof, sound proof, free from liabil- 
ity to crack, uniform in color, non-stainable by acids, 
easily kept clean and bright and pleasing to the eye. 

The sun rooms, parlors, offices, nurses rooms, etc., 
are not called upon to withstand all the requirements 
above mentioned, but such rooms as the operating room, 
morgue, laboratories, etherizing room, sterilizing rooms, 
kitchens, drug rooms, dispensary, corridors, etc., are sub- 
jected to conditions which make a "perfect floor" abso- 
lutely necessary. 

In the older hospitals we find wood, terrazzo, lead, 
tile and marble used. In the modern hospitals, tiles of 
new composition, glass, rubber and many styles of well 
made monolithic floors. 

On the market are innumerable " perfect floors," in 
tile form. Besides these there are the monolithic floors, 
laid in plastic state, which are made up of sawdust, asbes- 
tos, cork, etc., in most cases with cement and sand as a 
base. Terrazzo in its many forms must also be included 
in this list, together with many kinds of blind-nailed wood 
floors. 

It must be conceded that a properly made monolithic 
floor which will not contract or expand, and which will 
meet the other requirements, would be the ideal floor for 
hospitals. 

If wood is to be used for the wards, the best quality, 
clear rift, southern hard pine, strictly free from defects, 
tongued and grooved, thoroughly kiln-dried, blind nailed, 
and, if possible, laid in winter, makes an admirable floor. 
Rock maple, birch and rift-sawed Georgia pine, if bone- 
dry, make good flooring, but have a tendency to curl, 
twist and shrink lengthwise. Teakwood blocks, laid on 
end, have been used in England with some success. Teak- 
wood is not difficult to tool and contains an oil which ren- 
ders it imperishable. As it resists dampness, heat and 
cold, there is an absence of swelling, shrinking or warping. 

All wood floors must be thoroughly rubbed down, 
waxed and varnished, and experience shows that this 
treatment must be given floors under constant wear, too 
often to make them practicable. Besides, wood is an 
organic material, and as such is a harbor and breeding 
place for germs, and thus is not sanitary, making it un- 
fitted and unsuited for a hospital floor. Notwithstanding 
this, there are many architects and hospital superintend- 
ents of large experience in the building of hospitals who 
to-day prefer to use wood for floors in preference to all 
other materials* simply because there is, as has been 



Y CARLETON. 

stated before, no one material which meets all the re- 
quirements. 

Floors of terrazzo have been used, but it has little to 
recommend it except cheapness. It wears fairly well and 
feels good under foot, but the smaller pieces of marble 
work loose, leaving depressions which fill with dirt and 
are impossible to clean. If terrazzo is to be used, it 
should be separated by four inch to six inch strips of 
good Tennessee .marble, otherwise unavoidable cracks 
will zigzag across the room. 

Vitrified tiles, in the innumerable makes, shapes and 
sizes, form a floor which is beautiful, clean and perfect in 
itself, but requires too many joints, which absorb grease 
and dirt. There can be no question concerning their 
value for wall treatment. Here the joints can be made 
fine, and as there is no burden put upon them the liabil- 
ity to chip and loosen is too remote for consideration. 

Lead was used in a western hospital with good sani- 
tary results, but its use is to be avoided on account of its 
looks and lack of adaptation to good construction. 

There are many forms of interlocking rubber tiles, 
for which the makers have many claims. They have 
been used extensively and to a large degree have given 
satisfaction. They are practically noiseless and wear 
well, and are made in a variety of agreeable patterns. 

The plastic floors, composed of sawdust, asbestos, etc., 
with cement as a base, show stains, disintegrate and pre- 
sent a worm-eaten appearance. If the material cemented 
together was of the same durability, so it would wear an 
even surface, a flooring of this character would be an 
ideal one. 

Taylorite flooring, which is similar in composition to 
the above mentioned, seems to be the best of these floors. 
It is laid in plastic form and in standard colors; is fire- 
proof and can be nailed, sawed or drilled. 

The composition know as the Crown Sanitary Floor- 
ing, has been used with good success in many hospitals. 
This floor has a fine feeling to the feet and is not slippery 
The manufacturers make claim that their floors are fire- 
proof, and non-absorbent. From samples the writer 
thinks that the material would soon wear down and small 
fissures would appear in the surface which is undesirable. 

Compressed squares of cork have been used for floors 
of corridors, offices, etc., and show good durability. 
They are sound proof, claimed to be non-absorbent, but 
are hard to clean and repair, and in flushing and wash- 
ing down are likely to swell and warp. 

For operating rooms, morgues, lavatories, etc., a 
flooring known as Novus Sanitary Glass has most of the 
requisites for a good floor. Its disadvantages are few. 
Its honed surface has the appearance of white statuary 
marble, and it can be laid in any size and thickness. A 
cove is made six inches high and twenty-four inches long, 
which makes very few vertical joints, which heretofore has 
been a disadvantage. The well-known tendency of glass 
to chip at the edge seems likely in this case, but the manu- 
facturers claim, with their perfectly ground joints, to have 
obviated this. Under the operating table this glass has 
been painted a dark red on the under side which does not 
show stains. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



237 




THE BUCKINGHAM BUILDING. WATERBURY, CONN. Mi 



;ad & White, Architects. 




AUDRAIN BLOCK, NEWPORT, R. I. 



Bruce, Price & de Sibour, Architects. 



2*8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN 
INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. 

THE approaching convention of the American Insti. 
tute, to be held in Washington, January 7, 8 and 9, 
promises to be a very interesting occasion. It will be 
the golden Jubilee convention, and special efforts arc- 
being made to render the occasion memorable in many 
ways. Two years ago the Institute held a most remark- 
able dinner, at which were present the dignitaries in 
science, art and religion whose names are most prom- 
inent throughout the country. A year ago the Institute 
wisely refrained from even trying to emulate the former 
notable affair, but this year official Washington will not 
only be represented, but national architectural bodies of 
the world, as well as national kindred organizations in 
sculpture and painting, have been invited to send delegates. 
The architectural schools throughout the country, which 
have increased so surprisingly in number and efficiency, 
will come in for a full representation. The American 
Institute was the first attempt to encourage architectural 
study, and as such it preceded, by a number of years, the 
founding of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
which was the first regularly organized architectural 
school. At this convention, also, the Institute will make 
its first public recognition of distinguished services in 
architecture by the award of a gold medal. The name of 
the proposed recipient of this honor is supposed to be a 
secret, but the distinguished Englishman who will be the 
guest of honor on this occasion is well known to every 
architect conversant with the recent successes in English 
architecture. So much of interest is proposed for the 
meetings of the Institute that the sessions will be con- 
fined entirely to the business, the celebrations, the read- 
ing of regular reports and the general discussions, there 
being no papers presented. 



FIREPROOFING CONCRETE. 

AFTER having been heralded so loudly by its per- 
sistent champions as a panacea for all structural 





CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

S. S. Beaman, Architect. 

Built of Light Gray Standard Brick, furnished by the Columbia Brick 

and Terra Cotta Co., F. H. McDonald, Agent. 



FIGURE FOR A TERMINAL POST. 
Executed in Terra Cotta, by The Winkle Terra Cotta Co. 

and fire resistive woes, it is rather amusing to see the 
propositions bravely put forth that reinforced concrete 
should be protected against fire, and especially that the 
fireproof material selected should be terra cotta. Captain 
John S. Sewell is quoted in one of the recent architec- 
tural publications as advising that reinforced concrete 
should be treated as a structural material, superior in 
many respects to steel, but one demanding protection 
from fire. The logical line of development is reinforced 
concrete covered with terra cotta. He suggests using 
terra cotta in place of a good deal of the wooden center- 
ing which becomes such a serious item of expense in the 
execution of reinforced concrete. We heartily concur 
with what he suggests. Our experience has shown 
repeatedly that concrete was never intended to success- 
fully resist excessive heat, and its structural value is apt 
to be ruined by even an ordinary fire, although it may 
last sufficiently to protect the steel within it. But if we 
are to cover our reinforced concrete with terra cotta win- 
not go back to first principles, omit the concrete entirely 
and revert to steel beams and columns, which can be 
tested and examined in every detail before they are used, 
and protect them with the only material which can 
successfully pass through a severe fire, namely, porous 
terra cotta. 

A recent issue of one of the popular magazines pre- 
sented a very optimistic picture of the future of concrete 
and quoted the wail of one of the trades unions, to the 
effect that unless something was done immediately to 
stop the rapid development of concrete the poor brick 
layers would be out of a job and would be driven to 
starvation. We believe they need have no apprehension 
on this score. Good concrete has come to stay and is 
getting better and more usable every year. Its flexibil- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



239 



ity, the 
speed with 
which it 
can be put 
in place 
and its 
absol u t e 
stren gt h 
recom- 
mend it as 
a substi- 
tute for 
many ma- 
terials. It 
will, we 

believe, very largely displace wood in the not far distant 

future. It will also serve as an inexpensive substitute 

for many forms of stone, but we 

cannot see any evidence that it is 

at all likely to supplant burned 

clay. 





DETAIL BY JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, ARCHITECT. 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co., Makers. 



DETAIL BY W. R. WALKER & SON, ARCHITECTS. 
Standard Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



ARCHITECTS' LIENS. 

AS the laws stand to-day in 
most of our states, the archi- 
tect has a pretty poor chance to 
recover his commission if he is so 
unfortunate or so unwise as to 
have dealings with a client who is 
deliberately dishonest. The ar- 
chitect is the last person connected 
with a building operation to re- 
ceive his pay. A period of never 
less than thirty days and some- 
times three or four months, elapses 
after the building is entirely com- 
pleted, before the accounts can be 
settled up, the final commissions 
estimated, and the architect be in 
a position to legally claim final 
payment. His only recourse then 
is by suit at law, and if he is deal- 
ing with a tricky client the chances 
of recovery are almost impercep- 
tible. Every mechanic has the right to put a lien upon a 
building in connection with which he has been employed 
to any extent whatever, and this lien right does not ex- 
pire until his work is entirely completed. The architect 
has no such right. 
After giving his best 
thought and atten- 
tion to the building, 
closing up all the ac- 
counts in the owners' 
interests, his request 
for final payment is 
not infrequently met 
with the cool state- 
ment that there is no 
money left and that 
therefore he cannot 
have any. If he 




shows his 
proper in- 
dignation 
he is told 
he must do 
nothin g , 
but must 
bear it as 
best he 
can. It is 
not right 
that the 

professional man should be so at the mercy of his clients, 
and the lien law ought to be extended so as to afford 
the same protection to architects and engineers that is 
now accorded to every mechanic. The protective asso- 
ciations which have been formed in some cities, especially 
in Paris, have done a great deal to 
defend the architects and to win 
for them their legal rights, but if 
an architect could tie up an owner 
for non-payment in the same way 
the contractors can now, there 
would be far less opportunity to 
cut down the cost of a building by 
not paying the architect. 



PANEL FOR REREDOS, TRINITY CHURCH, 

COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

F. L. Packard, Architect. 

Colored Mat Crlaze Tile by the Rookwood Pottery Co. 




ENGINEERING BUILDING OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY. 

J. N. Bradford, Architect. 
Roofed with American "S" Tile made by The Cincinnati Roofing Tile and 

Terra Cotta Co. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS 
FOR OCTOBER. 

OFFICIAL reports from some 
fifty leading cities received 
by The A merican Contractor, New 
York, compiled and tabulated, 
show that building operations con- 
tinue decidedly active. A gratify- 
ing feature of the situation is the 
circumstance that the present 
prosperity and bright prospects 
are wide-spread, all sections of the 
country sharing in them. While 
some distinct losses are recorded, 
as compared with the reports for 
the corresponding month of last 
year, notably in New York, these 
are offset by gains in other leading cities aggregating 3 
per cent. The principal gains for October as compared 
with the corresponding month of 1905 are: Atlanta, 75; 
Bridgeport, 108; Chicago, 6; Chattanooga, 150; Detroit, 

65; Harrisburg, 41; 
Indianapolis, 25 ; Los 
Angeles, 37 ; Milwau- 
kee, 49 ; Mobile, 71 ; 
Nashville, 34; Phila- 
delphia, 120; Port- 
land, 132 ; St. Louis, 
<So ; St. Paul, 36 ; Se- 
attle, 4 1 8 ; Toledo, 98 ; 
Tacoma, 172; Wash- 
ington^. It appears 
from these figures 
that the Pacific coast 
is in a condition of 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL BY HILL & STOUT, ARCHITECTS. 
South Araboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



decided 
prosperity 
from a 
buildi ng 
stand- 
point, 
while St. 
Louis con- 
tinues to 
maintain 
the build- 
ing pace at 
which she 
has been 
going dur- 
i n g the 
past few 
years. The 
chief re- 
ported 
losses are 



as follows : Buffalo, 34 ; Cincinnati, 66 ; Louisville, 20 ; New 
York 30; Pittsburg, 23; Spokane, 35. Though less new 
business is projected in New York, it is still very large, 
while all contracts representing the investment of vast 
sums, are being carried into effect. When the high price 
of labor and material is taken into account, the showing 
made is quite remarkable. The outlook is excellent and 
it is quite clear that the present building movement has 
not yet reached a climax, as might have been expected. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 
BUILDING DETAILvS, PART ONE, consisting of 
ten drawings, redrawn with the greatest care from.the 
architects' working drawings of executed work, and veri- 
fied with the work as executed. 

These details are published with a view of giving the 
profession exact data of executed work for reference when 

designing 
similar 
work, and 
while sel- 
dom , if 
ever, the 
same de- 
tail can be 
used for 
other than 
the place 
for which 
it was de- 
si g n e d , 
the main 
points of 
construc- 
tion will 
apply in 
all similar 
work ; and 
these de- 
tails will 
■ „ „ „ „ be found 

DETAIL BY C B. J. SNYDER, ARCHITECT. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. of great 





value, saving 
both time and 
money when 
working out 
similar prob- 
lems. 

They are 
accurat e 1 y 
drawn to 
scale, the di- 
agrams at 
one-half inch 

to the foot and the details at three inches to the foot (one- 
-quarter full size) and in addition have the principal 
dimensions figured. 

The different kinds of materials are clearly indicated 
and the hardware and other accessories shown or noted. 

The plates are sixteen inches by twenty-two inches in 
size. Frank M. Snyder, 2754 Broadway, New York. 
Price $1.50 



DETAIL BY PRICE A MCLANAHAN, ARCHITECTS. 
Conkhng- Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



IN GENERAL. 



Morrison H. Vail, architect, of Dixon, 111., who rep- 
resented the Illinois Chapter, A. I. A., at the Interna- 
tional Congress of Architects, London, has been elected 
an honorary member by the Socie'te' Royale des Archi- 
tects, dAnvers, Belgium. 

Mottu & White, architects, Baltimore, have removed 
their of- 
fices to the 
Profes- 
sional 
Building, 
Charles 
Street. 

Hugh 
S. Magru- 
der, archi- 
tect, Balti- 
more, has 
removed 
his office 
to 1 1 East 
Pleasan t 
Street. 



The 
house at 
B rist ol , 
Conn., 
Davis & 
Br o o k s , 
architects, 
illustrated 
in this 
number, 
was roofed 
with tile 
made by the 
Ludowici- 
C e la don 
Company. 




ROSE WINDOW, CHURCH OF ATONEMENT, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Henry Anderson, Architect. 

Tracery made by Excelsior Terra Cotta Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 




The Buck- 
ingham Build- 
ing at Water- 
bury, Conn., 
McKim, Mead 
& White, archi- 
tects, is built 
almost entire- 
ly of architec- 
tural terra 
cotta, made by 
the Atlantic 
Terra Cotta 
Company. 



To quote 
a prominent 
New York 
architect, "It 
is necessary 
to make a 
tour of New 
York every 
two weeks in 
order to keep 
up with the 
progress of 
the building 
art." As a 




CORINTHIAN CAPITAL MADE BY THE NEW 
JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 



CAPITAL BY GEORGE A. RICH, 
ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta 
Co., Makers. 

The Henderson house, Wash- 
ington, George Oakley Totten,Jr. , 
architect, is trimmed with archi- 
tectural terra cotta, made by the 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta 
Company. 



ft 

] 



DETAIL BY ROOT & SIEMENS, ARCHITECTS. 

The Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



matter of fact, the buildings actu- 
ally under way to-day would in 
themselves make a city of no mean 
proportions, and one of the great- 
est architectural beauty. In pub- 
lic buildings, such as schools, 
libraries, civic buildings, bridges, 
etc., New York has $200,000,000 
worth now under way. 



The trim for the new City Hall at Marlborough, Mass., 
Allen & Collens and J. Lawrence Berry, architects, is of 
terra cotta, made by the Excelsior Terra Cotta Company. 

Shawnee Brick, made by the Ohio Mining & Manu- 
facturing Company, will be used in the new Y. M. C. A. 
building and the Eccentric Club building at Gloversville, 
N. Y. , also the Baldwin Seminary at Staunton, Va. 




U. S. CUSTOM HOUSE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Hornblower & Marshall, Architects. 

Roofed with 6x9 Promenade Tiles made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 

Fifteen gate houses for the American Pipe Manufac- 
turing Company of Philadelphia will be roofed with 
graduated tiles, made by the Edwin Bennett's Roofing 
Tile Works. These gate houses are. located in different 
parts of Pennsylvania. 



ARCHITECTURAL DRAUGHTSMAN WANTED — A first- 
class architectural draughtsman can secure permanent employment 
at good salary. Address Fred Soderberg, Union Savings Bank 
Building, Oakland, California. 



Architectural Reprint Publications 



77 ■ E take pleasure in announcing that we will have ready for distribution in 
111 January, 1907, a complete "REPRINT EDITION" of "MONUMENT 
»V COMMEMORATIF," by A. Guilbert — same'size as original Price in 
paper $i 25 to subscribers, $1.75 to others, or $2.50 in specially designed half 
buckram portfolios. 

Also that we have portfolios ready for Cesar Daly, Vols. I and II and Le 
Tarouilly, Vol III. 

In Volume VII, No. 1, Feb., 1907, we will begin a "REPRINT" of "FRAG- 
MENTS ANTIQUE," by DESPOUY, which we will complete in Vol VIII. 

We have Prentice's "Later Renaissance Architecture in Spain" (new edition) 
at $5.00 in portfolio, and Batty Langley at $2 50. Send for circulars. 



Regular Edition. S3 so per year. 

Qua^y by The Rcpflllt Co., IllC. ^ ^-^et, N.W. 



Washington, D. C. 




Xmae Books for 
the Hrcbitect 



ROME, in 

I 7 color 
paintings, by 
Alberto Pisa. 
The text is by M. A. R. 
Tuker and Hope Malleson. 
Cloth bound, 267 pages. 

$6.00, carriage paid. 



Send for my special catalog of 
Xmas books for the architect, 
which lists 50 titles, each con- 
taining 25 to 100 exquisite repro- 
ductions of color renderings, 
and 50 leading books on archi- 
tecture and gardens. Also a few 
books of interest to the young 
draughtsman. 



M. A. VINSON 

1 1 15 CITIZENS BUILDING CLEVELAND, OHIO 



24: 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




The Brickbuilder 
Competition for a Bank Building 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 

COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 7, 1907 




PROGRAMME 

HE problem is a One Story Bank Building. The location may be assumed in any city 
or large town of the United States. The site is at the corner of two streets of equal 
importance. The lot itself is perfectly level. The building is to occupy an area of not 
over 5,000 square feet, its shape being a square or a rectangle of any desired 
proportion. 

Above a base course of granite (not over 2 feet high) the exterior and interior of 
the building are to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta. employing colored terra cotta, 
in at least portions, of the walls. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of 
notes, printed on the same sheet with elevations and plan, at a size which will permit of two-thirds 
reduction. 

The following points must be considered in the design : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the architectural problem. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the 
development or modification of style, by reason of the material, will be taken largely into 
consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage 
the study of the use of Architectural Terra Cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the de- 
signs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to 
be executed. 

The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta and the 
sizes of the blocks. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: 

On one sheet, two elevations (front and side | drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch, and on 
the same sheet the floor plan at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. Also the color key or notes. 

On a second sheet half-inch scale details of main entrance, windows and cornice, and any 
other portions of the building necessary to interpret the design. Also a section showing the 
best view of the interior at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be 24 inches by 36 inches. 

The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the wa'-ls on the 
plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nam de plume or device, and accompanying same 
is to be a sealed envelope with the noni de plume on the exterior and containing the true name 
and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before January 7, 1907. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is 
reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned 
may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality 
of the terra cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 

ROGERS & MANSON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 141. 






5e.co/^d Floor 






V • 



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FLOOR PLANS. GROUP 1. 

ROW OF HOUSES AT CHICAGO 
Mann & MacNeille, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 142. 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 143. 




.Slco/sd Floor, 




~i r 



FLOOR PLANS. GROUP 3. 

ROW OF HOUSES' AT CHICAGO. 
Mann & MacNeille, Architects. 



THE BRIC K B U ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 144. 




GROUP 1: PLANS SHOWN ON PLATE 141. 




GROUP 2. PLANS SHOWN ON PLATE 142. 

TWO ROWS OF HOUSES AT CHICAGO. 
Mann & MacNeille, Architects. 









THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 145. 




P»V 



GROUP 3. PLANS SHOWN ON PLATE 143. 







REAR OF GROUP 3. SHOWING COMMUNITY YARD ARRANGEMENT. 

ROW OF HOUSES AT CHICAGO. 
Mann & MacNeille. Architects. 



THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 146. 





TWO DOUBLE HOUSES. BROOKLYN. N. Y 
Kirby, Petit & Green, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 147. 




X t 

2 < 

O |" 

cr £ 

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CD 

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THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 148. 




DETAIL OF FRONT 

NLW CITY HALL. MARLBORO, MASS. 
Allen & Collens and J. Lawrence Berry Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 149. 




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THE BRI CKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATEM50. 




HOUSE FOR HON. J. B. HENDERSON, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
George Oakley Totten, Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 151 




Plan or .Second Floor, 




HOUSE FOR 

CHARLES T. TRFADWAY, ESQ. 

BRISTOL. CONN. 

Davis & Brooks Architects. 



Plan c FiroT Floor. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 15, NO. 11. 



PLATE 152. 










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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. PLATE 153. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 11. p LATE I54 . 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XV 



DECEMBER 1906 



Number i 2 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March p., 1892. 



Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $S-°° V cr >' e '" 

Single numbers ............•••.•■■• 5° cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terta Cotta 

Brick .... 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following ordei 



PAGH 




11 


Brick Enameled 


II 


Clay Chemicals 


11 and III 


Fireproofing 


III 


Roofing Tile 



PACK 

III and IV 
IV 

IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

MADISON SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NEW YORK, McKIM, MEAD & WHITE. 
THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY CHAPEL, NEW YORK, HOWELLS & STOKES. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

STANFORD WHITE— HIS WORK .'.". ... C. Howard Walker 24,} 

STANFORD WHITE AS THOSE TRAINED IN HIS OFFICE KNEW HIM J. Monroe Hewlett 245 

F. I . I '. Hoppin 245 

Xlbert Randolph Rosi 246 

Philip Sawyi • 24; 

These papers are illustrated from specially made drawings by Birch Burdette Long. 

THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY CHAPEL William If. Goodyear 261 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 270 



THE BWCKBVILDER! 




DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN MATERIALS • OF CLAY 




Stanford White-His Work. 



BY C. HOWARD WALKER. 



THERE are in all architectural achievements, con- 
■ ditions necessary for conspicuous success which 
make great results rare indeed. There must exist the 
artist with the appreciation, the subtle mind and the skill 
to express his desires, with the creative faculty associated 
with discriminating choice, with the grasp of idea accom- 
panied by delicate sense of relative proportion which place 
him in each of these respects as eminent in his art. But 
these are of little avail if he lacks the aid, supplementary 
as it may be to the intrinsic merit of the artist, of opportu- 
nity for expression, of stimulating demand for his per- 
formance. And even the union of skill and opportunity 
seldom attains results which leave nothing to be desired, 
or to the perfection of expression which is felt in the 
Greek sculptures and in the Renaissance. For any work 
of architecture is affected, not only by the will of the 
architect, but also by the exigencies of many other fac- 
tors, the economies of conditions, the predilections and 
prejudicies of patrons, and finally by the enervation that 
insidiously creeps in upon all artists, because of the deadly 
slowness of realization compelled by the lapse of time 
in the process of building. There are many who have 
visions, few to whom they come true; many whose con- 
ceptions are wonderful, but whose achievement hesitates 
before the end. Enthusiasm which is maintained through- 
out, a general concert pitch which never falters, despite 
the sordid sequence of minutiae, these are qualities which 
go far to make any achievement distinguished. 

It is this tireless enthusiasm which makes possible the 
ability to control contradictory forces, to impress the in- 
dividuality of the artist upon his work, to perfect his 
expression despite all opposition. It is rare, then, that a 
man is to be found, who is preeminently an artist, who can 
and does express himself, and whose enthusiasm never 
ceases, and who so molds his opportunities that they 
appear to have been without thorns, and who adequately 
completes his ideas. 

Such an one was Stanford White. He associated with a 
keen appreciation of architectural proportions a sense of 
appropriate ornament and of decorative light and shade, 
and his designs so apparently carry conviction of mastery 
that to all appearances he was allowed free play to his 
imagination. And imaginative they are, whatever may 



have been the source of the original suggestion. It has 
been said of him that his decorative sense was one of his 
strongest faculties, and if just proportions adequately 
clothed with ornament produce decoration, the conten- 
tion is well made. He was in a peculiarly fortunate 
position. In a city where the accumulated wealth of 
the country was constantly seeking means of expression, 
with patrons who had little need to count cost, and 
whom he dominated by his fertile inventions, he had 
a background of the centuries of the great architecture 
of the past at hand, and an enthusiasm which carried 
everything before it. It is apparent that the man 
and the time had met. And it is all the more amazing 
that with his versatility of ideas, his love for detail, for 
intricate schemes of ornament, for multiple combinations 
of metals, of marble, of textiles, and of painting and 
sculpture, that each factor so admirably falls into its place 
in an organic and satisfying whole. His ornament may 
be luxuriant but it is not tortuous, his means of ex- 
pression may be many, but the result is not confusing. 
The mutual relations of many elements are so admirably 
handled that the achievement seems the most obvious, 
natural thing which could have occurred, not the accom- 
plishment of skill. This is the utmost test that can be 
applied to a work of art, that neither the machinery nor the 
Dcits ex machina are manifest. And it is so rare, so unusual 
that when it occurs its recognition is seldom announced, 
pervading satisfaction taking the place of the assertion of 
its virtues. In a time and place where architecture 
raisonne is wearing its stigmata upon its forehead, it is 
refreshing to see architecture which does not produce the 
effect of effort, which is satisfied to exist in beautiful 
lines and form, without proclaiming noisily why each 
line and form was adopted. 

It should, perhaps, be considered merely a part of 
Mr. White's appreciation of proportions that his sense of 
scale of moldings and of foci of ornament is so manifestly 
fine. Search his work as you may, there will be found 
none of the over accenting of axes, the spotting of heavy 
shadows for the sake of effect, which is so prevalent in a 
rendu, in a paper architecture. He realizes his materials 
and also realizes that cast shadows are deceptive and con- 
stantly vary in intensity and width, and that forms have 



'44 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



mutual relation other than shadow relations. Refine- 
ment in moldings is a characteristic of his buildings, 
but this refinement is not accompanied by thinness or by 
any lack of virility. Surfaces are firmly held, shadows 
clean, strong and accurate. A veritable Orientalist in 
his delight in decorated surfaces, he restrains these car- 
pets of detail and creates them as foils to broad, simple 
walls. But beneath all other qualities of his art, lies, ap- 
parently, a very just recognition of the languages of ar- 
chitecture, those languages which are known to the world 
at large as styles. In whatever language he speaks, he 
acknowledges its grammar and its syntax to such an ex- 




TilK CULLOM MEMORIAL AT WEST POINT. 

tent that he has been accused of being merely imitative. 
In that sense we are imitative in speaking English. It is 
perfectly apparent in Mr. White's work that he thoroughlv 
understood that pronounced styles did not permit radical 
change in their expression, and he no more thought of 
perverting their language than he would have thought of 
halving the height of an Ionic column in relation to its 
entablature. His discriminative sense was used in mak- 
ing the appropriate choice of a style for a building, and 
that style once selected, it was to its combinations that his 
efforts were devoted. And a very keen appreciation of 
the flexibility and of the inexorable characteristics of the 
different styles is manifest. He allows himself, for in- 
stance, much more freedom with the Spanish than with 
the Italian Renaissance. His eclecticism is very marked, 
and he seems to be equally at home in any style, compre- 
hending thoroughly the individual qualities of each. The 
gamut is wide, extending from the Greek orders to Geor- 
gian and colonial work, excepting that no example of 
Gothic work is to be found. 

Whether the opportunity was lacking or that the Gothic- 
styles were unsympathetic to him, in any events the most 
of his work is in the classic styles. And a very remarkable 
series of buildings attest his knowledge of those styles. 
For instance, there is the Detroit Bi-centennial Memorial 
in Greek Doric, the Cullom Memorial at West Point in 
Greek Ionic with the simplicity of a Greek Stoa, the 
Knickerbocker Trust on Fifth Avenue and 34th .Street, an 
adaptation of the Roman Corinthian of the Temple of 
Jupiter Stator. The porch of St. Bartholomew's in New 
York is one of the most interesting pieces of his work, as 
it so admirably unites the details of the Byzantine of the 
East and the Romanesque of the North, — styles, which 
by centuries and by place are so far separated, but which 
are children of one parent and closely resemble each 
other. The details of this porch are very beautiful. Mr. 



White's affection for Italian Renaissance led him to adopt 
the varieties of that style to many purposes, whether it 
was simpleTuscan.asin the entrance to theYillard House; 
Roman, as in the Metropolitan Club; Parman, as in the 
Parkhurst Church, or Venetian in the Tiffany Building. 
In each there was a thorough sense of the qualities of the 
phases of the style and an ability to associate motives and 
variations with consummate skill. For instance, in the 
Metropolitan Club, frankly Roman as it is in mass and 
quality, there are touches of Umbrian detail, and the Tif- 
fany Building, with the motif of the Vendramin, has Sien- 
ese balustrades. His eclecticism was therefore intelligent 
and skilled and led him to assemble styles, forms and de- 
tails with great success. Perhaps one of his frankest 
adaptations is that of the little Veronese loggia of Fra 
iliaconda to the exigencies of the Herald Building in 
Herald Square. The Madison Square Garden, which 
was one of his favorite works, is a fine rendering of 
Spanish Renaissance, much more refined in detail than 
its prototype. Here, again, is a union of variations of 
Renaissance, the general conception being Spanish in 
suggestion, but the development of detail distinctly 
Italian in its delicacy. More recently several houses in 
Georgian Classic attest his appreciation of that style, a 
style prone to be heavy in other hands, but never in his, 
for there is none of his work to which that adjective 
could be applied. 

The New Lambs' Club has an entrance and colonnade 
above, with greater delicacy of detail than was possible 
under the Georges, and the house, 12 W. 56th Street, is 
very beautifully proportioned. The little chateau with its 
terraces is again indicative of thorough appreciation of 
the qualities of style. Apart from his great skill as an 



fe. x V V O ff 


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COURT ENTRANCE, METROPOLITAN CLUK. 

architect, Mr. White had an ability to assemble all sorts of 
furniture, tapestries, etc., giving each its just relation to 
its neighbor and its place in the whole scheme of tone 
and color which is granted to but few to possess. The 
fitting and furnishing of beautiful rooms was one of 
his favorite occupations. A few of these rooms are shown 
in the illustrations and give ample testimony of his skill. 
His work throughout is full of sense of delicacy, of pro- 
portions, of form and of color, with a great eclecticism of 
taste and an ability to impress his idea, to express it and 
to take advantage of his opportunity in which he was in- 
deed fortunate. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



245 



Stanford White as those trained in his office knew him. 



BY J. MONROE HEWLETT 



AS time goes on the influence of the executed work of 
Stanford White in the development of the architec- 
ture of this country must inevitably become increasingly 
apparent ; but to those whose fortune it has been to work 
under his direct supervision and so partake of the inspira- 
tion of his personality and gain some insight into his 
mental processes, the influence of the man himself will 
always transcend that of the achievements he has left be- 
hind him. His tremendous enthusiasm in his work in- 
variably communicated itself to all who were engaged 
with him upon any given problem ; and the rapidity with 
which he reached a conviction as to what he was trying 
to do in any given case was equalled only by his tenacity 
in adhering to that conviction and refusing to be satisfied 
until the result was brought absolutely into line with his 
mental picture. From this it resulted that he never 
ceased studying his work 
until its actual construction 
prevented further study ; and 
though words of commenda- 
tion from him to those work- 
ing under him were few and 
far between, yet, when won, 
they were so spontaneous 
and sincere as to carry abso- 
lute conviction to the mind 
of the recipient and prove an 
incentive to redoubled effort. 

The practice of architec- 
ture consists so largely in 
the effort to bring about an 
harmonious adjustment be- 
tween aesthetic ideals and 
practical conditions seem- 
ingly inimical to them, and 
the tendencies to regard the 
latter and ignore the former 
are frequently so difficult to 
resist, that the example and 
personal influence of those rare spirits who, amid the 
stress of vast achievement, have adhered consistently to 
their ideals and have maintained undimmed their joy in 
the production of beauty, should be treasured as a thing 
of inestimable worth. 

Our modern systems of architectural education per- 
haps lay too much stress on the production of designs as 
the principal feature of the architect's work. No one who 
has ever worked with Stanford White in the development 
of an architectural or decorative scheme and the super- 
vision of its execution can have failed to realize that in 
his mind the execution of the design exceeded in impor- 
tance the production of the design itself. To work with 
and under him was to appreciate as never before the fact 
that the building, not the drawing, is and should be the ar- 
chitect's chief concern ; and that no vigor of conception or 
beauty of composition in the finished work, can compen- 
sate for the absence of that fragrance which results from 
the embodiment in it of knowledge and love of the re- 
finements of form, color and texture. 




It too often happens that the influence of an artist of 
ability is evidenced for the most part by the imitation of 
his mannerisms and eccentricities. In every part of the 
country there are to-day men practising architecture who 
have been subjected for a time to the personal direction 
of Stanford White; but in his case the tendency of this 
direction has been away from mannerism rather than 
towards it, because its basis was a broad knowledge and ap- 
preciation of all forms of Art, and the habit of never 
ceasing, until the last stroke of work is done, the effort to 
eliminate from it every kind of ugliness. Therefore, it is 
safe to say that his influence will not be a passing one, but 
even as that of the French school has been the most 
powerful factor in the orderly development of our archi- 
tectural education, so that of Stanford White is and will 
continue to be preeminent in the creation and preserva- 
tion of standards of good 
taste and refinement in our 
architecture and decoration. 



KNICKERBOCKER TRUST. 



BY F. L. V. HOPPIN 

PERHAPS of the many 
who came into personal 
contact with him, none are 
better equipped to judge of 
his genius and ability than 
those who had the privilege 
of being for many years his 
students and his draughts- 
men, for he was quite at his 
best when engaged in the 
heat of his work, and beset 
by the intricate problems of 
plan and design which, by his 
very progress of creation, he 
constantly encountered, but 
his versatility was marvel- 
ous, and had Stanford White 
seriously undertaken to be a painter or a sculptor, there 
cannot be a shadow of doubt that he would have been 
among the foremost artists of his day. 

His great knowledge of drawing and perspective en- 
abled him to give instant expression and form to his 
conceptions through the medium of his well-trained office 
force. 

For many years he found a rich field for his ability in 
the erection of numberless country houses, and it is to 
him in a very large measure that a desire for more sub- 
stantial and architecturally beautiful residences of this 
nature was created. His frequent visits in Europe, and 
especially in Italy, in the early years of his practice, gave 
him a sense of proportion and a versatility of expedient in 
designing that was remarkable, and he and his firm soon 
became the exponents of the Italian Renaissance in this 
country, and their devotion to classic lines in all their 
work was consistent throughout and from which style 
they rarely departed. 

His nature was an impatient one, yet generous to a 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



fault, his manner often brusque and harsh, yet did he 
realize that he had given hurt to any one he would 
go to infinite pains to relieve the distress he had 
caused. 

He sometimes fell into the common error of over- 
ornamentation in his exteriors, and frequently in his in- 
teriors, impelled by his innate sense of color and combina- 
tion of values, would daringly mix his epochs which, 
carried out by another hand, would have been ludicrous 
and bizarre in the extreme, but which, almost invariably, 
were peculiarly charming, and in some instances magnifi- 
cent. 

He was extremely optimistic by nature, and enthu- 
siastic to a degree, which latter he invariably conveyed 
to all about him whether 
clients, draughtsmen or 
builders, and in his unflag- 
ging spirits and enormous 
vitality would accomplish a 
vast amount of work. He 
had a wonderful memory 
and grasp of detail, and his 
knowledge of precedents 
and where to lay his hands 
upon them, whether in his 
library or elsewhere, was of 
the greatest service to him, 
and most remarkable. He 
was intensely keen in his 
work, his attitude towards 
his clients was very convinc- 
ing, his enthusiasm for his 
conceptions was tremendous 
in its courage of conviction 
whether in small or large 
undertakings, invariably. 

He was a born leader and 
instinctive superintendent, 
for he always had the instant 
sympathy and cooperation of 
the builders and workmen, 
who cheerfully at all times 
catered an d responded to 
his directions and impulses, 
whether they considered 
them vagaries or otherwise. 
He was possessed of a charm- 
ing sense of humor, and was a most delightful com- 
panion. 

His place in the world of art will always be most 
unique and individual and his influence and that of his 
colleagues has been a most distinct factor in the develop- 
ment of American Architecture and Decoration. 




THE LAMBS CLUB. 



BY ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS. 

STANFORD WHITE— for how many things of 
beauty is this name the exponent, and what an aristo- 
crat in the art of architecture and adornment was the man ! 
For his intensely interesting and remarkable personality 
I only wish I could fittingly express my admiration. 

I shall never forget the first time I saw him, many 



years ago, at his old office in No. 52 Broadway, where I 
was sitting with my heart in my boots waiting to see Mr. 
Mead, with the hope of being taken into their office as a 
draughtsman. Swish! bang! went the outer double 
swing doors; swish! bang! went the inner swing 
doors, and in much less time than it takes to tell there 
shot across my vision a lithe, fierce-mustached giant with 
a big hat on a head of close-cropped blond hair standing 
straight out in every direction. That was Stanford 
White, and was generally characteristic of the immense 
nervous vitality that enabled him to accomplish such an 
incredible amount of work that would have sent most 
men into nervous prostration. But there were times, 
however, when this mad haste abated. At the end of the 

short winter days when the 
office lamps were lighted and 
all but a few of the faithful 
draughtsmen had gone to 
their homes, and the worry 
of the day's routine was 
over, in the most affable 
frame of mind, softly whis- 
tling to himself, he found the 
time and inclination to care- 
fully review his work and 
put the finishing touches to 
his conceptions. Those 
were indeed happy times. 
Then were he and his two 
associates in their best vein ; 
then did McKim "go fish- 
ing," as he was pleased to 
call pouring over old vol- 
umes of Roman master- 
pieces, and then did they 
admire or aid with criticism 
each other's work. 

His designs were con- 
ceived spontaneously and he 
was little bothered by prec- 
edent or the formal prin- 
ciples of architectural plan- 
ning. In directing his 
draughtsmen he expressed 
his thought always with a 
pencil rather than by dis- 
cussion. After covering, 
oftentimes, yards of tracing paper with alternative sug- 
gestions for work under consideration, he would elimi- 
nate all but two or three of the most pleasing and turn 
the matter over to his draughtsmen to "do something " 
which he would either reject at sight or, if this "some- 
thing'' was found favorable, used it as the basis of 
future study. 

Unlike the influence of his patron Richardson, in 
whose office I believe he received his architectural train- 
ing, the study of his work or even an attempt to follow in 
his footsteps will make for the advancement of our archi- 
tecture and her allies. 

Men with such high and pure ideals in art are few 
indeed, and the many beautiful things he has conceived 
and left us will most fittingly commemorate this big, 
versatile, impatient and kindly man. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



247 



BY PHILIP SAWYER. 

WHAT was Stanford White's contribution to the 
work of the firm which, well in the lead when he 
joined it, twenty-five years ago, is still alone in the 
scholarly character, the decorative beauty, the variety of 
the work which it produces? 

What has been his part in develop- 
ing the individuality of the design of this 
remarkable group of men which pro- 
duced thoughtful, studied work a genera- 
tion back and which preserves its enthu- 
siasm and designs with freshness and 
spontaneity to-day ? 

Other firms do good work, produce 
notable buildings, and we acclaim them ; 
but who else from such a charming be- 
ginning as the Casino at Narragansett 
Pier has gone on to develop such a 
range as that which includes the fagade 
of the Boston Public Library, the ap- 
proach to Columbia College, the Madison 
Square Garden tower, the detail of Mr. 
Morgan's library ? 

Who else builds at one time a rail- 
way station with the dignity and the scale of Rome; a 
church, which is a decorative study in colored terracottas, 
in marbles, in polished granite, and in pictured brick ; a 
utilitarian structure with the beauty of the Gorham Build- 
ing, or such a quaint and home like house as the Colony 
Club? 

While so many of us are 
tired and our work perfunc- 
tory, at the end of ten years' 
practice, McKim, Mead & 
White show in their de- 
sign, the vitality and light- 
heartedness of perennial 
youth. 

And it seems to me that 
this was in part Mr. White's 
contribution. He was an 
■engine for energy, promising 
recklessly impossible things, 
and causing every one he 
came in contact with to ac- 
complish them. 

Never tired, never indif- 
ferent; you might find him 
hammering for the porter, 
hatless, his hands full of 
papers, at seven in the morn- 
ing, and leave him striding 
up and down the deserted 
office at seven in the even- 
ing, while it was always 
likely that he would shoot in 
at any hour of the night, 

throw off his coat, and, pouncing upon a lone draughtsman, 
begin working upon a new problem, on the assumption, 
apparently, that sleep is unnecessary and night non- 
existent. Office hours meant nothing to him nor to 
any one identified with the work in which he was 
interested. 





A CITY HOUSE 



To work for him was at first a fearful experience, 
later an inspiration; a terse statement of the require- 
ments, a few hieroglyphics and, we're off ! on an endur- 
ance run, which, last it for days, or weeks, or months, 
never cooled. 

To him, an artist, architecture meant 
color first, and form and texture next, 
and proportion afterward, and plan last 
of all. To handle material fitly, to 
adjust it to a new use, to devise its 
characteristic detail, to combine it with 
others consummately, to employ all 
that is beautiful in the old with all that 
is practical in the new; these things 
were a constant pleasure to him and to 
all who know and enjoy his work. I 
wonder how many, even among archi- 
tects, appreciate how much the appear- 
ance of our cities — varied with light 
bricks and terra cottas — owes to his 
single initiative. 

Quick to recognize ambition and ca- 
pacity, he gave great latitude to a man 
of proved ability, generous credit for 
good work done, and he showed an habitual indiffer- 
ence to one's previous failures; a constant assumption 
that you were just the man for the job and capable 
of anything, which brought results from the unlikeliest 
material. 

Full of originality, seeth- 
ing with ideas, he had that 
rare sense which prevented 
him from adopting anything 
new, merely for its newness. 
It must also be better intrin- 
sically than any possible 
adaptation of the old if it 
were to win. 

An experimenter always, 
the result was oftenest in the 
direction of some old beauty 
revivified, new to the use and 
time, but centuries old in 
inspiration and of seasoned 
good. 

In the important works of 
his life, a member of a firm, it 
is impossible (and undesir- 
able) to attempt to sort out 
the work for which he was 
chiefly responsible. Even 
the personal characteristics 
enumerated are somewhat 
composite in their character, 
and are, some of them, truer 
of the firm than of any one 
of its members. 
But whatever estimate may finally be made of the 
architectural work of our lifetime, we may be sure that 
the name of McKim, Mead & White will stand alone 
above their contemporaries, and that to this preeminence 
one of the most vital individualities of our time has con- 
tributed his share. 



2 4 8 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 





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THE BRICKBUILDER 



249 




DESIGN FOR A BI-CENTENNI AL MEMORIAL FOR DETROIT. 




NEW PORCH, ST. BARTHOLOMEW S CHURCH. 




THE HERALD BUILDING. 



250 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FOYER HALLS IN PRIVATE RESIDENCES. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



251 




A DINING-ROOM IN PRIVATE RESIDENCE. 




A SALON IN PRIVATE RESIDENCE. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 





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THE NEW PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AND THE GARDEN TOWER. 
LOOKING UP MADISON AVENUE. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE HERALD BUILDING. 



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THE WASHINGTON ARCH. 



260 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DETAIL OF MAIN ORDER. MADISON SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, PHILIPP MERZ, DEL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



261 



The Columbia University Chapel. 



HOWELLS AND STOKES, ARCHITECTS. 



BY WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR. 



THERE are some matters of fact relating to 
church architecture which become dull common- 
places when published in an architectural journal, so 
much so that one almost hesitates to mention them in 
such a publication. But these same commonplaces are 
far from familiar to the non-specialist public; even to a 
very intelligent portion of it. And it is to this intelli- 
gent public that the architect must look for encourage- 
ment when he has done an unusually good thing. It is 
from this public that his patrons are drawn. It is on 
this public that his existence as an artist and his daily 
bread as a business man depend. With the kind per- 
mission of The Brickbuilder, I shall therefore assume 
that this article may come to the notice of various per- 
sons who are interested in the new Chapel of Columbia 
University, without being specialists or experts in archi- 
tecture or in architectural criticism. I shall assume that 
the photographs and drawings to be published with this 




FROM THE ROOK OF THE LIBRARY. 

text will convey all desired information to the expert, 
and I shall assume that the text itself, which is scarcely 
needed for their advice or instruction, may still be of 
service to the cause of good architecture ; provided that 
it comes to the notice of several distinctly important 
classes of laymen, viz. : first, those who are interested 
in Columbia University; second, those who are specially 
interested in the new Chapel of the University; and 
third, those intelligent persons who are interested in a 
good thing for its own sake, in whatever field or depart- 
ment of human activity that good thing may happen to 
be found. 

This much by way of preface to the following com- 
monplaces: 



Commonplace No. 1 : The important Romanesque 
and Gothic Cathedrals of mediaeval times were almost 
universally designed as vaulted buildings, and the exter- 
nal characteristics of the mediaeval Gothic style, es- 
pecially, are only to be explained by reference to this 
fact. 

Commonplace No. 2 : In modern architecture the 
practice of vaulting churches was not revived at the time 
when the mediaeval styles were revived as regards the 
external traits which originally presupposed a vaulting 
practice. The exterior traits of ancient Gothic were 
revived as far back as 1825, and a continually increasing 
mimber of churches after that date copied these traits, 
but did not copy the vaulting practice which explained 
these traits and made them necessary. Forty years ago 
there was not a single vaulted church in the United 
States and in much more reeent years the number of 
vaulted churches has been so extremely limited that a 




VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE. 

list of them would still derive an important fraction of 
its examples from churches that are as yet unfinished. 

Commonplace No. 3 : Although vaultings have been 
rarely used in modern practice, they have been con- 
stantly imitated by shams in plaster or cement, so much 
so that the presumably intelligent pubic is in the habit 
of accepting the sham as a rational and wholly unobjec- 
tionable performance. The intelligent public has lost 
track of the idea that the sham once had a constructive 
original which has been constantly copied in form during 
the past eighty years, but which has very rarely been 
copied in fact. 

Commonplace No. 4 is a notable commonplace to The 
Brickbuilder, but I fear that a considerable portion of 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the intelligent but non-specialist public may still be igno- 
rant of the remarkable history of the Guastavino system 
of vaulting and dome construction. In 1881, Mr. R. 
Guastavino came to America from Barcelona in Spain, 
where he had revived, especially in the construction of 
fireproof factories, an ancient method of Saracenic and 
Byzantine dome and vaulting construction, which had 
been practised at a still earlier date by the Persians and 
by the Assyrians.* This system is called by Mr. Guasta- 
vino the "Cohesive System," as distinct from the 
"Gravity" system, which opposes to the thrust of the 



units of construction, is absolutely and entirely elimi- 
nated. The success of the Guastavino system in the 
United States has been wholly due, in the first instance, 
to its wholly practical availability, and especially to its 
economically practical availability, for fireproof construc- 
tion in utilitarian buildings, just as in the neighborhood 
of Barcelona it had been widely employed for economi- 
cal reasons in the construction of fireproof factories by 
Mr. Guastavino. Conseqently the Guastavino vaults and 
domes have been, up to very recent date, almost univer- 
sally used in association with iron and steel beams and 




LOOKING UP INTO DOME. 



keystone arch a sufficient, and, consequently, a very sub- 
stantial and very expensive resistance. In the Cohesive 
System very thin, fiat tiles are laid in successive courses 
over a light centering, and with broken joints, in thin 
layers of Portland Cement. The very rapid setting of 
the cement binds the construction into a solid mass, in 
which the force of thrust is very remarkably minimized, 
and in which the tendency of the keystone arch vaulting, 
or keystone dome system, to disintegrate into its original 



* It is certain that a cohesive system was employed by the Assyr- 
ians, but I do not assert that any intimate knowledge of their methods 
is now extant. 



hands, according to the accepted methods of American 
fireproof construction in brick or terra-cotta. 

Let us now assume that an architectural firm is desir- 
ous of reverting in church construction to the vaulting 
and dome system of the great historic periods, as a 
matter of fact and not as a matter of sham, and that, as 
contrasted with the enormous expense and great engi- 
neering difficulties (for present practice) of the "gravity" 
system of the Middle Ages, it is able to construct fire- 
proof and artistically beautiful tile vaultings and domes, 
at about one-half the expense of a timber ceiling and 
timber roof construction. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



263 



It would be inevitable, under such conditions, that 
the forces of good taste and of progress in ecclesiastical 
architecture should join hands with some such type of 
construction as the Guastavino system of cohesive domes 
and vaultings of tile and Portland Cement, eliminating 
from the design the use of metal beams, or rings, and 
using self-sustaining vaults and domes as they were orig- 
inally built in ancient church construction. 

We are thus able to rise above the plane of common- 
place in calling attention to this artistically beautiful 
church, which is vaulted and domed in harmony with 
mediaeval practice, as regards the fact that the vaults 
and domes are self-sustaining, and which is also fireproof, 



thrust and resistance in a problem of construction to 
which he is wholly unaccustomed and with which he is 
tolerably certain not to have any artistic sympathy. For 
though the problem is one of mechanical construction, it 
is only the artist who can sympathize with the wish to 
meet the problem without the use of metal. Conditions 
have not changed in this particular since Mr. Guastavino 
wrote, in 1893: "Suppose an architect intends to build a 
structure with a combination of domes, as in either the 
Cathedrals of Santa Sophia, in Constantinople, or Zamora, 
in Spain, and sends plans of it to the Building Depart- 
ment for approval in one of our large cities. He will find 
it a most difficult matter to obtain a permit to build this 




INTERIOR OF DOME AT LEVEL OF UPPER GALLERY, SHOWING WINDOWS BY MAITLAND ARMSTRONG. 



as a media-val cathedral in Europe almost invariably was 
not, on account of its timber roof above the vaulting. 

The dome of the Columbia University Chapel has 
a diameter of forty-eight feet and a height of ninety-one 
feet. This Chapel would appear to be one of the very 
earliest completed churches in the United States (if not 
the first) which is vaulted throughout the entire construc- 
tion and in which a truly constructive central dome and 
its supporting arches are designed to be, and actually are, 
self-sustaining. Even in this dome three steel bands 
have been inserted, but only to comply with the regula- 
tions of the New York Building Department and not 
because they are needed. It is easier for an inspector to 
order in the metal bands than to figure out the forces of 



structure and in consequence he will have to make an 
imitation of the outside and inside artistic lines by a false 
construction. " * 

The alternative chosen in this case was, however, to 
figure out the needed amount of supports in brick 
masonry and to build them, and then to obey the rules of 
the Building Department, which were wholly irrational 
in the given instance. 

In view of such building regulations it would be well 
that the patrons of architecture, as well as architects 
themselves, should understand both the conscientious 
standpoint and the artistic superiority of the designer 



* Essay on the Theory and History of Cohesive Construction. 
Ticknor and Company, 1893, p. 95. 



264 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




STRESS DIAGRAM OF THE DOMICAL TOWER SHOWING CONSTRUCTION AND CALCULATIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE INNER 

DOME, THE OUTER DOME AND THE PENDENTIVES. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



265 




Ewho wishes to be true to the con- 
ditions of the material in which he 
is visibly and apparently working. 
It would be well that the public 
should understand that the public 
is the real obstacle to the triumph 
of constructive truth in architec- 
tural design, for what the patron 
does not ask or desire the architect 
can rarely furnish. 

It is to be hoped, therefore, that 
the architectural profession will 
serve its own best interests by ap- 
proving this effort to build vaulting 
and domes in which metal is not 
needed as regards design (unless 
frankly exhibited as in the supports 
of the transept galleries). 

From another but closely re- 
lated point of view, this same chapel 
marks a departure in church archi- 
tecture in America, in the sense 
that the entire interior color scheme 
and decorative treatment are ob- 
tained solely and wholly in the con- 
structive materials. Here again a 
note has been struck which will 
meet the sympathetic approval of 
every true artist in the United 
States. 

The architects have relied for the color effect of 
their walls on the over-burned brick of their actual con- 
struction. To the masons themselves was left the task of 
obtaining the broken effect in color which is always 
superior to a uniform shade. They were encouraged to 
select in a partly hap-hazard and partly calculated 



ORNAMENT IN TEKRA 

COTTA ON TRANSEPT 

WINDOW MULLIONS. 



be appreciated. It is much 
assisted by the employ- 
ment of a deep purple color 
in the pointing, and this 
color in the cement was 
the result of careful ex- 
periment. To the artist 
the knowledge that the 
color effect of the chapel 
interior is obtained in the 
actually constructive ma- 
terial can certainly not be 
indifferent. Neither can 
this knowledge be indiffer- 
ent to the practical econo- 
mist, and such an econo- 
mist is frequently, as here, 
the best of all artists. 

Although it is the am- 
bition of the architects not 
to obscure or disguise 
these surfaces by subse- 
quent overlay of fresco or 
mosaic, it is far from their 
purpose or mine tocontend 
that a brick interior should 
never be thus decorated. 
In the case of a chapel 
built for a University, gen- 
erosity in the line of such 
subsequent decoration is 
sometimes easily awakened, and it is highly natural and 
proper that unusually large sums should be spent on the 
interior adornment of such a building. For this very rea- 
son, however, it is to be hoped that this brick interior effect 
may not be effaced. What our country needs is good ex- 




ONE OF A PAIR OF BRONZE 

LAMP STANDARDS PLACED 

AT EITHER SIDE OF MAIN 

ENTRANCE. 









gjflSB 
ii 5S8 

BSE?" 








ll 

















GALLERY BELOW DOME. 



STAIRWAY TO LOWER GALLERY. 



STAIRWAY TO DOME. 



method such a variety of natural tones of the brick as 
would obtain the desirable results of broken color. In 
the rose-colored tiles of the dome and of the pendentives 
and vaultings the color effects obtained by the predeter- 
mined irregular association of the lighter and darker 
tints of rose are beautiful. The effect must be seen to 



ample in high places and in influential centers. Let it be 
remembered that for one church that can be decorated in 
fresco or mosaic there must be a thousand that 
can never rise above a plaster overlay that ought 
not to be put on. What is needed now is an example 
showing these thousand churches that they can save the 



266 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



expense of this plaster and of a probably tawdry color 
scheme and at the same time obtain an infinitely better 
result in color without it. Let the Columbia University 
Chapel then remain as it is in this particular. Let it be 
in other matters an example of the generosity of 
its donors, but let it be in this matter "a light in the 
wilderness " to those poorer churches which can never af- 
ford fresco and which ought not to waste money on 
plaster and on bad art. It is eminently the province of a 
University to show that economy 
may be a means to good art, and in 
this especial particular the natural 
brick and tile surface is the means 
to a much better art than has here- 
tofore been found, as a rule, in the 
church interiors of the modern 
world. 

Terra cotta relief ornament has 
been used in the interior for the 
framing of the main door, for the 
base molding, and in very rich and 
beautiful detail, which is reminis- 
cent of the Delia Robbia designs, 
for the archivolts of the great 
arches supporting the dome. 
Here, again, the ornamental details 
are not applied or attached, |but are 
constructive ornament, not only in 
the sense that they emphasize con- 
structive lines but in the sense 
that they are physically portions 
of the constructive material of the 
arches. The symbols of the four 




SHOWING THE CONSTRICTION OF THE OUTEK DOME 



in the soffits of the great arches, where is found the 
use of the pilgrim's shell, the fig and its leaf, the vine, 
the poppy, the cross and the pax. The fruit and leaf 
work may be closely traced to models of Lucca della 
Robbia and Mino da Fiesole. The archaic vine motive 
forming the base mold of the interior was inspired by a 
piece of chased metal in the Spitzer Collection. 

In the furnishings and fittings of the Chapel there has 
been much reserve. They are characterized by the sobri- 
ety and simplicity which have 
led the architects to emphasize 
the constructive materials and 
constructive forms of their build- 
ing. On the other hand no ex- 
pense, and, what is better still, no 
conscientious effort, has been 
spared to obtain perfection of 
material and workmanship in 
these details. The carving and 
Tarsia work of the pulpit, reading 
desk, choir stalls and organ cases 
j^ ^B are the work of Coppede of Flor- 

ence, one of the best known wood 
carvers of Italy, as the result of a 
competition organized by the ar- 
^^^ chitects in Italy, in which the three 

leading wood carvers of that 
country, respectively active in 
Siena, Rome and Florence, took 
part. The style of the detail in 
the choir stalls and pulpit has that 
combination of simplicity, vigor, 
richness and reserve which repre- 




BONDING THE TERRA COTTA BLOCKS WITH THE BRICKWORK 
OF THE GREAT ARCHES. 

Evangelists in terra cotta are placed in powerful designs 
at the crowning of these four arches and unite them with 
the great ring of the dome. 

The only break in the brick and tile surface of the 
interior is a frieze of Benou marble under the light 
cornice which marks the springing of the arches. This 
frieze is carried entirely around the church and har- 
monizes in its delicatecoloring with the brick and 
terra cotta of the interior. 

Most of the ornament in the chapel, both inside and 
out, is symbolic, relating to scriptural subjects, as, for in- 
stance, the different designs of rosettes and other panels 




BUILDING THE BRICK PF.NDENT1 VES. 

sents the best period of Italian wood carving, about 
1500. The motives in the wainscoting of the choir and 
in the choir stalls are inspired by the woodwork in 
the sacristy of Santa Croce in Florence. The design 
of the organ cases deserves special praise on account 
of its structural fitness and because of the unusual 
purity of its composition. 

The forms of the bronze chandeliers are carefully 
adapted to the modern requirements of electric lighting, 
while the bronze open work rail of the galleries reveals 
the successful effort to preserve a general unobtrusive- 
ness and lightness of effect in this otherwise generally 
disastrous feature of a modern church. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



267 



Even the lock and the key 
of the main door are works of 
art, but here the antiquarian 
collector has taken the place 
of the designer. This partic- 
ular tribute to old Italian work 
is graceful both in thought and 
in fact. 

The pavement of the chapel 
again reveals the taste which 
does not forget details; for its 
large and simple patterns are 
defined by inlaid bands of mo- 
saic, consisting of fragments 
of old porphyry and serpentine 
also brought from Italy. 

Not the least important 
feature of this chapel interior 
is the absence of pews. Ex- 
actly why no church interior 
is wholly satisfactory which is 
furnished with these append- 
ages may not be quite easy to 
put in words. The fact is there 
and patent to all who choose 
to give a thought to it. Even 
the recent Catholic churches 
in northern countries have 
rarely had the good taste to 
revive this first condition of 
the beauty of an old conti- 
nental cathedral. 



LINE 




FCOMT 



■• T0WAGD5 
i 

GENERAL PLAN SHOWING 
ADJACENT 

The windows of the church include three in the apse, 
which are filled with stained glass by John Lafarge. A 
single subject, St. Paul preaching at Athens, fills all three 
lights. Few modern stained glass windows can have 
found so beautiful a setting and contrast as these obtain 
from the color of the brick walls around them. The six- 
teen windows in the upper part of the dome, by Maitland 
Armstrong, are memorials of distinguished alumni of the 
university, many of them historic personages. 

" The present transept windows are temporary, and it 
is hoped that the spaces will be filled by memorial win- 
dows. It has been suggested that the window in the 
north transept shall represent 
the great teachers of the New 
Testament and shall be a 
memorial of the Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Johnson, the first presi- 
dent of Kings College (1754- 
1763), and that the window in 
the south transept shall repre- 
sent the great teachers of the 
Old Testament and shall be a 
memorial of President Bar- 
nard (1864-1889)."* 

So far we have allowed the 
plans, photographs and draw- 
ings to describe the Chapel it- 
self, and we are tempted to 
adhere to this method. 

<_>uoted from a printed account 
of the inscriptions and windows in 
the Chapel. 



L1DRARY • 



CHAPEL TO 



KXXXXXXXX2X XXXX 




tfexXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 



OBLONG PANEL OF COSMATESQUE WORK FROM PAVEMENT 
OF NAVE. 



The exterior materials of 
brick and Indiana limestone, 
and the height of the lower 
exterior cornice, were pre- 
scribed by the regulations per- 
taining to the other university 
buildings. These regulations 
also required the building to 
be "classic," i.e., not to use 
mediaeval form or details. The 
location, orientation and even 
the dimensions of the Chapel 
were very rigidly fixed by the 
close neighborhood of four sur- 
rounding buildings, either al- 
ready finished or soon to be 
constructed. 

Hence we explain a shal- 
lowness in the transepts which, 
for exterior effect, would have 
gained by greater depth. 
These transepts are only 
twenty feet distant from adja- 
cent buildings, and this amount 
of distance was prescribed. A 
seating capacity of one thou- 
sand was prescribed. The in- 
terior length is one hundred 
and twenty feet, the greatest 
width is seventy-six feet. The 
interior diameter of the dome 
is forty-eight feet and its in- 
terior height is ninety-one feet, as already mentioned. 

The dome supports a simple terra cotta lantern, and 
its weight, of some eight tons, was an important element 
in the problem of thrust. In order to reduce the weight of 
the lantern the voids in the terra cotta were filled with 
cement, in which layers of hollow glass balls were em- 
bedded. This ingenious device reduced the weight by 
nearly a ton, without appreciably diminishing the 
strength. 

As shown by the section, the dome consists of a double 
shell, in order to avoid dampness and the condensation 
of moisture. The shells are twenty-seven inches apart at 

the base, increasing to six feet 
above, by a rise in pitch of the 
exterior dome. The inner 
shell has a thickness of from 
three and one-half to two and 
one-fourth inches, the lower 
third laid in three courses, 
with two courses higher up. 
The outer shell has a thickness 
of six and one-half inches be- 
low, decreasing to a thickness 
of five inches abovo^laid in five 
courses below and four above. 
The total weight of the en- 
tire dome construction down 
to the gallery floor is 1043^ 
tons. Of this weight only 
171^2 1 tons bears on the in- 
terior^ pendentives. This is 



RELATION OF 
BUILDINGS. 



268 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



pMgl 




i ■■ 




1 ■ 


- 






' ^r-*" 







EVANGELIST OVER EAST ARCH (TERRA COTTa). 

the weight of the inner shell and its supporting mem- 
bers. It is an interesting feature of the Guastavino sys- 
tem that this inner shell weighs only 68 j tons. The 
weight of the outer dome and supporting walls down to 
the gallery floor is 872 tons. This weight is carried 
by exterior independent pendentives (see diagonal 
section). The weight of the outer shell alone is 
only 104$ tons and the weight of the outer shell with 
its roof and lantern is 263^ tons. 

The construction of the walls is also in two shells, 
in order to avoid interior dampness. The architects 
have furnished the following technical account of 
the walls. 

"Owing to the unusually exposed position of the 
Columbia buildings, it was felt that every precaution 
should he taken which would tend to protect the in- 
terior of the chapel from leaks and dampness." 

"The usual method of applying an envelope of 
waterproof material to the inner surface of the brick- 
work was rejected ; 

" 1. Because the life of all such waterproofing 
materials is limited, the principal ingredients being 
essential oils which evaporate in time; 

" 2. Because the interior of the church was to 
be finished entirely in brick, so that the waterproof 
envelope would have to have been overlaid with the 
veneer of interior brick, which could not have been 
bonded in any satisfactory way to the masonry. 

" As no satisfactory or permanent system of ex- 
terior surface waterproofing has yet been devised, a 
system of hollow walls seemed the only permanent 
solution possible, and this, in modified form, was 
finally adopted." 

"The exterior wall, which averaged twenty 
inches in thickness, was built with vertical toothed 
ribs spaced about four feet apart. The entire interior 
surface, including the toothed ribs, was then coated 
to a thickness of about five-eighths inches with chem- 
ically waterproofed hydrolithic cement. The interior cur- 
tain wall of finish brick, four inches in thickness, having 
toothed reinforcing ribs corresponding to those in the ex- 
terior wall, was then built. This left a series of hollow 





A PILASTER 

IN CHOIR. 

CARVED 

BV 

MARIANO 

COPPEDE, 

FLORENCE. 



EVANGELIST OVER SOUTH ARCH (TEKRA COl'lA). 

chases about four feet wide and four inches deep 
extending from the base molding three feet above 
the floor to the main cornice. When the latter was 
set, a course of bricks corresponding to the panels 
and immediately below the cornice was left out, and 
through the apertures thus formed the interior 
spaces of all bearing walls, where great strength and 
solidity were important, were filled up flush with 
the top with a very rich liquid grout. In order to 
resist the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid cement 
before setting, the curtain wall had been anchored 
to the exterior wall by copper clamps placed at 
eighteen-mch intervals. Experiments on test sec- 
tions showed that the adhesion of the grout to the 
adjacent surfaces of the exterior and interior wall 
was so perfect that, after having set for forty-eight 
days, the experimental section, when broken up with 
a sledge hammer, showed no cleavage between the 
adjacent surfaces. In this way a monolithic wall 
was produced, having in its interior a continuous, 
unpierced, permanent, waterproof layer. " 

"In certain portions of the chapel, notably back 
of the organ chambers, where even slight condensa- 
tion would have been objectionable, and where the 
height of the walls was not sufficient to call for in- 
creased strength, the grout fill was omitted. The 
interior air spaces are drained and ventilated." 

The cost of the structure complete has been about 
$260,000, exclusive of the stained glass, choir wood 
carvings and organ. 

The most interesting item of cost, from an eco- 
nomic point of view, is that of about $17,500 for dome 
and vaultings, including the substructure vaultings, 
and the stairways. Thus this cost is only six or 
seven per cent of the cost of the structure. It is 
difficult to see how architects of future churches can 
resist the temptation to indulge in so reasonable a 
luxury as a fireproof roof and ceiling which en- 
ables them also to revive the constructive forms of 
mediaeval or Renaissance building. The exterior of 
the chapel is a logical and unpretentious development 
of the interior construction, with the addition of a fine 





EVANGELIST OVER NORTH ARCH (TERRA COTTA). 



EVANGELIST OVER WEST ARCH (TERRA COTTa). 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



269 




Ml" 





V; 



7/1 '• j( ~ 







ROSETTES IN SOFFITS OF G 

portico. The richest bit of exterior ornament is the 
elaborate leaf carving on the limestone frame of the 
main entrance. The finest exterior effect is obtained 
from Amsterdam Avenue looking toward the choir, and 
here the building is slightly and agreeably reminiscent 
of the related view of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan. 
The stress diagram (see illustration) computing the 
thrusts of the dome is the 
work of Nelson Goodyear, 
consulting engineer for the 
architects. In justice both 
to Mr. Goodyear and to the 
Guastavino firm, it should 
be stated that this diagram 
represents the forces of 
thrust according to the 
gravity system and does not include the considerable 
additional element ['of safety which inheres in the co- 
hesive system. This appears to be a very sensible 
method of enlarging the margin of safety for the ex- 
perimental stage in the construction of self-sustaining 
domes. In spite of this wide margin of safety, it will 



REAT ARCHES (TERRA COTTA). 

not especially massive and that they are pierced below 
by openings and lightened by niches. 

For those familiar with graphic diagrams, the cohesive 
strains will be apparent in the stress diagram, and the 
cohesive resistance has been carefully computed, and is 
definitely known, although it is reckoned as a margin of 
safety. 

Let us finally not forget 
the university to which the 
chapel belongs and the re- 
ligious service to which it 
is dedicated. No water can 
rise above its source. No 
architect can rise very far 
above the character of his 
clients. If this chapel de- 
serves praise as an honest bit of American art, surely the 
donors and the trustees of Columbia University come 
in for their share. 

As a religious building, let us hope that the students 
of Columbia University will learn religion from it, as well 
as in it. Nor have we any doubt that the serious mind 




DETAIL IN TERRA COTTA. 



be noticed that the piers supporting the great arches are may profit in that way. 





VIEW FROM GALLERY. 



THE ORGAN. 



270 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

WITH SOCIETIES AND CLUBS. 

THE Boston Architectural Club held its Annual Ex 
hibition at the Boston Public Library, November 5 
to 24, inclusive. Considerable new and interesting work 
was exhibited, a very large percentage of it being by 
Boston firms. Although the catalog was of the usual 
type, it was well gotten up. 

The Thirteenth Annual Exhibition of the T Square 
Club, Philadelphia, was held under the auspices and in 
the galleries of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 
Arts, December 1 to 30, inclusive. 

The management endeavored to give to the Exhibi- 
tion an educational character in the broadest sense of 
the term. They hoped to attract not only the profession, 
and those more intimately connected with it, but the 




HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Wood, Donn & Ueming, Architects. 

Roofed by Edwin Bennett's Roofing Tile Co. 

public generally, to whom the subject matter of an ex- 
hibition is perhaps not directly attractive. They were 
able to obtain exhibits bearing on matters of much 
interest to the public in many different ways. To still 
further advance the cause, the Academy and the T 
Square Club asked the National Society of Mural Painters, 
the National Sculpture Society and the American Society 
of Landscape Architects to associate themselves in the 
Exhibition, with a view to showing the executed work of 
the allied arts in connection with the drawings of the 
architects. 

The exhibition came at a time peculiarly propitious 
in two ways: first, the great interest which has been 
aroused the country over in the movement for municipal 
improvements both in the way of the opening of great 
boulevards and the beautifying of these with monumen- 
tal structures ; second, because at this time of great 
prosperity, vast sums are being expended commercially 
and in the improvement of transient facilities and the 
housing of government and municipal offices. 







ORCHESTRA HAM., CHICAGO. 

I). H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 
Fireproofed by National Kireproofing Co. 

Very many drawings and photographs of some of the 
most interesting work being carried on throughout the 
country were exhibited. The collection included contri- 
butions from nearly all of the large cities and better 
known architectural firms. Particularly interesting were 
the drawings exhibited by a number of renowned French 
architects. 

On the whole, the societies connected with this exhi- 
bition are to be congratulated upon the residts obtained. 
It was an effort to make it possible for the public of our 
cities to be enlightened on many subjects which have 
only recently become of importance to us, and it is to be 
hoped that the public will take advantage of such oppor- 
tunities to see what architects and artists are doing for 
the country. 

The Twenty-Second Annual Exhibition of the Archi- 
tectural League of New York will be held in the building 
of the American Fine Arts Society, 215 West 57th Street, 
from Saturday, February 3, to Saturday, February 23, 
inclusive. 




REPRODUCTION OF DELLA ROBBIA PANEL IN COLORS. 

F. Joseph Untersee, Architect. 

Excelsior Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



THE BRICK BU IL DER. 



271 




The annual 
dinner will be 
held on the 
evening of Fri- 
day, February 
1, at 7 p. m. 

The last 
days for the 
reception of 
exhibits are as 
follows: draw- 
ings and mural 
decorations, 
January 5 ; all 
other exhibits, 
January 23. 
Exhibits dis- 
charged, Feb- 
ruary 25. 



■ 


,W¥i 


i5 


^fcT'tT-" 


W#j : sf-f 


Pfr*lP 


SSI 



CARTOUCHE MADE BY NEW JERSEY TERRA 
COTTA CO. 



The annual meeting of The Gargoyles 
of New York was held on Tuesday evening, 
December 18. A dinner at the Hof Brau 
Haus preceded the meeting. The object 
of this Club is the promotion of social in- 
tercourse and fellowship among its members, and the 
study of the Fine Arts for mutual benefit and improve- 
ment. 



DETAIL FOR A 
CHURCH, WESLEY 
L. BLETHE, ARCHI- 
TECT. 
Conkling- Arm strong 
Terra Cotta Co., 
Makers. 



DETAIL BY FRANK S. LOWE, ARCHITECT. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

churches, and yet is not so lively as to offend. Cruciform 
in plan, with the arms of the cross projecting but slightly 
beyond the square mass, the structure maintains its dig- 
nity, owing to the dome and an impressive portico, the 
columns of which outweigh in scale anything in the im- 
mediate vicinity. 

The church is built of a very delicate shade of buff 

brick and glazed terra cotta 
upon a base of white marble. 
In order to differentiate the 
edifice from its neighbors it 
was decided to use color more 
liberally than had been em- 
ployed in other buildings 
hitherto erected in this coun- 
try. The six columns of the 
portico, each thirty feet high, 
are of pale green granite. 
The capitals of the columns 
are Corinthian, the color 



THE NEW MADISON SQUARE CHURCH 

THE problem was to erect a creditable church build- 
ing in a spot backed by a fifteen-story skyscraper, 
with the possibility of a similar building on one side and 
asix hundred foot tower across the street. This problem 
Mr. White not only overcame, but he also wrested artistic 
success from apparent defeat. 

In the 
general plan 
the architect 
broke boldly 
away from 
traditional 
lines In 
some meas- 
ure, at the 
suggestion of 
Dr. Park- 
hurst, the in- 
terior was re- 
lieved from 
the somber 

MANTEL EXECUTED IN DULL GREEN FAIENCE effect found 

by hartford faience co. in many 





scheme being blue, 
white and yellow. All 
other ornamental fea- 
tures reveal a deli- 
cate and appropriate 
use of the same 
shades and of green. 
As in many Syrian 
and Roman churches 
the dome is tiled, 
showing an alternat- 
ing pattern of green 
and yellow, the green 
serving as a back- 
ground. To sustain 
and enrich the effect 
the dome is sur- 
mounted by a golden 
lantern. Within as 
well as without mani- 
fest efforts have been 
made to escape from 
the somber atmos- 




TENNESSEE TRUST BUILDING, MEMPHIS. 

Shaw & Pheil, Architects. 

Faced with Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.'s No. 

503 Gray Brick. 



2J2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SMALL DOME ON A COUNTY COURT HOUSE. 

William Kauffman, Architect. 

Terra Cotta made by The Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 

phere of the average church. The auditorium, with its 
wide vestibule and low galleries, is in no sense ornate. 
The prevailing colors, shading downward from the dome, 
will be in harmony with the exterior. The pews and all 
the woodwork are in Quaker oak. a soft, silvery gray 
wood. Just back of the pulpit there is a small window 
that is a gem in design and workmanship. It was a 
gift of the congregation to Dr. Parkhurst to commemo- 
rate the twenty-fifth anniversary of his term as pastor. 

This church is undoubtedly the best modern example 
of the use of colored terra cotta in the exterior walls of 
a building, and demonstrates the possibilities that are 
inherent in this material. The delicate detail has been 
effectively produced by perfect 
modeling and the use of quiet 
rich colors. The work was ex- 
ecuted by the Perth Amboy 
Terra Cotta Company. The 
bricks used in the exterior walls 
are of special make. A pattern 
effect is obtained by the introduc- 
tion of a Maltese cross in a cer- 
tain number of the brick. They 
were furnished bvSayre& Fisher 
Company. The dome is covered 
with green and yellow tiles set 
in pattern which produce a rich 
and beautiful effect, harmonizing 
thoroughly with thegeneral color 
scheme of the building. These 
tiles were furnished by the Ludo- 
wici-Celadon Company. 





DETAIL BY PILCHER & TACHAU, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. 

Makers. 



used principally in the 
interior treatment of 
this chapel and which 
is so well described in 
the article by Professor 
Goodyear, was fur- 
nished by the Atlantic- 
Terra Cotta Company. 
The brick throughout 
the building was fur- 
nished by Sayre & 
Fisher Company, and 
the roofing tile by the 
Ludowici-Celadon Com- 
pany. 



• IN GENERAL 

Arthur G. Dole and 
Otto H. Wiegand, ar- 
chitects, have formed 
a co-partnership: offices 127 Tri-State Building, Fort 
Wayne, Ind. Manufacturers' catalogues and samples 
solicited. 

The South Amboy Terra Cotta Co. will supply the 
architectural terra cotta which will be used in the follow- 
ing new buildings : St. Phillips Church, Bedford Park, 
Bronx, New York, Geo. II. Streeton, architect ; Three 
Fire Houses, Brooklyn, Walter E. Parfitt, architect ; 
Apartment Houses, Brooklyn, Frank S. Lowe, architect; 
Stuyvesant Theatre, New York, George Keister, archi- 
tect; Church of the Comforter, New York, Bannister & 
Schell, architects; Church at Union Hill, New Jersey, 
George D. Lugosch, architect. 



WANTED — Four architectural Draughtsmen of experience 
Permanent positions. State age, experience and salary wanted. 

Address, RUBUSH & HUNTER, Indianapolis, Indiana. 



WANTED — Superintendent to take charge of Terra Cotta fac- 
tory on Pacific Coast, manufacturing about one hundred tons per 
month. Must be high-class man, capable of making estimates, and 
superintending manufacture. Applicants please state experience ; 
give references, and state salary expected. 

Address Pacific Coast, care THE BRICKBUILDER. 



DETAIL BY JAMES R. WHITE, 
ARCHITECT. 

Brick Terra Cotta and Till 
Makers 



THE NEW COLUMBIA 
CHAPEL. 

The architectural terra cotta, 



A Nett) Boo*: for Ebery Architect 

A History of Architecture 

By 

RUSSELL STURGIS, A. M., Ph. D. 

The leading architectural critic of America 

An illustrated history in three volumes. Volume I treats of the 
little known periods of Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Western 
Asiatic, Greek, Roman and Italian architecture, bringing the sub- 
ject down to about 1000 A. I). Volumes II and III cover the period 
from the 10th century down to the present day. 

This new architectural work treats the subject very exhaustively, 
and will contain about 1,500 illustrations in half-tones and drawings. 
Coming from the pen of Mr. Sturgis, the volume wiil have the 
weight of authority and will prove of infinite value both to the 
architect and tie student. 



Volumes 1 1 and III are now in prep- 
aration and will be ready for distribution 
in April and September, 1907, respec- 
tivelv. 



Volume I, octavo 7 x 11, 5(KI illustra- 
tions ii and drawings, now 
Bound in cloth i;ilt top.' $6.00, 
carnage paid. Half morocco, - 
* arriage paid. 

M. A. VINSON 

BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE, DECORATION AND ILLUSTRATING 

1115 CITIZENS BUILDING CLEVELAND, OHIO 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 155. 





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- 160 FIFTH AVE- NEWYORK- 



DRAWING BY PHILIPP MERZ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 156. 








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VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 160. 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 161. 




FRONT PORTICO. 

MADISON SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NEW YORK 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 162. 





i 



THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY CHAPEL, NEW YORK. 
Howells & Stokes, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 163. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 164. 








DETAIL OF DOME. 

THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY CHAPEL, NEW YORK 
Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



THE BRIC KBU I L DER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 165. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 166. 




HALF ELEVATION AND CROSS SECTION. 

THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY CHAPEL, NEW YORK. 
Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 167. 




DIAGONAL SECTION SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF PENOENTIVES, STAIR TO DOME GALLERY, ETC. 

THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY CHAPEL, NEW YORK 
Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 15, NO. 12. PLATE 168.